The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 — also known as Popé&apos;s Rebellion — was an uprising of most of the Pueblo Indians against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico. The Pueblo killed 400 Spanish and drove the remaining 2,000 settlers out of the province. Twelve years later the Spanish returned and were able to reoccupy New Mexico with little opposition. The most important cause of the Pueblo Revolt was probably the attempt of the Spanish to destroy their religion, banning traditional dances and religious icons such as these kachina doll The Spectre of visions were used as legitimate evidence during the Salem Witch Trials
Traditionally, the allegedly afflicted girls are said to have been entertained by Parris&apos; slave woman, Tituba, who supposedly taught them about voodoo in the kitchen of the parsonage during the winter of 1692, although there is no contemporary evidence to support the story. A variety of secondary sources, starting with Charles W. Upham in the 19th century, typically relate that a circle of the girls, with Tituba&apos;s help, tried their hands at fortune telling using the white of an egg and a mirror to create a primitive crystal ball to divine the professions of their future spouses and scared one another when one supposedly saw the shape of a coffin instead. The story is drawn from John Hale&apos;s book about the trials, but in his account, only one of the girls, not a group of them, had confessed to him afterwards that she had once tried this. Hale did not mention Tituba as having any part of it, nor when it had occurred. Yet the record of her trial with Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne holds her giving an energetic confession, speaking before the court of &quot;creatures who inhabit the invisible world,&quot; and &quot;the dark rituals which bind them together in service of Satan,&quot; and implicating both Good and Osborne while asserting that &quot;many other people in the colony were engaged in the devil&apos;s conspiracy against the Bay.&quot; Tituba&apos;s race is often cited as Carib-Indian or of African descent, but contemporary sources describe her only as an &quot;Indian.&quot; Research by Elaine Breslaw has suggested that she may well have been captured in what is now Venezuela and brought to Barbados, and so may have been an Arawak Indian. Other slightly later descriptions of her, by Gov. Thomas Hutchinson writing his history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 18th century, describe her as a &quot;Spanish Indian.&quot; In that day, that typically meant a Native American from the Carolinas/Georgia/Florida.
Cabeza de Vaca’s own narrative was probably written in draft form by late 1537 but it was not published as a book, Accounts of the Disasters, until 1542. La Relación, Cabeza de Vaca’s account of his journey and struggles in Texas and Mexico. because they successfully demonstrated their respect for the native people with whom they lived. In a food-rich land where many of his Old World compatriots nonetheless had already died of starvation, Cabeza de Vaca seems to have learned quickly, albeit not necessarily enjoyably, to respect the peoples’ food-getting ingenuity. The Yguazes, for example, lived in a relatively root-rich homeland (the lower Guadalupe River basin) and frequented the tuna-rich South Texas heartland. Yet, from time to time they subsisted on spiders, ant eggs, worms, lizards, salamanders, wood, ground bones, earth, and deer dung. Of them, Cabeza de Vaca wrote “I believe truthfully that if in that land there were rocks, they would eat them.&quot; Spanish explorers seeking new kingdoms of gold first came to the areas that would become the United States in the early sixteenth century, exploring the Pacific and Gulf coasts and parts of the American southeast and southwest. These expeditions spread disease and devastation among Indian communities in North America; Hernando de Soto’s journey through the Gulf Coast and southwest was especially brutal. Raping, torturing, and enslaving native peoples they encountered, de Soto’s men also spread fatal diseases, all of which led to the virtual disappearance of once-vibrant native communities.
Sought by explorers for centuries as a possible trade route, it was first navigated by Roald Amundsen in 1903–1906. Until 2009, the Arctic pack ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year, but climate change has reduced the pack ice, and this Arctic shrinkage made the waterways more navigable. In 1539, Hernán Cortés commissioned Francisco de Ulloa to sail along the peninsula of Baja California on the western coast of America. Ulloa concluded that the Gulf of California was the southernmost section of a strait supposedly linking the Pacific with the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. His voyage perpetuated the notion of the Island of California and saw the beginning of a search for the Strait of Anián. Know that on the right hand from the Indies exists an island called California very close to a side of the Earthly Paradise; and it was populated by black women, without any man existing there, because they lived in the way of the Amazons. They had beautiful and robust bodies, and were brave and very strong. Their island was the strongest of the World, with its cliffs and rocky shores. Their weapons were golden and so were the harnesses of the wild beasts that they were accustomed to domesticate and ride, because there was no other metal in the island than gold. –Las Sergas de Esplandián, (novela de caballería) by García Ordóñez de Montalvo. Published in Seville in 1510
Even as other European powers disdained Spain’s treatment of the Indians, they aspired to match the Spanish empire’s incredible mineral wealth. During the seventeenth century, rival French, Dutch, and English colonists established colonies in North America.
The French were first, hoping to find gold and locate a Northwest Passage to the Pacific. Failed initial settlements were followed by permanent settlements in the Mississippi River Valley and along the St. Lawrence River in what became Canada, then called New France. The French crown limited migration, however, keeping the French colonists’ numbers small.
Few in number and embracing the fur trade rather than agriculture, however, French colonists depended on friendly relations with local Indians. Not interested in land as were English colonists, or in exploiting Indian labor as had the Spanish, the French created elaborate military, commercial, and diplomatic connections with natives, creating alliances with Indians unparalleled in North America in their durability. Although French Jesuits sought to convert the Indians, the French generally were more tolerant of Indian religions and spiritual practices than rival European colonists, and in the “middle ground” of the upper Great Lakes region, French and Indians mixed in relative equality.
But French colonialism all the same brought disease and warfare to native populations, especially as the fur trade and the introduction of European commodities intensified conflicts between native groups and as wars between European colonists on the continent embroiled natives allied to different European powers. On July 29, 1609 somewhere in the area near Ticonderoga and Crown Point, New York (historians are not sure which of these two places, but Fort Ticonderoga historians claim that it occurred near its site), Champlain and his party encountered a group of Iroquois. In a battle begun the next day, two hundred Iroquois advanced on Champlain&apos;s position, and one of his guides pointed out the 3 Iroquois chiefs. In his account of the battle, Champlain recounts firing his arquebus and killing two of them with a single shot, after which one of his men killed the third. The Iroquois turned and fled. This action set the tone for poor French-Iroquois relations for the rest of the century 1/5 of today current world population of 7.1 billion is 1.4 billion human beings.
Liberty equated to land – Englishman believed that owning land gave them control over their labor, and the right to vote. It’s what motivated indentured servants to labor for five to seven years as virtual slaves in order to gain freedom and the right to own land. Land was a source of wealth and power – a limited availability in England due to the enclosure system. Half of the English society lived below poverty at the end of the 17th Century – under Henry VIII reign vagrants could be imprisoned, burned or even hung. Queen Elizabeth reformed the treatment of the poor with laws that forced employers to hire unemployed – Thomas More’s 1526 book Utopia depicted an imaginary island that afforded vast land holdings where men could escape their laborious lives in Old World and take control their destiny by claiming their own fiefdoms in their New. For the English colonists, improving and cultivating the land gave them the rights to own it – whereas for the Indians, they followed the game, fish and trade on the land – but refused to believe they held it as their own. There are thousands of treaties and sales recorded during the 17th Century in English colonial courts between colonial governments or individuals and Indian tribes for their land – a testament that the colonists recognized the occupancy of Indians – however the era is filled with much tension and numerous armed battles over land disputes. Much of the initial land English colonists settled had been earlier cleared, farmed and lived upon by former Indian tribes. Colonists adopted Indian snowshoes and canoes to move further into the wilderness and encroach on the displaced Indians. Reversely, changes to Indian culture was tremendous with the trading of “lightening sticks” rifles, axes, fish hooks, hoes, woven cloth, and metal kettles for cooking – also many Indians were fascinated with the color glass, beads and copper that they adopted into their religious rituals and dress. Other trade exchanges were beaver pelts and deer skins to colonists – and Indians began to receive alcohol – and the invisible diseases that began to decimate them in countless numbers. Drastic changes in land use like fenced property, livestock and horses grazing, and entire forests cleared for lumber for fuel and shelter irrevocably changed the native environment for Indians.
The early emerging character of America shapes two regions: Virginia versus Massachusetts. You know, you have Englishmen settling both places, but they&apos;re different places... The American character. How and when does it emerge? Two distinct American types, New England and Virginia. But wait a minute. Inside Virginia, there&apos;s all kinds of different types as well. Indentured servants, slaves, the intermixing thereof. In the 17th century in Virginia, women were dying in their 30s, men in their 40s. Whereas in New England, the men were living into their 60s and 70s, and the wives living also into old age. What&apos;s the difference between those societies?
Indentured Servitude But Virginia would develop its first plantation system without black slaves. Land was cheap and plentiful; labor was scarce. But to get rich you needed both land and labor. This abundance of land and shortage of people would shape Virginia&apos;s, and America&apos;s, history for the next several centuries. Unable to recruit large numbers of free workers, planters filled their labor needs in other ways. Black bondsmen continued to be purchased, but they were expensive and in short supply. Slave traders preferred to bring Africans to the booming sugar islands in the Caribbean, where they commanded higher prices. o Virginians turned to a system of white bondage called indentured servitude. Drifters, drunks, and orphans were kidnapped or deceived by English recruiting agents who worked for merchants and ship captains. Criminals came cheerfully -- it was America or the gallows. But most indentured servants willingly sold themselves into bondage for a term of five to seven years. Their hope was that, once free, in land-rich America, they would rise in the world. About four of every five immigrants to the Chesapeake region in the 17th century arrived as indentured servants. In no time, Virginia and neighboring Maryland became societies of tobacco masters and bondsmen, with white servants working in gangs of eight to ten supervised by whip-wielding overseers. Because of disease and brutally harsh treatment, 40% of the servants would not survive their term of service. Slave Labor House of Burgesses The House of Burgesses. This was the first representative assembly in the New World. It convened in 1619, the year the first black slaves were brought into the colony. The seeds of slavery and freedom were sown at the same time.
