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work and leisure

  1. 1. WORK-LEISURE CONFLICT: JOB BURNOUT AND LIFE SATISFACTION RELATIONSHIP; A CASE STUDY FROM ANKARA AMONG 4-5 STARS HOTEL EMPLOYEES *Ali Iskender ; *Ali Yaylı Gazi University, TURKEY
  2. 2. Content  Aim and importance of the study  Literature review  Methodology and hypotheses  Findings  Suggestions  Limitations
  3. 3. AİM AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY  This study aims to search out the correlation among work-leisure conflict , job burnout and life satisfaction of 4-5 stars hotel employees  This study also aims to determine WLC effect degree on job burnout and life satisfaction with regreassion analysis.
  4. 4. WORK  In Ancient Greek community, the freedom was thought as opposite of necessity. So the slaves’ area was accepted in second one. They thought being mandatory to work continually on a job as shameful . “If you want to be aristocracy then you don’t have to be work” was the general motto of them (Held, 1987).  Historically work firstly was perceived as a dishonorable occupation. In historical perspective work has a large capacity taking villagers and slaves. in that period, being rich means that you don’t have to work and you have someone to work in place of you (Doyle, 2003).
  5. 5. WORK  In primitive societies, work was naturally like a game. In that time there is no difference between leisure and work. They spent most of their time by working to sustain their life and provide their needs (Akat, 1984: 31). But after nomadic society to settled society, work changed radically and new notions like division of labor, property, and product were located in society (Şener, 1982: 52-54).
  6. 6. WORK  till 18th century, work meant to produce something which was important for survive and not have to do something for tomorrow, just work for today.  18th century namely steam engine discovered by James Watt was accepted First Industry Revolution. In that period, there were many new changes in the product tools and there were increasing of income and wealth level. The artisans in that period were the qualified human resources of factories. So there had been many radical changes in community life (Tunçkan, 2008: 113-14).
  7. 7. WORK  In western community, Work attained a religious meaning with the protestant moral values . According to this idea, work was the main objective of human and work provides both world and individual much more values (Meda, 2012:20).  Weber stated(2011: 15-16) work meant to responsibility to God in Industry Revoliotion era. religious meaning of work was so common that the request of diminishing worktime was unacceptable in any legislative branch in Christianity word (Karatepe, 2011: 216).
  8. 8. WORK  With industrializing, work and job concepts were exposed to many changes. Mechanization came to light. the production was able to continue non-stop. So standardization came out. Then mass production appeared and factories were opened.  Human working in field started to work in factory. In the first year of this period, human was forced to work hard condition with low salary with the aim of maximum profit. The most conspicuous thing in that period is women and children were participated in work life. Men, women and children were forced to work in shift during more than 12 hours (Lordoğlu et. al., 2001: 21).
  9. 9. LEISURE  English Word leisure appears to be derived from the Latin licere which means to be free. (Torkildsen, 1993).  As a time , Brightbill defines that leisure is beyond which is required for existence, the things which we must do, biologically, to stay alive and subsistence, the things we must do ( eating, sleeping etc.) it is the time to be used according to our choice (Brightbill, 1960).
  10. 10. WORK and LEISURE  In ancient Greece leisure was perceived as an interest in unique values of world such as goodness, reality, knowledge . According to this perception, leisure is not a time in which nothing is done, but leisure is a time to create a cognition, regard, aesthetic pleasures, satisfaction, distinguishness. Leisure in ancient Greece has class discrimination. Leisure was just for nobles and rulers.  As for Rome era in contrast to Ancient Greece leisure did’nt have class discrimination. In this period leisure was perceived as supporter of job. Namely leisure was perceived as a time after productivity activities. That is why, leisure was encouraged to be spent fruitfully and enjoyable by rulers (Juniu, 2000: 69).
