Colonialism, Imperialism and the Spread of English
HISTORY OF ENGLISH DPEH 2102MUHAMMAD ALI BIN ABD KARIM 1152016
1763 1775 -1783• English obtain • British became the Canada and east of largest colonial Mississippi river by power war • British reformed their• British obtain Florida colonial system as exchange of Cuba • Lead to American and Philipines to Revolution Spanish
Noah Webster• He was born in 1758 and graduated from Yale College.• In 1828, Webster published An American Dictionary of English Language.• Contains around 70,000 entries.• Webster’s Dictionary influenced American spelling and pronounciation.
British in India• Started by British East India Company in 1600 for trading.• British build settlements at Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay (Mumbai) and Madras (Chennai).• British ruled/Raj India from 1765-1947
British in India• English is established as language of administration and education.• Universities are set up in University of Kolkata Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.• English was promoted to produce bilingual speakers to act as University of Mumbai interpreters.
British in India• In the early years of British presence, some locals asked to be taught English.• They want to have ‘access to the scientific knowledge of the West’• English came into contact with the varieties of other languages and dialects.• This lead to a differed spoken English from the standard written form.
British in the East• British became official language of Malaysia, Hong Kong and Singapore.• British colonies were also established in South Africa, East Africa and West Africa.• Language varieties emerged - pidgins.• Pidgin is a language that arises when two or more different speech communities use their respective languages as the basis for a very basic language with a limited set of functions.
British in Australia and New Zealand • Settled by free colonies and • Started when penal attracted immigrants from colony arrived at Southern England and1788 Sydney in 1788. 1840 Scotland. • To solve the • Many were given assisted passage to help with the cost overcrowded in of the trip. English prisons.
British in Australia and New Zealand • Immigrants’ dialects mixed. • New pronunciations and vocabulary emerged. Australian Aboriginal • A certain amount of contact made with aboriginals. • Different lifestyles and racist attitudes explain the small amount of words borrowed from aboriginal Maori
English Until Today• English had spread across the globe by the beginning of 19th Century by the expansion of largest empire ever.• At the first half of 20th Century, British empire began to decline.• However, the well established English language were still used beyond British Isles.• English continue to spread by technology, economies and politics.