Indentured Servitude Cont Class Question: from Text – How does Elizabeth Sprigs describe her experience (1756) as a indentured servant in Maryland? What do you find deplorable about her condition? Page: 118 Compare her letter to that of the Swiss German Immigrant Johannes Hammer in Pennsylvania…How did he view freedom? What did he do for income? Did he encourage others to come to America?? Who?? See Colonial Artisans page 120 Economic Freedom vs. Slave Labor “He hath a trade hath an estate.” – Benjamin Franklin a former colonial printer in Boston who was an apprentice to his brother James until he ran away to Philadelphia to begin his life as a newspaper writer, scientist and entrepreneur Most women servants worked in the masters&apos; household, where many of them were sexually abused. If a woman servant had an illegitimate child, she had to serve an extra year or so for time lost for pregnancy and childbirth. There was little sense of community or stability in Virginia. Even the family was a precarious thing in a place where there were three times as many men as women, where most husbands and wives died within seven years of their marriage, and where half the children died before reaching adulthood. Plantations were built some distance from one another along the region&apos;s rivers. Planters set up their own docks and storehouses and dealt directly with overseas merchants. As a result, Virginia and Maryland had almost no towns or villages, and no merchant class of consequence. And there were few schools or churches.
Signed in 1620 aboard the Mayflower before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, the document committed the group to majority-rule government An idea that certain &apos;&apos;rights of Englishmen&apos;&apos; applied to all within the kingdom was called English Liberty Navigational Acts: Passed by the English Parliament to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system, 1650�1775; enforcement of the acts led to growing resentment by colonists. He launched the Puritan adventure with a stirring secular sermon, &quot;A Model of Christian Charity,&quot; which he delivered at sea, on board the ship, Arbella. In it, he set down a vision of human fellowship totally lacking in the Virginia experiment. &quot;We must be knit together as one man,&quot; he declared, and in &quot;brotherly affection. But Puritans were not a tolerant people. Couples who had babies less than 9 months after their marriage were publicly punished; several men who had consenting sex were hanged; and people were tried in court for card-playing, drunkenness, and idleness. When dangerous dissent was spotted, it was crushed with alacrity. The first community-wide crisis involved Winthrop&apos;s friend, Roger Williams. From his Salem pulpit, Williams thundered against ministers who refused to separate from the Church of England, and he insisted that the king couldn&apos;t give away lands belonging to the Indians. Williams also firnly believed that people should live by their conscious and be permitted to worship any religion they wished as long as they were law abiding citizens. He was way ahead of his Puritan Times. This infuriated Winthrop, who knew land was essential to the colony&apos;s success. When Williams refused to back down, Winthrop banished him, and he fled to Rhode Island. There he founded a colony devoted to freedom of worship and the separation of church and state.
The Backcountry An area stretching from central Pennsylvania southward through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and into upland North and South Carolina. Of some 90 Puritan towns, 52 had been attacked and 13 leveled. At least 600 Colonial men and as many as 2,000 women and children were killed, and 1200 homes destroyed together with 8,000 cattle. The total cost of the war exceeded the value of all personal property in New England. Only a few small Indian communities survived in semi-isolated areas. And for nearly half a century what had been rapid New England expansion was halted. The end came not from military prowess but from disease and famine. Philip&apos;s faltering support bottomed when the Mohawks, potentially strong allies, refused to join with him, preferring not to relinquish their short-term fur-trade profits. Other tribes soon surrendered or moved westward. By the summer of 1676 Philip&apos;s staunchest supporters saw his cause was hopeless. Lurking about Mout Hope, Philip put one of his warriors to death for advising him to surrender. The brother of the man, fearful for his own life, fled to the English and informed them of Philip&apos;s swamp camp. A Captain Church of Milton surrounded the place and rushed the camp. Philip fled, only to encounter An Englishman and an Indian. The Englishman&apos;s gun misfired; however, the Indian sent a bullet through Philip&apos;s heart. This was the same Indian, Alderman, whose brother had been killed earlier by Phillip and who had led Captain Church to the encampment. Church ordered Philip to be beheaded and quartered. The Indian pronounced a warrior&apos;s eulogy: &quot;You have been one very great man. You have made many a man afraid of you. But big as you be, I will now chop you up in little pieces.&quot; Philip&apos;s head was carried to Plymouth, where it was displayed for 25 years, and his wife and son were sold into slavery in the West Indies. Monaco, a subchief believed to have led the raid on Medfield, was hanged in Boston in September.
Conversion: In 1666, he converted to the Society of Friends (the Quakers). The Quakers (mostly poor and illiterate) thus acquired a prominent member of the educated aristocracy. He provided the literary talent, political contacts, and legal skill to fight for the Quaker’s religious freedom. For many years, he produced pamphlets, tracts, and books: Attacking the persecution of the Quakers Calling for religious freedom Explaining the Quaker faith Leadership: Throughout the 1660’s and 1670’s, Penn was in and out of English jails. He successfully argued cases in defense of religious liberties. He undertook missionary journeys to Holland and Germany. He made lasting friendships that would help later in the growth of Pennsylvania. In 1681, Penn secured from the king the proprietary grant of Pennsylvania. Proprietorship: When Penn acquired his grant, he began a promotional campaign throughout northern Europe. He had much to offer. His “Frame of Government” made provision for an assembly and a council which were both elective. Civil rights, including religious liberty, were guaranteed to all. Land was offered at fixed prices, with an annual quitrent thereafter. Conflict Governor vs. Legislature: Penn assumed incorrectly that: Social custom would make wealthy men the majority in the legislature. Quaker unity would bind them in loyalty to his leadership. He was sadly disillusioned. As governor, he was constantly battling with the legislature. Quakers, as it turned out, did not make peaceful legislators.There were times when he sought, in despair, to sell his proprietorship. Prosperity: Despite its political turbulence, Pennsylvania was extremely prosperous. Its rich farmlands attracted settlers who produced abundant food for export. Experienced merchants from London and the colonies quickly settled in Philadelphia. By the mid-18th century, Philadelphia was the third most important commercial city in the British empire, after London and Bristol. Unexpected Results: The Quakers had thought themselves headed in one direction and found themselves going in another. A frugal people, they worked hard and became wealthy. Believers in equality, their success created an aristocracy. They expected Quaker unity, but found themselves divided. Their focus on religious freedom brought swarms of Lutherans, Presbyterians, Methodists, and Catholics into Pennsylvania and reduced them to a minority. Pacifism: The most serious problem facing the Quakers was created by their pacifism. During the numerous wars of this era, Pennsylvania authorities refused to provide funds or soldiers. In following the Biblical precept “Thou shalt not kill,” did they have the right to endanger the lives of non-Quakers? The first law was known as the Great Law. This law gave people the freedom of religion. It also stated that everyone was born equally, no matter how much money was in the family. The second law that was passed was called the Frame of Government. This law outlined how to set up the government within the colony. The laws, called Charter of Privileges, gave the colony the right to suggest their laws to England. Penn returned to England in 1701 because the Quakers were still having trouble there. In Ben Franklin&apos;s day, America experienced its first population explosion. In 1700, approximately 250,000 Europeans and African-Americans lived in the colonies. By 1775, that number had risen to two and half million. This population boom was fed by two sources: natural increase (Franklin himself was one of 17 children), and immigration. English people continued to pour in, but new people came from all over Europe, and chiefly from Germany, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Yet the largest group of migrants in the 18th century were Africans, about 278,000 of them. The movement of Africans to the Americas was the largest forced migration in world history
King is subject to English Law – Not above it (Despite his or her Divine Right & Royal bloodline) Limited Monarchies that began in 1215 with the Magna Carta signed between King John and English Barons that protected them against arbitrary imprisonment and their land which could not be revoked unless by legal due process. In time these rights were expanded and included other English Free born subjects of the Crown and Parliament.
On July 30, 1676, Bacon and his army issued the &quot;Declaration of the People of Virginia.&quot; The declaration criticized Berkeley&apos;s administration in detail. It accused him of levying unfair taxes, appointing friends to high positions, and failing to protect frontier settlers from Indian attack Berkeley was relieved of the governorship, and recalled to England. &quot;The fear of civil war among whites frightened Virginia’s ruling elite, who took steps to consolidate power and improve their image: for example, restoration of property qualifications for voting, reducing taxes and adoption of a more aggressive Indian policy.