  11. 11. WORK AND LEISURE  In modern era, leisure started to be perceived as an independent life area. With the Industry Revolution ; social changing and cultural life style created independent and self-directed life areas.  In this period work was shaped by certain rule, and added some specialties such as organizational, disciplinary, obligation and perpetuity  so, non-work area started to take a new shape and separate from work certainly (Kraus, 1998: 186-188
  12. 12. WORK AND LEISURE  According to Mullett (1988) leisure can be explained with work because leisure is a time after work.  According to Schumacher, payment for work is response for self-sacrifice from leisure.  According to Lindar work is for earning money to spend in leisure  deGrazia propounded that leisure is a time to be ready for work on next day,  Soule alleged that a time sold by people to earn money is work (job) and the rest time can be accepted leisure without looking what to do
  13. 13. WORK-LEISURE CONFLİCT  Tourism sector is labor-intensive and employees are exposed many requests. While customers spending their leisure times by shopping, sightseeing etc. they have to work (Wong and Lin, 2007). This is called anti-social working time (Law and Wood, 1995).  When people are busied with work intensively, then they cannot spare enough time to their family and entertainment (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985). When  Work-leisure conflict level rise, then the level of leisure satisfaction diminishes as well (Rice Et. al., 1992).
  14. 14. WORK-LEISURE CONFLİCT  Time-based conflict come out when time pressure blocked the things that people want to do (Greenhause and Bautell, 1985).  According to Wong and Lin (2007) work-leisure conflict gives negative effect on individuals. Tourism employees have irregular and long work hours and this consumes their energy and block to participating in leisure activities. As a result, irregular working hours cause to stress for employees. Law (1995) described that too workload causes stress for tourism employers.  Kelly (1972) stated that work is a necessary to sustain for life but too much working , overtime and irregularity in shift system has negative effect on people’ family time and leisure . This condition causes to burnout and diminish life satisfaction (Pleck et al, 1980).
  15. 15. WORK-LEISURE CONFLİCT  Work and non-work time is very important side of life. But both of them are limited with self-time and energy, so this two concepts may be conflicted.  Rice et al. (1992) claimed that work-leisure conflict diminishes the employees’ work and leisure satisfaction and in lasting process affect life satisfaction negatively as well.
  16. 16. WORK-LEISURE CONFLİCT  McFillen et. al (1986) stated that for restaurant employees, overtime and work pressure are the reason of resign.  Law et. al. claimed that work-leisure conflict is common in touristic areas because work condition include negative factors such as communication problem, job stress, long working hour.
  17. 17. WORK-LEISURE CONFLİCT  Jamal (2004) stated that employees working 7 days in a week have much more emotional tiredness, job stress and psychometric health problems than employees working 5 days in a week. Namely intensive working condition and workload consume time and energy of employees.  this condition cause to decrease leisure activity satisfaction and employees are strained to spend time with their family and friends
  18. 18. WORK-LEISURE CONFLİCT  increasing of time pressure effect can be associated with increasing stress rate and some health problem such as psychological, cardiovascular or stomach disorders.  According to Palmer, almost half of the preterm birth death in England is derived from stress or life style.
  19. 19. WORK-LEISURE CONFLİCT  Work- leisure conflict affects employees’ family and children as well.  A study in Australia showed that the children of parents who work long hours and stressful have risk to get sicked physical and psyclogical disorder much more than others (Earle, 2003).  A study in South Australia showed that workers experiencing burnout and job- stress couldn’t fulfill their parental duties enough as well.
