Welcome!! Today’s Agenda
History 117: United States History from
Colonial Period to Reconstruction
Instructor: Andrew Ligeti “Andy”>>>>>
Ticket Number: 1129
1. Just a Sherman Oaks Kid @ Heart, Griffith Park in
1961; Decoration Day 1865; Detroit 1972; ’68, Mate!
2. Syllabus: Think and Walk Like a Historian – 5X4 = 4
W’s & 4 C’s = 20/20 Vision
3. Are you too busy??
4. Do you have what it takes???
5. Should we celebrate that Columbus guy
who sailed the ocean blue in 1492?
Below is Flookys Arcade “Best Hot
Dogs” in Valley & Wed Night
Cruising on Van Nuys Blvd Rt is
the art deco La Reina Movie
Am I Too Busy To Achieve my Academic Goals?….
Sleep 5-8 = 25-40
Travel 1-2 =5 -10
Eat 1-2 = 5 -10
Hygiene 1-2 = 5 -10
Errands 1-3 = 5 -15
Total 9-17 (12) = 45 - 85
Work Full Time/Part Time:
Sub Total Work/College
Total of Your Daily/Week Existence
4-8 hrs day 20-40
School Each 3 unit class requires X 2
hours for study or 6 hrs/week
If you carry full time load or 12 units,
that’s 24 hours/week you should
Hey, what about weekends???
12 hours of class
24 hours of study
The Number 56
Below or Above?
Opening up a can of worms? 1st Q’s
1. According to historian Donald Miller, how does history
separate humans from other earth’s species?
2. Why does Scottish economist Adam Smith believe that
the 1492 Columbus contact with the Native Indians of the
Bahamas is the one of two greatest moments in history?
3. What distinct characteristics of the divergent North
American Indian population did the Europeans fail to
recognize? What two ways did they perceive the
indigenous peoples of North America?
4. Identify the main forces that caused Columbus to sail
West from Spain to China in 1492? What is the revisionist
view of him and why is it still difficult to accept?
5. What circumstances contributed to Spain’s Black
Legend? What evidence suggest other European
Empires were also guilty of pillage and atrocities against
The 40-Year-Old Photo That Gives Us A Reason To Smile
Late July 1973 Photo by Joseph Crachiola of children playing in suburb of Detroit
So…ladies and gentlemen…
Our main summer question is:
How can the study of America’s
past help us understand how
the struggle for Liberty shaped
both our personal and collective
meaning for freedom?
1st We need to discover where
to find the key & how to turn
1. How do we know what we know about the past?
2. How can we use this knowledge to make you, me, and we better?
3. Does it matter?
4. Do you care?
A child’s shoe and his/her sip cup – Two historical artifacts from the
Holocaust – what do they reflect?
Lessons of Humanitarian History
In January of 1942, the German leadership
of the Third Reich held a meeting in a
suburb of Berlin to plan the murder of every
Jew on the European continent. This
meeting was benignly called the Wannsee
Conference. Many who attended the
conference held either M.D. or Ph.D.
degrees from German universities. Several
1. First, one can hold a Ph.D. and be an
2. Second, these Germans possessed
tremendous intellectual imagination, yet
were horribly devoid of moral vision or
3. Third, we learn that advancement in the
world depends upon the power of the
intellect; but the very existence of the
world depends upon intellectual
imagination and ethical action. The
two are inseparable.
“An artistic vision without precedent”
The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a
cornerstone work of High Renaissance art and an example of extreme European
Not exactly Aliens…The
• North American Native Tribes
were culturally diverse,
developed, and steeped in
• In particular, the city of Cahokia
(Mound Builders) near St. Louis
had a pop. 10-30,000
established trading relations
with other trbes over ½ the
Continent beginning a 1000
years before Columbus arrived.
• Why does Foner state that
European views of Native
American Indians were extreme?
What were the Indians views on
land use? See Foner…
Kiowa Legend 11:00
6molZ4 Buffalo Dance from Dances with
A Collision of Worlds
Old vs. New
Euro-Asian vs. Native American
What are the misconceptions of
C1When Worlds Collide: European and Indigenous American
Cultures Make Contact the 15th Century
1. What were the misconceptions that European Explorers &
Conquerors had on New World peoples? What specific examples
did Zinn and Foner use to emphasize such misconceptions?
2. What great contributions to European culture did the American
peoples make during the Columbian Exchange?
3. Argue whether Columbus merely was a victim of centuries of
European prejudice or intent on enriching himself with wealth and
power by the good graces of Ferdinand and Isabella and his
Christian God. Should we continue to honor Columbus? Explain
4. How did the Arawak, Cacique, Aztec and Inca experiences with the
Spanish conquistadors predict centuries of racial discrimination and
a quest for wealth by Europeans to the New World?