Mercantilism is the idea that colonies existed for the benefit of the Mother Country. In other words, the American colonists could be compared to tenants who &apos;paid rent&apos; by providing materials for export to Britain. According to the beliefs at the time, the wealth of th world was fixed. In order to increase a country&apos;s wealth, they needed to either explore and expand or conquer wealth through conquest. Colonizing America meant that Britain greatly increased its base of wealth. To keep the profits, Britain tried to keep a greater number of exports than imports. The most important thing for Britain to do was keep its money and not trade with other countries to get necessary items. The colonists role was to provide many of these items to the British. This idea of a fixed amount of wealth was the target of Adam Smith&apos;s Wealth of Nations(1776). Smith&apos;s work had a profound effect on the American founding fathers and the nation&apos;s economic system. The key to it all is this: In Europe, land was scarce and expensive; labor was cheap and available. In America, land was cheap and available; labor was scare and expensive. This explains slavery in the South, as well as economic democracy in the North
WILLIAM PENN was a dreamer. He also had the king over a barrel. Charles II owed his father a huge debt. To repay the Penns, William was awarded an enormous tract of land in the New World. Immediately he saw possibilities. People of his faith, the Quakers, had suffered serious persecution in England. With some good advertising, he might be able to establish a religious refuge. He might even be able to turn a profit. Slowly, the wheels began to spin. In, 1681, his dream became a reality. QUAKERS, or the Society of Friends, had suffered greatly in England. As religious dissenters of the Church of England, they were targets much like the Separatists and the Puritans. But Friends were also devout pacifists. They would not fight in any of England&apos;s wars, nor would they pay their taxes if they believed the proceeds would assist a military venture. They believed in total equality. Therefore, Quakers would not bow down to nobles. Even the king would not receive the courtesy of a tipped hat. They refused to take oaths, so their allegiance to the Crown was always in question. Of all the Quaker families that came to the New World, over three quarters of the male heads of household had spent time in an English jail. William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania (&quot;Penn&apos;s Woods&quot;) and planner of Philadelphia, established a very liberal government by 17th century standards. Religious freedom and good relations with Native Americans were two keystones of Penn&apos;s style. The Quakers of Penn&apos;s colony, like their counterparts across the Delaware River in New Jersey, established an extremely liberal government for the seventeenth century. Religious freedom was granted and there was no tax-supported church. Penn insisted on developing good relations with the Native Americans. Women saw greater freedom in Quaker society than elsewhere, as they were allowed to participate fully in Quaker meetings. PENNSYLVANIA, or &quot;Penn&apos;s Woods,&quot; benefited from the vision of its founder. Well advertised throughout Europe, skilled artisans and farmers flocked to the new colony. With Philadelphia as its capital, Pennsylvania soon became the KEYSTONE of the English colonies. New Jersey was owned by Quakers even before Penn&apos;s experiment, and the remnants of NEW SWEDEN, now called Delaware, also fell under the Friends&apos; sphere of influence. William Penn&apos;s dream had come true.
William Penn had a distaste for cities. His colony, Pennsylvania, would need a capital that would not bring the horrors of European urban life to the shores of his New World experiment. Penn determined to design and to administer the city himself to prevent such an occurrence. He looked with disdain on London&apos;s crowded conditions and sought to prevent this by designing a city plan with streets wider than any major thoroughfare in London. Five major squares dotted the cityscape, and Penn hoped that each dweller would have a family garden. He distributed land in large plots to encourage a low population density. This, he thought, would be the perfect combination of city and country. In 1681, he made it happen. Penn&apos;s selection of a site was most careful. PHILADELPHIA is situated at the confluence of the SCHUYLKILL and DELAWARE RIVERS. He hoped that the Delaware would supply the needed outlet to the Atlantic and that the Schuylkill would be the needed artery into the interior of Pennsylvania. This choice turned out to be controversial. The proprietors of Maryland claimed that Penn&apos;s new city lay within the boundaries of Maryland. Penn returned to England to defend his town many times. Eventually the issue would be decided on the eve of the Revolution by the drawing of the famed MASON-DIXON LINE. With Penn promoting religious toleration, people of many different faiths came to Philadelphia. The Quakers may have been tolerant of religious differences, but were fairly uncompromising with moral digressions. It was illegal to tell lies in conversation and even to perform stage plays. Cards and dice were forbidden. Upholding the city&apos;s moral code was taken very seriously. This code did not extend to chattel slavery. In the early days, slavery was commonplace in the streets of Philadelphia. William Penn himself was a slaveholder. Although the first antislavery society in the colonies would eventually be founded by Quakers, the early days were not free of the curse of human bondage. Early Philadelphia had its ups and downs. William Penn spent only about four years of his life in Pennsylvania. In his absence, Philadelphians quibbled about many issues. At one point, Penn appointed a former soldier, JOHN BLACKWELL, to bring discipline to town government. Still, before long Philadelphia prospered as a trading center. Within twenty years, it was the third largest city, behind Boston and New York. A century later it would emerge as the new nation&apos;s largest city, first capital, and cradle of the Liberty Bell, Declaration of Independence, and Constitution.
When John Winthrop died in the middle of the 17th century, there were two principal regions in the mainland colonies: New England and the Chesapeake. A century later, there were two additional ones: the Middle Atlantic colonies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New Jersey, as well as Delaware; and the Lower Southern colonies of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. The key characteristic of this colonial society was growth: a phenomenal increase in wealth and people. In Ben Franklin&apos;s day, America experienced its first population explosion. In 1700, approximately 250,000 Europeans and African-Americans lived in the colonies. By 1775, that number had risen to two and half million. The people of the American colonies multiplied more rapidly than almost any other society in recorded history. And these colonists far out-numbered the French and Spanish colonists of North America. By the time of the American Revolution, the Spanish border settlements of Florida and New Mexico were thinly populated outposts of empire. The largest of the two, New Mexico, had only about 20,000 settlers. New France, or Canada, at the same time had over 70,000 people. These numbers tell who would control the continent. This population boom was fed by two sources: natural increase (Franklin himself was one of 17 children), and immigration. English people continued to pour in, but new people came from all over Europe, and chiefly from Germany, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Yet the largest group of migrants in the 18th century were Africans, about 278,000 of them. The movement of Africans to the Americas was the largest forced migration in world history.
Note European Divine Right, Absolute Monarchy, Heredity Rule and Class Division , Guided Gentry, Aristocracy
How were American forces able to prevail in the Revolutionary War? Apotheosis - the highest point in the development of something; culmination or climax. &quot;his appearance as Hamlet was the apotheosis of his career&quot;
Indigenous and Indentured labor source was undependable. Plantation In the four centuries of the slave trade, slavers transported an estimated 11 million Africans to North and South America, about 600,000 of them to British North America. Most slaves were captured in the African interior by raiding parties from more powerful tribes along the coast, and were taken on forced marches to coastal trading forts run by Europeans. There they were inspected by ship captains in the holds of dungeons or in open pits. Those selected for transport were branded, chained together, and rowed out to awaiting slave ships, where they were packed below deck in spaces with no more breathing room than a coffin. Olaudah Equiano, an Ibo tribesmen from what is now Nigeria, was kidnapped and enslaved when he was only 11 years old. And he lived to write an account of one of these slave ships. Under the deck, the groans of the dying, the screams of children who had fallen into open latrines, and the vile stench of vomit and feces combined to create what Equiano described as a scene of horror &quot;almost inconceivable.&quot; As Equiano&apos;s ship headed for open sea, a great moan went up from the slaves, who feared they were being taken to the homelands of the bearded monsters to be boiled in water and eaten. As they reached the port of destination, the surviving human cargo was prepared for sale. If slaves had been flogged, their open wounds were disguised by filling them with black tar. Some ship surgeons plugged the rectums of slaves with clumps of hemp fiber to prevent buyers from noticing the bloody discharges that indicated they were dying from dysentery. Equiano was purchased in Charleston, South Carolina and taken to a tobacco farm in Virginia, there he was unable to communicate with his fellow slaves from other areas of Africa. He was part of the Africanization of the Chesapeake labor force. But had he not been resold to a visiting naval officer, and eventually freed, he might have married an African-American woman and been a member of the first generation of slaves in the North American Hemisphere to increase its size by procreation
Two by two the men and women were forced beneath deck into the bowels of the slave ship. The &quot;packing&quot; was done as efficiently as possible. The captives lay down on unfinished planking with virtually no room to move or breathe. Elbows and wrists will be scraped to the bone by the motion of the rough seas. Some will die of disease, some of starvation, and some simply of despair. This was the fate of millions of West Africans across three and a half centuries of the slave trade on the voyage known as the &quot;middle passage.&quot; Two philosophies dominated the loading of a slave ship. &quot;LOOSE PACKING&quot; provided for fewer slaves per ship in the hopes that a greater percentage of the cargo would arrive alive. &quot;TIGHT PACKING&quot; captains believed that more slaves, despite higher casualties, would yield a greater profit at the trading block. Doctors would inspect the slaves before purchase from the African trader to determine which individuals would most likely survive the voyage. In return, the traders would receive guns, gunpowder, rum or other sprits, textiles or trinkets. Slaves were fed twice daily and some captains made vain attempts to clean the hold at this time. Air holes were cut into the deck to allow the slaves breathing air, but these were closed in stormy conditions. The bodies of the dead were simply thrust overboard. And yes, there were uprisings.