  20. 20. BURNOUT  In this study, it was used Maslach and Jackson Burnout Inventory. They explain burnout under 3 factors.  Those are respectively “emotional burnout”, “depersonalization”, “sense of low personal success “Emotional burnout is the first phase of burn out.  Emotional burnout means empoyee no longer behave the customer well enough.  Depersonalization means employee behave negatively against customers and colleagues. Namely employee thinks customers and colleagues as an object or a material (Schaufeli and Enzmann, 1998)  Low personal success means that employee evaluate himself as unsuccessful in his job
  21. 21.  Population of the research: 4-5 five stars hotel employees in Ankara  Sample of the research: Totally 384 employees were chosen with simple random sample method .  Data collection tool: Quastionnarie METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES
  22. 22. METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES  First part: gender, age, educational status and work duration  Second part: 7 points Likert Scale questions consist of 21 items measuring job burnout and 7 points Likert Scale questions consist of 5 items measuring work- leisure conflict and lsatly with 7 points Likert Scale questions 5 items measuring life satisfaction
  23. 23. METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES WORK LEİSURE CONFLİCT SCALE İTEMS  I do not have enough time for leisure activities because of my job.  I do not have enough time to participate in leisure activities with my family/friends because of my job.  I do not have energy to participate in leisure activities because of my job.  I am not able to participate in leisure activities because of my job.  I have never been in a suitable frame of mind to participate in leisure activities because of my job. This scale include negative items, high score of this scale means WLC degree high as well. ıt was used 7 likert scale WLC means of participants was 4,2*. that was commented as employees were exposed to WLC as medium level
  24. 24. METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES LIFE SATISFACTIN SCALE ITEMS  In most ways my life is close to my ideal.  The conditions of my life are excellent.  I am satisfied with my life.  So far I have gotten the important things I want in life.  If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing This scale include positive items, high score of this scale means life satisfaction degree high as well and vice versa. ıt was used 7 likert scale Life satisfaction means of participants was 3,5*. that was commented as employees has low life satisfaction
  25. 25. METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES JOB BURNOUT UNDER 3 FACTORS Emotional Burnout (factor of Burnout)  I feel emotionally drained by my work.  Working with people all day long requires a great deal of effort.  I feel frustrated by my work I feel I work too hard at my job.  It stresses me too much to work in direct contact with people.  I feel like I’m at the end of my rope  I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day at work.  I am at the end of my patience at the end of my work day.  I feel like my work is breaking me down , This scale include negative items, high score of this scale means WLC degree high as well. ıt was used 7 likert scale EB means of participants was 3,9.* that was commented as employees were exposed to EB as medium level
  26. 26. METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES Depersonalization (factor of Burnout)  I feel I look after certain patients/clients impersonally, as if they are objects.  I really don’t care about what happens to some of my patients/clients.  I have the impression that my patients/clients make me responsible for some of their problems  I have become more insensitive to people since I’ve been working.  I’m afraid that this job is making me uncaring. This scale include negative items, high score of this scale means depersonalization degree high as well. ıt was used 7 likert scale Depersonalization means of participants was 3,5*. that was commented as employees were exposed to depersonalization as a low level
  27. 27. Methodology and Hypotheses Low Personal Success (factor of Burnout)  I accomplish many worthwhile things in this job.  I feel full of energy.  I am easily able to understand what my clients feel.  I look after my patients’/clients’ problems very effectively. In my work, I handle emotional problems very calmly.  Through my work, I feel that I have a positive influence on people.  I am easily able to create a relaxed atmosphere with my clients.  I feel refreshed when I have been close to my patients/clients at work This scale include positive items, high score of this scale means personal success sense degree high as well and vice versa. ıt was used 7 likert scale personal success sense means of participants was 4,6*. that was commented as employees evaluate themselves success in their job as a medium degree
  28. 28. METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES Hypotheses H1 There is a significant and negative correlation between work-leisure conflict and job burnout. H2 There is a significant and negative correlation between work-leisure conflict and life satisfaction H3 Work-leisure conflict has significant effect on job-burnout H4 work-leisure conflict has significant effect on life satisfaction
  29. 29. FİNDİNGS  For entering and interpreting the data, SPSS v.19 (Statistical Package for The Social Sciences) statistical program was used. From 384 surveys, all of them were convenient for assessment.