5. According to Jared Diamond how did Germs, Guns and Steel
decimate the great Civilizations of the New World?
6. Why is the narrative and historical writings of Bartolome de las Casas
significant in understanding the full meaning of early European
contact with American Natives? What views emerged that
challenged those of Columbus, Cortez and Pizarro on how Native
Americans should be treated by foreigners?
7. How did the the Spanish Caste System and the Encomienda system
shape relations within the expanding Spanish New World?
8. How did Small Pox decimate the native population of the New
World? Describe the various means that historians have learned
about how disease developed and wiped out such large populations
in the New World?
9. How can the four C’s of history: Contingency, Conflict, Continuity,
and Connections determine critical understanding for our class?
10. Based on Spanish narratives of “When Worlds Collide,” what
projections can you make for later explorations and conquests of
North America by Europeans?
to New Guinea, but we black people had
little cargo of our own?” Yali, a New
Guinean politician (p. 14)
• Diamond recognized the influence of geography in
determining why Europeans conquered the New World
• Very unequal distribution of domesticable wild plants and
animals around the world.
• Eurasian civilization is not so much a product of ingenuity,
but of opportunity and necessity. Advanced civilizations
are not created out of superior intelligence, but from the
effect of a chain of developments, each made possible by
• Question: What were these pre-conditions that
allowed Spain to conquer much of the New
The cover art
actually says a
lot about the
looked at, and
looks at the
available (plant and
2)Dictated the ease at
which they spread.
Continental Axis: Climate
stays more the same
in the same latitude
Thus, crops that grow
in Western Russia
will also grow in
France. But crops
grown in France will
NOT grow in Libya.
Warm mostly year-round
Why are they called the Trade Winds? Ocean Currents??
The European book output rose from a few million to around one billion copies
within a span of less than four centuries ~ Charting the "Rise of the West”
The Spanish had an edge:
• Steel (weapons and armor)
• Advanced technology: seafaring ships
• Gunpowder – Spanish Musket – Cannons
• Inca Emperor Atahualla encounters the Spanish Conquistador
Francisco Pizarro at Cajamarca in 1532
• Atahualla 80,000 soldiers; Pizarro had 168
• Pizarro captures Atahullpa, collects enormous ransom, then kills
• Battle key to conquest of Inca empire
• Domesticated horses used in battle
• Incas already divided by civil war which rose from an
epidemic of smallpox
• Pizarro was transported by a sophiscated Spanish
Galleon navigated by European maritime
technology developed by a centralized
1. Our space aliens may have incorrectly
predicted which regions of the earth would
advance quicker, but according to Jared
Diamond – could we now reason that Europe
had an advantage in modernity?
2. Historical determinism is the stance in
explaining history or advocating a political
position that events are historically
predetermined…or are based on relevant
contingencies that influence how history
3. Case in point: The Colombo Caper
Portugal’s Prince Henry
of navigators and map
makers (Their ITT
Bartolomieu Diaz (1487)
Vasco de Gama (1497)
All employed the fastest and
most maneuverable ship
on the high seas
The Caravels were capable
of “beating” the wind by
sailing “windward” or
against it: ‘A’Tacking it
Harbinger for the Age of
Getting There….Why we’re called America
Amerigo Vespucci's Map
4 journeys to
the New World
What was the significance of this event in
Visionary explorer?? Discoverer of the New World?? Christianizing Messiah??
The propagator of the enslavement and the demise of millions of native Americans?
A delusional megalomaniac Geneon navigator who went to his deathbed unaware of
his true accomplishment? Columbus was christened by Ferdinand and Isabella
“Admiral of the Ocean Sea” following his October 12, 1492 landing on San Salvador.
The Stealth Executioner: Small Pox
Disease (especially smallpox) was
one control – not intentional at first
• Peru’s population fell from 1.3
million in 1570 to 600,000 in 1620.
• Mexico’s population fell from 25.3
million Indians in 1519 to 1 million
• Native population had no immunity
because of isolation from the
population networks of Africa and
The Stealth Executioner
Taken from Florentine Codex
• Sores erupted on our faces, our breasts, our
bellies; we were covered with agonizing sores
from head to foot.
• The illness was so dreadful that no one could
walk or move. The sick were so utterly helpless
that they could only lie on their beds like
corpses, unable to move their limbs or even
their heads. They could not lie face down or roll
from one side to the other. If they did move
their bodies, they screamed with pain.