Slaves did not accept their fate without protest. Many instances of REBELLION were known to Americans, even in colonial times. These rebellions were not confined to the South. In fact, one of the earliest examples of a slave UPRISING was in 1712 in Manhattan. As African Americans in the colonies grew greater and greater in number, there was a justifiable paranoia on the part of the white settlers that a violent rebellion could occur in one&apos;s own neighborhood. It was this fear of rebellion that led each colony to pass a series of laws restricting slaves&apos; behaviors. The laws were known as SLAVE CODES. Legally considered property, slaves were not allowed to own property of their own. They were not allowed to assemble without the presence of a white person. Slaves that lived off the plantation were subject to special curfews. It was illegal to teach a slave to read or write. Religious motives sometimes prevailed, however, as many devout white Christians educated slaves to enable the reading of the Bible. These same Christians did not recognize marriage between slaves in their laws. This made it easier to justify the breakup of families by selling one if its members to another owner. As time passed and the numbers of African Americans in the New World increased, so did the fears of their white captors. With each new rebellion, the slave codes became ever more strict, further abridging the already limited rights and privileges this oppressed people might hope to enjoy.
The roots of democratic ideals on public space can be traced to the elevated rocky outcropping in ancient Greece called the Pnyx where Athenians practiced the earliest forms of “equal speech” they termed isègoria.14 The right of citizens to use spatial zones for dissent holds an undeniable importance in democracy and against authoritarian rule. As Western society emerged from feudalism into a commercial driven capitalist state a “public sphere” was created by the bourgeois middle class according to historian Jürgen Habermas. This “public sphere” or “body politic” served to represent and protect the economic mercantilists from absolutist rulers. Habermas then contends that the public sphere evolved into an indispensible forum for citizens to rationally discuss problems between the state and public welfare in an atmosphere free of restrictions.
Proponents of spatial justice believe that citizens have a “right to their city” for self-expression, socialization, and dissent that is distinct from property rights. The popular struggle to realize the use of public spaces for such rights often times face restrictions from conservatism and local authorities who view spatial self-expression as threatening. As urban scholar Don Mitchell asserts, the idea of public space has never been guaranteed, [but] has only been won through concerted struggle.”21 Furthermore, this struggle for self-expression and discourse within spatial networks “is the only way the right to public space can be maintained and that social justice can be advanced.”22 Only through direct activism to inhabit spatial networks do they become public spheres for group empowerment, effectually eliciting a synergy between participatory members and the space they occupy. For the purpose of this study, this effect is referred to as “spatial empowerment.”23 Those who use the park become “guardians of public space” – they appropriate the space and in doing so negotiate control with other agencies. These empowered human agencies produce spatial networks that, in the case of our democratic society, discover their locus of power.24 During the mid-sixties young Angelenos began to discover their relationship to the places where they congregated to express themselves against the tides of a conservative establishment and in the process emerged as vibrant community within the vast Los Angeles society.
No democracy has existed in the modern world without the existence of a FREE PRESS. Newspapers and pamphlets allow for the exchange of ideas and for the voicing of dissent. When a corrupt government holds power, the press becomes a critical weapon. It organizes opposition and can help revolutionary ideas spread. The trial ofJOHN PETER ZENGER, a New York printer, was an important step toward this most precious freedom for American colonists. .. It accused the government of rigging elections and allowing the French enemy to explore New York harbor. It accused the governor of an assortment of crimes and basically labeled him an idiot. Although Zenger merely printed the articles, he was hauled into jail. The authors were anonymous, and Zenger would not name them. In 1733,, a legal term whose meaning is quite different for us today than it was for him. In his day it was libel when you published information that was opposed to the government. Truth or falsity were irrelevant. He never denied printing the pieces. The judge therefore felt that the verdict was never in question. Something very surprising happened, however. The first jury was packed with individuals on Cosby&apos;s payroll. Throughout this process, Zenger&apos;s wife Anna kept the presses rolling. Her reports resulted in replacing Cosby&apos;s jury with a true jury of Zenger&apos;s peers. When the trial began and Zenger&apos;s new attorney began his defense, a stir fluttered through the courtroom. The most famous lawyer in the colonies,ANDREW HAMILTON of Philadelphia, stepped up to defend Zenger. Hamilton admitted that Zenger printed the charges and demanded the prosecution to prove them false. Cheers filled the courtroom and soon spread throughout the countryside. Zenger and Hamilton were hailed as heroes. Another building block of liberty was in place. Although true freedom of the press was not known until the passage of the FIRST AMENDMENT, newspaper publishers felt freer to print their honest views. As the American Revolution approached, this freedom would become ever more vital.
The AGE OF REASON, as it was called, was spreading rapidly across Europe. In the late 17th century, scientists like ISAAC NEWTON and writers like JOHN LOCKEwere challenging the old order. Newton&apos;s laws of gravity and motion described the world in terms of natural laws beyond any spiritual force. In the wake of political turmoil in England, Locke asserted the right of a people to change a government that did not protect natural rights of life, liberty and property. People were beginning to doubt the existence of a God who could predestine human beings to eternal damnation and empower a tyrant for a king. Europe would be forever changed by these ideas. New ideas shaped political attitudes as well. John Locke defended the displacement of a monarch who would not protect the lives, liberties, and property of the English people. JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAUstated that society should be ruled by the &quot;general will&quot; of the people.BARON DE MONTESQUIEU declared that power should not be concentrated in the hands of any one individual. He recommended separating power among executive, legislative, judicial branches of government. American intellectuals began to absorb these ideas. The old way of life was represented by superstition, an angry God, and absolute submission to authority. The thinkers of the Age of Reason ushered in a new way of thinking. This new way championed the accomplishments of humankind. Individuals did not have to accept despair. Science and reason could bring happiness and progress. Kings did not rule by divine right. They had an obligation to their subjects. Europeans pondered the implications for nearly a century. Americans put them into practice first.
Not all American ministers were swept up by the Age of Reason. In the 1730s, a religious revival swept through the British American colonies. JONATHAN EDWARDS, the Yale minister who refused to convert to the Church of England, became concerned that New Englanders were becoming far too concerned with worldly matters. It seemed to him that people found the pursuit of wealth to be more important than John Calvin&apos;s religious principles. Some were even beginning to suggest that predestination was wrong and that good works might save a soul. Edwards barked out from the pulpit against these notions. &quot;God was an angry judge, and humans were sinners!&quot; he declared. He spoke with such fury and conviction that people flocked to listen. This sparked what became known as the GREAT AWAKENING in the American colonies. GEORGE WHITEFIELD was a minister from Britain who toured the American colonies. An actor by training, he would shout the word of God, weep with sorrow, and tremble with passion as he delivered his sermons. Colonists flocked by the thousands to hear him speak. He converted slaves and even a few Native Americans. Even religious skeptic Benjamin Franklin emptied his coin purse after hearing him speak in Philadelphia. Soon much of America became divided. Awakening, or NEW LIGHT, preachers set up their own schools and churches throughout the colonies. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY was one such school. TheOLD LIGHT ministers refused to accept this new style of worship. Despite the conflict, one surprising result was greater religious toleration. With so many new denominations, it was clear that no one religion would dominate any region. Although the Great Awakening was a reaction against the Enlightenment, it was also a long term cause of the Revolution. Before, ministers represented an upper class of sorts. Awakening ministers were not always ordained, breaking down respect for betters. The new faiths that emerged were much more democratic in their approach. The overall message was one of greater equality. The Great Awakening was also a &quot;national&quot; occurrence. It was the first major event that all the colonies could share, helping to break down differences between them.
Revenue Act of 1762 in an attempt to halt bribery as routinely practiced by colonists circumventing the Molasses Act. To do so, the Revenue Act dispensed with absentee customs officials who, rather than collecting duties on site, resided in England and relied on deputies susceptible to corruption. The measure was part of a larger effort to block colonial trade with the French Sugar Islands, since many colonists were undeterred by the war and continued their lucrative trade with French possessions. The British government also encouraged the Royal navy to apprehend and detain smugglers. Customs officials became more aggressive in using search warrants, called &quot;writs of assistance&quot; to track down smuggled goods. A young Boston attorney, James Otis, assailed such writs as contrary to the British constitution and beyond the Power of Parliament to administer. By the mid-1760s, however, the custom service collected more than £30,000 a year in duties. During the era of salutary neglect, the figure amounted to only £2,000 annually.Adams claimed that &quot;the child independence was then and there born,[for] every man of an immense crowded audience appeared to me to go away as I did, ready to take arms against writs of assistance.&quot; In fact, his challenge to the authority of Parliament made a strong impression on John Adams, who was present, and thereby eventually contributed to the American Revolution. In a pamphlet published three years later, in 1765, Otis expanded his argument that the general writs violated the British constitution harkening back to the Magna Carta.
The Delaware prophet Neolin urged all Indians to free themselves of white ways of alcohol, clothing, religon, All Indians were a single people and must be united to defeat the British and colonists.
started to control the colonists more Proclamation Line of 1763: no colonists west of Appalachian Mtns. 10,000 British troops sent to guard line; colonists to pay 1/3 of cost Colonists angry - want farm land! Colonists contributed both money and blood for British victory
The prevailing idea that American born citizens were Freeborn Englishmen never was accepted by King and Parliament which looked upon the colonists as second class distant British subjects whose only purpose was to serve the Mother Country.