  30. 30. Table 1. Descriptive Statistic of Participants Variables n % Gender Men 229 59,6 Women 155 40,4 Age 17-24 66 17,2 25-34 212 55,2 35-44 91 23,7 45-54 11 2,9 55 and plus 4 1,0 Marital Position Married 224 58,3 Single 160 41,7 Education level Primary school 30 6,8 High School 121 31,5 University 219 57,0 Master 14 3,6 Degree Employee 320 83 Chief 23 7,8 As. Manager 6 1,6 Manager 35 7,6 Work duration Little than 8 hours 19 5 8 hours 265 69 Much more than 8 hours 100 26
  31. 31. FİNDİNGS According to result of correlation test with spss program;  There is significant correlation between WLC and Life Satisfaction (p<0,05). This correlation is negative direction namely when WLC levels rise, then life satisfaction level decrease by -%37. H2 was accepted.  There is significant correlation between WLC and Emotional Burnout (p<0,05). This correlation is positive direction namely when WLC levels rise, then Emotional Burnout level rise by %54 as well. H1 was accepted.  There is significant correlation between WLC and Depersonalization (burnout) (p<0,05). This correlation is positive direction namely when WLC levels rise, Depersonalization (Burnout) level rise by %46 as well. H1 was accepted.  Finally there is significant correlation between WLC and Personal Success Sense (p<0,05). This correlation is negative direction namely when WLC levels rise, then Personal Success Sense decrease by -%27. H1 was accepted.
  32. 32. FİNDİNGS Table.2. Work Leisure Conflict and Job Burnout and Life Satisfaction Correlation Variables N R (correlation) P(Significance) WLC Life Satisfaction 384 -,37*** ,000 WLC Emotional Burnout 384 ,54*** ,000 WLC Depersonalization 384 ,46*** ,000 WLC Low Personal Success Sense 384 -,28*** ,000
  33. 33. Correlation analysis doesn’t give us a cause effect relationship among variables. So it was practiced regression analysis to explain WLC effect degree on Burnout and life satisfaction. According to analysis result of regression with spss program  WLC explains %12 of Life satisfaction level. The decrease by %12 of life satisfaction can be explained with WLC. We described in table 2 that this correlation was negative direction. H4 was accepted  WLC explains %30 of emotional burnout. Rising level by % 30 of emotional burnout can be explained with WLC. WLC and emotional burnout had positive correlation in table 2. H3 was accepted.  WLC conflict explains %21 of depersonalization. Rising level by % 21 of depersonalization can be explained with WLC. WLC and depersonalization had positive correlation in table 2.
  34. 34.  WLC explains %0,79 of LPS. Rising level by % 0,79 of LPS can be explained with WLC. WLC and LPS had negative correlation in table 2. H3 was accepted. WLC rate of effect on LPS is very low but it is statistically significant (p<0,05). H3 was accepted.
  35. 35. FİNDİNGS Table. 3.WLC and Its Effect on Job Burnout and Life Satisfaction with Regression Analysis Factors Β(regression) p WLC Life Satisfaction ,12 0,00 WLC Emotional Burnout ,30 0,00 WLC Depersonalization ,21 0,00
  36. 36. FİNDİNGS  With anova test, it was detected that work duration of employees has significant relationship on WLC (p<0,05).  Empoyees who work more than 8 hours were exposed to WLC much more than working 8 hours ones. Table 4. Work Duration and WLC One way Anova Results n x̅ ss f p 16,257 0,00 Less than 8 hours 19 3,3 1,7 8 hours* 265 3,8 1,9 More than 8 hours* 100 5,0 1,8 *( p<0,05 )
  37. 37. SUMMARY  It was detected in this study that WLC has effect on job burnout and life satifaction  WLC has negative effect on life satisfaction of employees . While WLC rises the life satisfaction level decrease  WLC has negative effect on Job burnout, while WLC rises then jub burnout level increase as well And it was detected that work duration of empoyee affects WLC namely empoyees working much more than 8 hours are exposed to WLC much more than others.
  38. 38. SUGGESTİONS  It should be arranged working duration of employees so that Employees should’nt be exposed to WLC  With spillover theory, according to result of study as well, as long as employees are exposed to WLC then their burnout level will increase and life satisfaction level will be decrease  Tourism employees’ work condition should be reorgnised. Especially according to literature result, irregular shift system and overtime had negative effect on tourism eployees.  Flexible working condition and workload should be reorganized as well in terms of tourism employees
  39. 39. The sample of this study limited with 384 respondents due to the lack of time and facility Another limitation of this study is restrictions on comparing the findings of this research with previous work. LİMİTATİONS

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