Cortes (1521) & Pizarro (1532)
Conquers Aztec and Inca Empires
• 1517—Spaniards begin to
• June 3, 1519 Spaniards arrive
at Cempoala with 11 ships, 600
soldiers, 200 native servants, 16
horses, 32 crossbows, 13
muskets, and 14 cannons
• Dona Marina is also known as
La Malinche became Cortez’s
translator and mistress
• Enters into strategic alliances
with Aztec Enemies (Tlaxcalans)
• November 8, 1519 – Cortes
enters Tenochtitlan & kidnaps
Montezuma from 11/14/1519-
• Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475-1541)
• Pizarro, having explored Isthmus of
Panama with Balboa reaches northern
Peru in 1524.
• Hearing about great wealth of Incas
plans his conquest of Incas
• Under Francisco Pizarro 169 Spanish
soldiers 1532 Battle of Cajamarca (Inca
Empire 15 mill)
• Pizarro reads about Cortez triumph over
the Aztecs by killing Montezuma
• Pizarro tricked Atahualpa—killed him
after he got Atahualpa’s gold
• Fierce resistance for at least 100 years
• What attitudes about the indigenous
tribes do Cortez and Pizarro share?
"sin indios no hay Indias"
(without Indians, there are
no Indies – i.e. America)
>Spanish crown granted a
Spaniard a specified
number of natives to
protect them, teach them
Spanish, and convert
them to Catholicism.
>In return the natives
were made to contribute
to the wealth of the
Spanish land owner in
mining gold, sliver and
>In reality this system
was a inhumane
treatment of the
indigenous people that
enslaved, tortured, raped,
pillaged and murdered
As witnessed by
Bartolome de las Casas
Did someone say Optimal Fragmentation???
• According Jared Diamond, societies that have been able to
balance freedom with a semblance of control become
technologically advanced quicker.
• Too much central control = stagnation
• Too much fragmentation = constant turmoil
• If a society finds a Medium they get healthy competition that
advances their mission
• Take Europe and the Printer or Portugal/Spain and the
Caravel….and you get the first truly World Super Power
Bartolome de las Casas (1584-1566):
An embodiment of reform and tolerance
during an age of murder & mayhem
Bartolomo de las Casas 1484-1566
“Protector of the Indians”
1. Spanish historian who originally was a
Encomienda owner and later became a
2. Witnessed the atrocities of Spanish
treatment of Indians
A Short Account of the Destruction of the
Indies & The Black Legend
• In 1552 Las Casa published the first
book that contained accounts of the
abuses committed by Spaniards
against Native Americans that he
• His account was largely responsible
for the adoption of the New Laws of
1542, which abolished native slavery
for the first time in European colonial
history and led to the Valladolid
• The book became an important
element in the creation and
propagation of the so-called Black
Legend – the tradition of
describing the Spanish empire as
exceptionally morally corrupt and
The 1550 Valladolid Debate
In 1550, de las Casas defended the
Indians rights against the Encomienda
System against Ginés de Sepúlveda who
argued that the Indians were pagans and
barbarous and required conversion by
Spanish masters in order to become
Las Casas maintained the Indians were
indeed civilized and imbued with social
norms and; that a peaceful mission was
the only true way of converting the
The Judges took several months before
coming to an inconclusive verdict: both
Sepulveda and de las Casas each claimed
they’d had won.
Cabeza de Vaca’s La
• November 1528
• A former Conquistador of
Pánfilo de Narváez, de Vaca became stranded on Galveston
Island with survivors who became captured by local native
Indians. Those who had been masters were now subjects.
• Cabeza de Vaca resorted to diplomacy, and probably
considerable prayer, in hopes that these Indians would take pity
and show mercy on his band of disparate former
• He and only three survivors (among them a black slave named
Estevan) were initially enslaved but gained their trust of the
Avavares people. For seven years they traveled through the
southwest developing a relationship and growing respect for
the idegenous Indians they had once thought as savages.
Northwest Passage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQOT
MSeYias Fall on Me by REM
Jacque Cartier (1534/35)
Henry Hudson: 1609
Hudson River 1611
Samuel Champlain at war with the Iroquois @ Lake
Champlain (The Iroquois were enemies of the Huron, traders
with the French
In the 150 years since European contact, perhaps 80 million
Indians—nearly one-fifth of humankind at that time—died
Where is this place??? Hint Sinatra
like singing about it
Chapter 2 Guiding Questions
1. What motivated England to colonize the New World? How
similar to or different from Spain’s motives, discussed in
Chapter 1, were England’s?
2. Why was the Jamestown Colony unstable and its survival
questionable? Who settled there? What were their goals?
How did they interact with the Indians?
3. How was tolerance and intolerance of religion significant in
the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony? What was
John Winthrop’s Vision of a “City on a Hill”?
4. Explain how Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson showed
how the Puritan belief in each individual’s ability to interpret
the Bible could easily lead to criticism of the religious
5. Discuss the idea of the rights of Englishmen and what that
meant to the settlers in the New World. How did the English
Civil War affect the colonists’ understanding of their rights?