1760 King George III became King of England.
Refer to photo of Samuel Adams, p. 157. It was James Otis who suggested an intercolonial conference to agree on a united course of action. With that, the STAMP ACT CONGRESS convened in New York in October 1765. Benjamin Franklin to speak to Parliament about colonial policy and he portrayed the colonists as in opposition to internal taxes (which were derived from internal colonial transactions) such as the Stamp Act called for, but not external taxes (which were duties laid on imported commodities). Parliament then agreed to repeal the Stamp Act on the condition that the Declaratory Act was passed. On March 18, 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and passed the Declaratory Ac
GB’s national debt doubled after FrIndWar Englishmen pay 20% in taxes Colonists only paid taxes on imported goods Lots of smuggling to avoid taxes Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts 10 years of new taxes 1764-1774
The Declaratory Act proclaimed that Parliament &quot;had hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America ... in all cases whatsoever&quot;. The phrasing of the act was intentionally unambiguous. In other words, the Declaratory Act of 1766 asserted that Parliament had the absolute power to make laws and changes to the colonial government, &quot;in all cases whatsoever&quot;, even though the colonists were not represented in the Parliament.
This act proclaimed Parliament&apos;s ability &quot;to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever.&quot; The message was clear: under no circumstances did Parliament abandon in principle its right to legislate for the 13 colonies. The tighter the British grip grew, the more widespread was the resistance. By 1769, British merchants began to feel the sting of nonimportation. In April 1770, news of a partial repeal — the tax on tea was maintained — reached America&apos;s shores. The second compromise came at a high price. It was reached only after a military occupation of Boston and the ensuing Boston Massacre. The Ties that Bind Townshend had ulterior motives, however. The revenue from these duties would now be used to pay the salaries of colonial governors. This was not an insignificant change. Traditionally, the legislatures of the colonies held the authority to pay the governors. It was not uncommon for a governor&apos;s salary to be withheld if the legislature became dissatisfied with any particular decision. The legislature could, in effect, blackmail the governor into submission. Once this important leverage was removed, the governors could be freer to oppose the assemblies.
The arguments set forth in this way were at times very convincing. American patriots of the 1770s did not have modern means of communication at their disposal. To spread the power of the written word from town to town and colony to colony,COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE were established. The first such committee was organized by none other than Samuel Adams. Working with rural patriots, Adams enabled the entire Massachusetts citizenry to have access to patriot text. In fact, Adams knew that the residents of the seacoast towns were more informed of each crisis than those of the interior. The spread of these committees across urban centers happened quickly. Adams and others urged the establishment of correspondence committees in rural inland towns as well. The Committees of Correspondence were bold enough to use the British postal service as the means of communication. For the most part, the pen was their weapon of choice, but revolutionary sentiment did at times take other forms. For example the Committee of Correspondence in Boston gave its blessing on the raiding of the Dartmouth and the destruction of its cargo that became known as the BOSTON TEA PARTY.
During the Stamp Act debate, many colonial commentators, including Ben Franklin, had attempted to delineate the spheres of influence between Parliament and local legislatures by distinguishing &quot;external&quot; from &quot;internal&quot; taxation. This distinction collapsed once the colonists realized that Townshend’s &quot;external&quot; taxes on imports, rather than regulating commerce, strove to raise revenue much like the &quot;internal&quot; Stamp Act had. The fact that the duties imposed were moderate did not mollify the critics. Their supposedly innocuous nature, argued John Dickinson in Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania, masked the true perniciousness of the taxes:&quot;Nothing is wanted at home but a PRECEDENT, the force of which shall be established by the tacit submission of the colonies . . . IF Parliament succeeds in this attempt, other statutes will impose sums of money as they choose to take, without any other LIMITATION than their PLEASURE.&quot;The Sons of Liberty and other colonial leaders resorted once more to anon-importation/non-consumption strategy to coerce Parliament into repealing the Townshend Act. Though embraced less rapidly than in 1765, the boycott took hold throughout the colonies. By 1769, colonial exports exceeded imports by over £800,000.
Trial and Error No colony was thrilled with the Townshend duties, but nowhere was there greater resentment than in Boston. British officials in Boston feared for their lives. When attempts were made to seize two of John Hancock&apos;s trading vessels, Boston was ready to riot. LORD HILLSBOROUGH, Parliament&apos;s minister on American affairs, finally ordered four regiments to be moved to Boston. Samuel Adams and James Otis did not take this lightly. Less than three weeks prior to the arrival of British troops, Bostonians defiantly, but nervously, assembled in FANEUIL HALL. But when the redcoats marched boldly through the town streets on October 1, the only resistance seen was on the facial expressions of the townspeople. The people of Boston had decided to show restraint. The other 12 colonies watched the Boston proceedings with great interest. Perhaps their fears about British tyranny were true. Moderates found it difficult to argue that the Crown was not interested in stripping away American civil liberties by having a standing army stationed in Boston. Throughout the occupation, sentiment shifted further and further away from the London government. Henry Pelham Five men were killed in the incident known as the Boston Massacre. Among them was Crispus Attucks, a former slave. Captain Preston and four of his men were cleared of all charges in the trial that followed. Two others were convicted of manslaughter, but were sentenced to a mere branding of the thumb. The lawyer who represented the British soldiers was none other than patriot John Adams. At the same time Preston&apos;s men drew blood in Boston, the Parliament in London decided once again to concede on the issue of taxation. All the Townshend duties were repealed save one, the tax on tea. It proved to another error in judgment on the part of the British. The Massachusetts legislature was reconvened. Despite calls by some to continue the tea boycott until all taxes were repealed, most American colonists resumed importation. The events in Boston from 1768 through 1770 were not soon forgotten. Legal squabbles were one thing, but bloodshed was another. Despite the verdict of the soldiers&apos; trial, Americans did not forget the lesson they had learned from this experience.
The colonists saw through this thinly veiled plot to encourage tax payment. Furthermore, they wondered how long the monopoly would keep prices low. Activists were busy again, advocating boycott. Many went further. British ships carrying the controversial cargo were met with threats of violence in virtually all colonial ports. This was usually sufficient to convince the ships to turn around. In Annapolis, citizens burned a ship and the tea it carried. The damage in modern American dollars exceeded three quarters of a million dollars. Not a single British East India Company chest of tea bound for the 13 colonies reached its destination.
What do you do if you fail as a storekeeper and farmer? Become a lawyer! That&apos;s what Patrick Henry did. By the time he became a member of the First Continental Congress, Henry was known as a great orator. This time participation was better. Only Georgia withheld a delegation. The representatives from each colony were often selected by almost arbitrary means, as the election of such representatives was illegal. Still, the natural leaders of the colonies managed to be selected. Sam and John Adams from Massachusetts were present, as was John Dickinson from Pennsylvania. Virginia selected Richard Henry Lee, George Washington, and Patrick Henry. It took seven weeks for the country&apos;s future heroes to agree on a course of action.
Britain&apos;s General Gage had a secret plan. During the wee hours of April 19, 1775, he would send out regiments of British soldiers quartered in Boston. Their destinations were LEXINGTON, where they would capture Colonial leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock, then CONCORD, where they would seize gunpowder. But spies and friends of the Americans leaked word of Gage&apos;s plan. Two lanterns hanging from Boston&apos;s North Church informed the countryside that the British were going to attack by sea. A series of horseback riders — men such as Paul Revere, WILLIAM DAWES and DR. SAMUEL PRESCOTT — galloped off to warn the countryside that the REGULARS (British troops) were coming. Sure enough, when the advance guard of nearly 240 British soldiers arrived in Lexington, they found about 70 minutemen formed on the LEXINGTON GREEN awaiting them. Both sides eyed each other warily, not knowing what to expect. Suddenly, a bullet buzzed through the morning air. It was &quot;the shot heard round the world.“ The numerically superior British killed seven Americans on Lexington Green and marched off to Concord with new regiments who had joined them. But American militias arriving at Concord thwarted the British advance. As the British retreated toward Boston, new waves of Colonial militia intercepted them. Shooting from behind fences and trees, the militias inflicted over 125 casualties, including several officers. The ferocity of the encounter surprised both sides.
The questions were different this time. First and foremost, how would the colonist meet the military threat of the British. It was agreed that aCONTINENTAL ARMY would be created. The Congress commissioned George Washington of Virginia to be the supreme commander, who chose to serve without pay. How would supplies be paid for? The Congress authorized the printing of money. Before the leaves had turned, Congress had even appointed a standing committee to conduct relations with foreign governments, should the need ever arise to ask for help. No longer was the Congress dealing with mere grievances. It was a full-fledged governing body. that July Congress approved theOLIVE BRANCH PETITION, a direct appeal to the king. The American delegates pleaded with George III to attempt peaceful resolution and declared their loyalty to the Crown. The King refused to receive this petition and instead declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion in August. Insult turned to injury when George ordered the hiring of HESSIAN mercenaries to bring the colonists under control. Americans now felt less and less like their English brethren. How could their fellow citizens order a band of ruthless, foreign goons? The moderate voice in the Continental Congress was dealt a serious blow. As the seasons changed and hostilities continued, cries for independence grew stronger. The men in Philadelphia were now wanted for treason. They continued to govern and hope against hope that all would end well. For them, the summer of 1776 brought the point of no return — a formal declaration of independence.
Colonial society was based on inequality and obedience to authority. How did the American Revolution challenge the existing order in society? What were the most important features of the new state constitutions? What role did the founders foresee for religion in American government and society? How did the institution of slavery begin to become the most prominent contradiction following the American Revolution? How did the sacred view of property rights prevent women and slaves from enjoying all the freedoms of the social contract? What was “republican motherhood” and why was it significant?
Why should tiny England rule the vastness of a continent? How can colonists expect to gain foreign support while still professing loyalty to the British king? How much longer can Americans stand for the repeated abuses of the Crown?
The current thought is that about 20 percent of the colonists wereLOYALISTS — those whose remained loyal to England and King George. Another small group in terms of percentage were the dedicated PATRIOTS, for whom there was no alternative but independence. On the Fence Often overlooked are the fence-sitters who made up the largest group. With so many Americans undecided, the war became in great measure a battle to win popular support. If the patriots could succeed in selling their ideas of revolution to the public, then popular support might follow and the British would be doomed. Patriots subjected Loyalists to public humiliation and violence. Many Loyalists found their property vandalized, looted, and burned. The patriots controlled public discourse. Woe to the citizen who publicly proclaimed sympathy to Britain. Families were sometimes divided over the revolution. Benjamin Franklin&apos;s son, William, a Loyalist governor of New Jersey, supported the British effort during the war. What Happened to the Loyalists? In the end, many Loyalists simply left America. About 80,000 of them fled to Canada or Britain during or just after the war. Because Loyalists were often wealthy, educated, older, and Anglican, the American social fabric was altered by their departure. American history brands them as traitors. But most were just trying to maintain the lifestyles to which they had become accustomed. After all, history is always written by the winners. Most people in America had a working knowledge of the Bible, so his arguments rang true. Paine was not religious, but he knew his readers were. King George was &quot;the Pharaoh of England&quot; and &quot;the Royal Brute of Great Britain.&quot; He touched a nerve in the American countryside.
They celebrated independence by shouting &quot;huzzah,&quot; shooting off canons, and watching militia companies parade. Crowds tore down or destroyed symbols of royalty on taverns and public buildings. In New York, people pulled a bronze statue of George III from its pedestal and sent it off to Connecticut, where patriotic women melted the statue down and used the metal to make bullets. When Americans of 1776 cited the Declaration of Independence, they quoted the last paragraph, the one in which Congress declared that &quot;these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.&quot; Little attention, indeed, so far as I can tell, none at all, was given to the document&apos;s second paragraph, which began: &quot;We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.&quot; Those ideas were expressed in many other contemporary writings. But only the Declaration announced American independence.
&quot;When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature&apos;s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.&quot;
The New World finally embodied a spirit of faith in the best of humanity where citizens were unburdened by the Old World institutions of monarchy, aristocracy, and heredity privilege. (Foner, 199) Paine: “We have it in our power to begin the world over again,” and added “as an asylum for mankind.” Madison: “the workshop of liberty to the Civilized World.” &gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;&gt;This ideal of equality has certainly influenced the course of American history. Early women&apos;s rights activists at SENECA FALLS in 1848 modeled their &quot;DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS&quot; in precisely the same terms as the Declaration of Independence. &quot;We hold these truths to be self-evident,&quot; they said, &quot;that all men and women are created equal.&quot; Similarly, the African-American anti-slavery activist DAVID WALKER challenged white Americans in 1829 to &quot;See your Declaration Americans!!! Do you understand your own language?&quot; Walker dared America to live up to its self-proclaimed ideals. If all men were created equal, then why was slavery legal? The ideal of full human equality has been a major legacy (and ongoing challenge) of the Declaration of Independence. But the signers of 1776 did not have quite that radical an agenda. The possibility for sweeping social changes was certainly discussed in 1776. For instance, ABIGAIL ADAMS suggested to her husband John Adams that in the &quot;new Code of Laws&quot; that he helped draft at the Continental Congress, he should, &quot;Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favorable to them.&quot; It didn&apos;t work out that way.
Culper Spy Ring “The Culper Spy Ring was assembled in 1778 by Major Benjamin Tallmadge (alias: John Bolton) at the request of General George Washington and operated on Long Island and New York City during the Revolutionary War. Robert Townsend (alias: Samuel Culper, Jr.) gathered intelligence in British occupied New York City by Abraham Woodhull (alias: Samuel Culper, Sr.). It was then passed to Austin Roe for transportation to Setauket, Long Island. Once in Setauket, the intelligence was carried across the sound by Caleb Brewster to Major Tallmadge in Connecticut. Washington thought highly of Townsend’s reports, according to letters he later wrote to Tallmadge. Although the British captured a Washington letter to spy Abraham Woodhull that referred to “Culper,” they never figured out his identity and Townsend took his secret with him to the grave in 1838. His double life remained a secret until the 20th century when Long Island historian Morton Pennypacker sought to match the handwriting in “Culper Jr’s” letters to Washington with the script contained in ledgers and other documents found in Oyster Bay, belonging to an obscure New York and Long Island merchant, who turned out to be Townsend. Pennypacker retained the services of graphologist Albert S. Osborn to make this determination. This discovery by Pennypacker was first announced at a meeting of the New York State Historical Society on September 27, 1930, when he read a paper that he prepared on Nathan Hale and Robert Townsend” (source: The New York Times, September 28, 1930)
Benjamin Tallmadge Benjamin Tallmadge (1754-1835) acted as principal director of George Washington&apos;s secret service from 1778-1783, after the death of Nathan Hale. He won distinction as a field officer, notably at the capture of Fort St. George, Long Island, in 1780. With his leadership, Washington was able to create a strong and successful chain of spies throughout the New York area, beginning the secret service in America. These agents, primarily the Culper Gang, gathered countless amounts of information for Washington, which greatly aided in winning the war. In the summer of 1778, his dragoons were assigned under Brigadier General Charles Scott, who was Washington&apos;s intelligence chief. Tallmadge&apos;s new job was to recruit intelligence sources throughout the Connecticut and New York area. He contacted old friends from Long Island and New York City, gradually forming the Culper ring. When Charles Scott had to go home because of family problems in the Fall of 1778, Tallmadge was promoted once again and began to report directly to Washington. Tallmadge is now remembered as one of the founders of the first organized espionage operations in America. He developed a numerical substitution code that effectively withstood British attempts to decipher it. After his successful career during the war, he was elected to Congress, where he served eight terms. Caleb Brewster Caleb Brewster was perhaps the most bold and daring of the Culper Spy Ring spies. He was the only one of the group that the British had definitely identified as a spy. When the Revolutionary War broke out, he immediately enlisted in the local militia. After the Battle of Long Island he joined the Continental Army with the rank of a lieutenant of artillery. He returned to Setauket in August of 1777 as part of the attacking force from Connecticut that fought in the Battle of Setauket. In November 1780 he was one of the officers under Major Benjamin Tallmadge who captured Fort St. George at Mastic. They returned to Connecticut with the entire complement of the fort captured. In spite of his service designation, his task throughout the war was to command a fleet of whale boats operating from the Connecticut shore against British and Tory shipping on Long Island Sound [known as the &quot;Devil&apos;s Belt&quot;]. This, together with his knowledge of the Long Island shoreline, and his boyhood association with Benjamin Tallmadge, made him an ideal choice to carry intelligence back and forth across the Sound. Brewster made numerous trips with his Whaleboat Navy; into Long Island Sound to attack British shipping; and across to Setauket to bring messages back for Major Benjamin Tallmadge to deliver to General Washington.
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer specialist, former employee of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and former contractor for the National Security Agency (NSA). He came to international attention when he disclosed thousands of classified documents to several media outlets. The leaked documents revealed operational details of global surveillance programs run by the NSA and the other Five Eyes governments of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, with the cooperation of a number of businesses and European governments. Espionage Intelligence gathering National defense Public Sphere Civil Liberties Government accountability
Thereafter the American cause was primarily defended not by men defending their homes and families, as at Lexington and Concord, but by young, single men, both white and black, with little if any property. Militiamen sometimes supported the Continental Army, as at Saratoga, New York, where they gathered from all over New England to stop an invasion from Canada under the British general &quot;Gentleman Johnny&quot; Burgoyne in October 1777. The victory at Saratoga gave the signal for France, which was hesitant to join the United States in a losing war, to negotiate an alliance with the Americans. That tipped the odds against Britain. Thereafter, Britain concentrated its attention on the South, where it set off a brutish, bloody civil war. Finally, the British commander, Lord Charles Cornwallis, turned east and settled in at Yorktown, Virginia, on the Chesapeake Bay, waiting for supplies and reinforcements. Washington and a large body of French troops moved in and mounted a siege while the French fleet prevented the British from rescuing Cornwallis. On October 18, some three years after Saratoga, Cornwallis surrendered. When the British minister learned the news, he exclaimed, &quot;Oh God, it is all over.&quot; And so another group of negotiators gathered in Paris. The Americans, including the wily Benjamin Franklin and honest John Adams, won extraordinarily favorable terms. The trans-Appalachian west became part of the United States, along with all the land between Canada and the northern border of Florida. And Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation. Not 1763, but 1776 turned out to mark the great watershed in American history. How would life be different on the other side of that great divide? Now, at least, the Americans could decide that themselves.
Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. Along with the patriotic nature of The American Crisis, it displayed Paine&apos;s strong deist beliefs, inciting the laity with suggestions that the British are trying to assume powers that only God should have. Paine sees the British political and military maneuvers in America as &quot;impious; for so unlimited a power can belong only to God.&quot; Paine states that he believes God supports the American cause, &quot;that God Almighty will not give up a people to military destruction, or leave them unsupportedly to perish, who have so earnestly and so repeatedly sought to avoid thecalamities of war, by every decent method which wisdom could invent&quot;. Paine takes great lengths to state that Americans do not lack force, but &quot;a proper application of that force&quot; - implying throughout that an extended war can lead only to defeat unless a stable army was composed not of militia but of trained professionals. But Paine maintains a positive view overall, hoping that this American crisis can be quickly resolved, &quot;for though the flame of liberty may sometimes cease to shine, the coal can never expire.“ Common Sense The American Crisis Rights of Man The Age of Reason Agrarian Justice
Smith‟s first book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), approached the world from a different perspective. He maintained that moral sentiments go beyond a calculation of self-interest. People desire the favorable opinion of others and will therefore modify their behavior and values in response to what they see as admirable in others. Smith believed these virtues were sincere, and that in many cases virtue may be its own reward. Adam Smith was a humble person, but widely admired. Late in his life he met with Prime Minister William Pitt and other prominent people in London. Everyone stood as Smith entered the room. An embarrassed Smith asked everyone to be seated. “ „No,‟ replied Pitt, „we will stand until you are first seated, for we are all your scholars‟” Big Idea Adam Smith was an optimistic philosopher who believed that people should have the freedom to think for themselves. Ask: “Is self-interest the same thing as greed? Was Gordon Gekko right?” &quot;No one can serve two masters. Either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and Money.&quot; Matthew 6:24 Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.&apos;&quot;-Matthew 19:23-24 Tell the students that Smith would be horrified by Gekko‟s comments. Smith wrote of many values, including love and altruism. He felt that strong ethics were necessary for a market to function. Greed is an excessive desire for more money and is not a virtue. Prudence and rational self-interest are virtues. In fact, markets promote prudence and not greed. In a market economy, people earn money by helping others. Because market transactions are voluntary, people can Many of The Founding Fathers like Jefferson believed in the moral capacity of men to act on their conscience. However, men like Adams believed men are basically selfish left upon their free will and that governments must be strong to prevent anarchy and turmoil. See French Revolution
The British army under Cornwallis marched to Yorktown, Virginia where they expected to be rescued by a British fleet. The fleet showed up but so did a larger French fleet, so the British fleet after the Battle of the Chesapeake returned to New York for reinforcements, leaving Cornwallis trapped. In October 1781 under a combined siege by the French and Continental armies under Washington, the British surrendered their second invading army of the war. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and JOHN JAY met with the British in the hopes of securing a peace treaty. The Americans played off European rivalries to reach a most favorable agreement.
The peace treaty with Britain, known as the Treaty of Paris, gave the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, though not including Florida (On September 3, 1783, Britain entered into a separate agreement with Spain under which Britain ceded Florida back to Spain.) The British abandoned the Indian allies living in this region; they were not a party to this treaty and did not recognize it until they were defeated militarily by the United States. Issues regarding boundaries and debts were not resolved until the Jay Treaty of 1795. Since the blockade was lifted and the old imperial restrictions were gone, American merchants were free to trade with any nation anywhere in the world, and their businesses flourished.
More than 25,000 American Revolutionaries died during active military service. About 8,000 of these deaths were in battle; the other 17,000 recorded deaths were from disease, including about 8,000–12,000 who died of starvation or disease brought on by deplorable conditions while prisoners of war, most in rotting Britishprison ships in New York. This tally of deaths from disease is undoubtedly too low, however; 2,500 Americans died while encamped at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777–78 alone. The number of Revolutionaries seriously wounded or disabled by the war has been estimated from 8,500 to 25,000. The total American militarycasualty figure was therefore as high as 50,000
The machine was successful as it was considered a humane form of execution, contrasting with the methods used in pre-revolutionary, Ancien Régime France. In France, before the guillotine, members of thenobility were beheaded with a sword or axe, which typically took at least two blows to kill the condemned, while commoners were usually hanged, a form of death that could take minutes or longer. Other more gruesome methods of executions were also used, such as the wheel or burning at the stake. In the case of decapitation, it also sometimes took repeated blows to sever the head completely, and it was also very likely that the condemned would slowly bleed to death before the head could be fully severed. The condemned or their family would sometimes pay the executioner to ensure that the blade was sharp, to achieve a quick and relatively painless death. The guillotine was thus perceived to deliver an immediate death without risk of suffocation. Furthermore, having only one method of civil execution was seen as an expression of equality among citizens. The guillotine was then the only civil legal execution method in France until the abolition of the death penalty in 1981, apart from certain crimes against the security of the state, or for the death sentences passed by military courts, which entailed execution by firing squad
He said government is best at “draining money from the pockets of the people.” On the other hand, he said “Every tax, however, is to the person who pays it a badge, not of slavery, but of liberty.” Smith wanted limited government—a government that would protect people from violence, injustice, and oppression, and also erect and maintain public works. Throughout his writing Smith supported education. For the most part, however, he wanted government out of economic decisions; he thought the economy should be in the hands of consumers and businesses, which could make decisions better than government.) The invention of the cotton gin caused massive growth in the production of cotton in the United States, concentrated mostly in the South. Cotton production expanded from 750,000 bales in 1830 to 2.85 million bales in 1850. As a result, the South became even more dependent on plantations and slavery, with plantation agriculture becoming the largest sector of the Southern economy. While it took a single slave about ten hours to separate a single pound of fiber from the seeds, a team of two or three slaves using a cotton gin could produce around fifty pounds of cotton in just one day. The number of slaves rose in concert with the increase in cotton production, increasing from around 700,000 in 1790 to around 3.2 million in 1850. By 1860, the Southern states were providing two-thirds of the world’s supply of cotton, and up to 80% of the crucial British market. The cotton gin thus “transformed cotton as a crop and the American South into the globe&apos;s first agricultural powerhouse, and – according to many historians – was the start of the Industrial Revolution&quot; Whitney’s patent was never enforced and other companies began building their own improved versions of it…To offset debts and personal bankruptsy he invented a more efficient way to manufacture muskets using the concept of interchangeable parts and a assembly line….that increased the production of fire arm…
Glendale CC Spring 2014 H117 Unit 1 pp
Pueblo Indian Kachina Dolls
figure in this
identified as a
Traditionally, the allegedly afflicted girls are
said to have been entertained by Parris'
slave woman, Tituba, who supposedly taught
them about voodoo in the kitchen of the
parsonage during the winter of 1692
Research by Elaine Breslaw has suggested
that she may well have been captured in
what is now Venezuela and brought to
Barbados, and so may have been an
Ch. 2 Week 2 Day 1 Guiding Questions
1.Describe how the French and the Dutch explored and settled North America? Use the
Four W’s of History in your response.
1.Why did it take over century for the English to begin settling North America? What
were the religious, economic and military forces that pushed new immigrants to
1.Describe the fragile or perilous existence that marked both the settlement of
Jamestown and that of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
1.What were the connections and continuity that characterized the relationship towards
Native Indians by both the early Jamestown and Massachusetts Bay Colonies?
5.Identify the various military, political and religious leaders along with the tribal chiefs
who became prominent during this early settlement of Jamestown and the
Massachusetts Bay Colony.
5.Explain the differences that emerged between the southern colonies and the northern
colonies in terms of economic survival, community development and political
Cabeza de Vaca’s La
• November 1528
• A former Conquistador of
Pánfilo de Narváez, de Vaca became stranded on Galveston
Island with survivors who became captured by local native
Indians. Those who had been masters were now subjects.
• Cabeza de Vaca resorted to diplomacy, and probably
considerable prayer, in hopes that these Indians would take pity
and show mercy on his band of disparate former
• He and only three survivors (among them a black slave named
Estevan) were initially enslaved but gained their trust of the
Avavares people. For seven years they traveled through the
southwest developing a relationship and growing respect for the
idegenous Indians they had once thought as savages.
English Motives to
Move over to America
• Religious Freedom
The Early Emerging Character of America:
England “Swings” toward Two Regions
The Puritan leader, John Winthrop, in 1630 while on-board
the ship Arbella that was bound for the Massachusetts Bay
Colony, wrote out his goal of creating a society that could
become a "City upon a Hill" to describe the ideals to which
the colonists should strive, and that consequently "the eyes
of all people are upon us.”
Permanent English settlement in NA (Virginia’s
Chesapeake Bay region) 1607
2. Established by London Company granted by Charter
from King James I
3. Goal was Gold…Reality was mosquito laden swamp
wilderness for 104 Englishmen unprepared to be on
the “Last Survivor” more suited for “Total Loser”
4. If not for Chief Powhatan and the emerging
leadership of John Smith they would have replicated
tragic 1587 Roanoke colony
5. First years were filled with starvation, malaria, and
sporadic Indian attacks – the settlement finally
survived based on John Rolfe’s idea of giving up the
“Gold Life” and working the fertile land for tobacco.
The south emerges as a cash crop economy based
on slave labor.
Land Spreading so Far & Wide Keep Manhattan
Gimmme’ that “Indentured Fare”
1. Indentured Servitude was the original labor source
for the south.
2. For free passage to America, poor Englishmen
worked 5 – 7 years as forced labor on fields. No
freedom – but opportunity to own your own farm if
you survived. 40% of “IS” would not!!
3. Most women servants worked in the masters'
household, where many of them were sexually
4. Plantations were built some distance from one
another along the region's rivers. Planters set up
their own docks and storehouses and dealt directly
with overseas merchants
Massachusetts Bay Colony & The
1. Pilgrims fled England for
religious freedom in 1620.
Plymouth, Mass. Among
Separatist Radicals of Puritans
2. William Bradford initiated
Mayflower Compact as a written
guide for majority rule
3. John Winthrop became the
moral governor/leader of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony.
4. Winthrop was elected Governor
and sailed for New England in
5. He took the company charter
with him -- that's important --
insuring that the colony would be
Dissent Came Early to
1. Roger Williams
2. Forerunner of religious
toleration & secular
3. Ann Hutchinson (not
4. Christians can find God
through personal faith,
not through Puritan
5. Both were banished –
example of Puritan
Contradictions: Hill City
Needs to be Raised!! Ann Hutchinson defends herself
Conflict w/ Natives
King Philip's War of 1675-
1676 was a predictable
Indian rebellion against
continuing Puritan incursions
into Native American lands.
Though Indian attacks were
vicious, they were no more so
than those the Puritans had
waged with less provocation.
2. Metcomet (King Phillip) was
the Mohawk leader who
defended their homeland
3. The war was a disaster for
both sides, but especially so
for Indians, as the Colonists
used the war to remove even
some "Praying Indian"
communities. For each
Colonist killed, three or more
Indians died, if not from
bullets, then from starvation,
disease and exposure.
England Captures More of the $$
• England begins
to view colonial
• Enacts laws and
• Goal is 2 part:
threats & enrich
NA’s raw, rich,
William Penn & the
Quakers “Society of
• Pennsylvania Last
created in 1680
• Founded by
• True Holy
1. Based on Religious Toleration & Yet with High Moral Compliance
2. Affordable Land & Lenient Male Suffrage Qualifications
4. Healthy relations with Native Indians
5. Quakers were the first colonial group to fight for abolition of slavery
6. Quakers continued to influence many Americans into the 20th
Century with their
Today’s Focus Questions
1.What does Bacon’s Rebellion and King
Phillip’s War have to do with the 4th
2.Explain the concept of Mercantilism and why
it didn’t work out in the long run.
3.How did Hector St. Crevecoeur and Benjamin
Franklin view an emerging American Identity?
4.What were the conditions of the Slave Trade
and the forced labor economy that emerged in
5.Why was the Great Awakening a Wake up call
6.What were was influence of the public sphere
on American colonial spatial empowerment?
The Astronomer by Johannes Vermeer 1668
Defined: An intellectual movement that
began during the Renaissance (16th
Century) that attempted to discover
solutions to humanity and mysteries
of our universe by using reason and
the scientific method.
Impact: Challenged how European
society viewed human relations
between the church and state so that
freedom and legal rights emerged as
vital liberties among citizens.
John Locke: All humans are born with
natural rights that are inalienable &
that governments are created by the
consent of those governed to protect
these natural rights of life, liberty and
property. Social Compact (1690)
Right of Dissent: If governments break
the social contract the governed have
the right to overthrow them.
English Bill of Rights (1689)
Followed the Glorious Revolution
This document forbid the monarchy from:
1. SUSPENDING OR PASSING LAWS &
RAISING TAXES WITHOUT
2. GUARANTEED THE RIGHT TO A FAIR &
3. FORBID CRUEL & UNUSUAL
1. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon(not Kevin
Bacon) led the first organized
colonial armed resistance against a
British governor named William
2. They were being denied protection
against Indian attacks in the
backcountry of Virginia.
3. This was also an example of
discontented lower class
farmers/frontiersmen against upper
class British aristocracy.
4. Indentured servants and black
slaves joined arms against
Berkeley – chased him out of
Jamestown and torched the city.
England Captures More of the $$
• England begins
to view colonial
• Enacts laws and
• Goal is 2 part:
threats & enrich
NA’s raw, rich,
William Penn & the
• Founded by
• True Holy
1. Based on Religious Toleration & Yet with High Moral Compliance
2. Affordable Land & Lenient Male Suffrage Qualifications
4. Healthy relations with Native Indians
5. Quakers were the first colonial group to fight for abolition of slavery
6. Quakers continued to influence many Americans into the 20th
Century with their
The City of Brotherly
With Penn promoting
religious toleration, people
of many different faiths
came to Philadelphia. The
Quakers may have been
tolerant of religious
differences, but were fairly
moral digressions. It was
illegal to tell lies in
conversation and even to
perform stage plays.
Cards and dice were
forbidden. Upholding the
city's moral code was
taken very seriously.
In America, Benjamin Franklin wrote, "no man continues long a laborer for others, but
gets a plantation of his own; no man continues long a journeymen to a trade, but sets
himself up for himself."
Though Benjamin Franklin had
reservations about racial mixing,
he witnessed, and wrote about,
the great changes that
1. When Franklin was born in Boston in 1706, the son of a candle-maker who had immigrated
from England, the colonies were overwhelmingly English
2. By 1776, half of the colonial population south of New England was of non-English origin.
3. In Ben Franklin's day, America experienced its first population explosion. In 1700,
approximately 250,000 Europeans and African-Americans lived in the colonies. By 1775, that
number had risen to two and half million
4. And Franklin had seen the land, the abundance of it and its broad availability, shape many of
the distinctively American attributes that Crevecouer described.
5. The people of the American colonies multiplied more rapidly than almost any other society in
recorded history. And these colonists far out-numbered the French and Spanish colonists of
• In Philadelphia, Franklin was an advanced agent of an ideological
revolution that had begun in his home city of Boston. This was a movement
against government controls on money-making and toward greater
individual freedom. Colonists still lived in a mercantile world, in which
British government controlled most of their trade. But they were beginning
to fashion a new idea of economic behavior.
• Modern historians call this privatism: the belief that there should be little or
no control on the search for wealth; and that if each person fairly pursues
his self-interest, the community as a whole will benefit. Franklin believed in
this because he saw it working in Philadelphia.
• Artisans owned their own one-man shops and controlled the conditions of
their work. They also watched over each other's property, and didn't
charge ridiculously high prices for their scarce products, fearing other
artisans, whose products they needed, would retaliate. That's the kind of
self-interest Franklin applauded. These conditions produced urban order
as well as prosperity, an order maintained in the absence of a police force
and with comparatively little government.
Modern historians call
this privatism: the
belief that there
should be little or no
control on the search
for wealth; and that if
each person fairly
pursues his self-
community as a
whole will benefit.
Franklin believed in
this because he saw
it working in
Hector St. John
Letters from an
"What then is the American, this new man?" "are melted
into a new race." In America, he wrote, there are "no
great lords who possess everything, and a herd of
people who have nothing. Here are no aristocratic
families, no kings, no bishops, no great refinements of
luxury. The rich and poor are not so far removed from
each other as they are in Europe."
1. Crevecoeur recognized that America was beginning to separate itself from England
and establish it own “American Identity”
2. For him, America was at best a homogenous society comprised of equal men with
an opportunity to pursue their own destiny.
3. American wilderness had shaped a new man, freer and more self-reliant than the
The Apotheosis of Benjamin
Franklin and George
Washington, a cotton fabric
printed in Great Britain soon
after the end of the American
War of Independence and
used as a bedcover. Franklin,
accompanied by a goddess of
liberty with her liberty cap,
carries a banner reading
“where liberty dwells there is
my country,” while angels
display a map of the United
1.What were the roots and
significance of the Stamp Act
2.What key events sharpened
the divisions between Britain
and the colonists in the late
1760s and early 1770s?
3.What key events marked the
move toward American
The true question of barbaric?
The Colonial African Slave Trade
• The abundant fertile land,
arduous cash crops, and
instable work force created
a need for slave labor in the
• The African slave trade
provided the cheap forced
labor necessary to
perpetuate a southern
plantation system that
enriched the minority elite
aristocratic genteel society.
• This inhumane treatment of Africans created a triangular economic trade where
humans were captured, transported across the Atlantic, bought for guns, cargo and
supplies, and money for their ultimate value as forced slave labor for sugar, tobacco and
the slaves from
West Africa to
the West Indies,
might take three
make the trip
A slave who documented his experience during Middle Passage. His saga reflected the
true misery of millions of others who were forced into North American slavery.
African American Labor
• Virginians needed
labor for food crops
• by 1619 one million
Africans brought to
• 1619 first twenty
• treated as servants,
no slavery for
• 40% died during
overland march to
• 30% died during
“middle passage” on
• 11 million slaves
were transported to
North & South
• By 1860 US Slave
We hold these truths to be self evident..
over 300 slaves
over 100 slaves
(Right) 1799 List of
over 300 slaves of
The City Tavern was a popular
place to gather & talk politics
The Zenger Trial & Free Colonial Speech
John Peter Zenger was a German
immigrant who printed a publication
called The NEW YORK WEEKLY
This publication harshly pointed out the
actions of the corrupt royal
governor, WILLIAM S. COSBY
Zenger was accused of LIBEL
In a stirring appeal to the jury, his attorney
Andrew Hamilton pleaded for his new
client's release. "It is not the cause of
one poor printer," he claimed, "but the
cause of liberty."
The judge ordered the jury to convict
Zenger if they believed he printed the
stories. But the jury returned in less
than ten minutes with a verdict of not
An American Elite of
• Franklin embodies both the
individual spirit to excel and
the collective will to unite
• America in 1763 was not yet
a nation. But that will
In the wave of patriotism that swept the colonies after the French and Indian
War, no one doubted that the America of the future would be British. At the
time, in fact, the various colonies had no ties with each other except through
London and their shared British identity. So what changed between 1763 and
RELIGIOUS REVIVAL: THE GREAT AWAKENING
• A series of religious
revivals aimed at restoring
devotion & piety swept
through the colonies in the
• Jonathan Edwards was a
Puritan priest from New
England who was
instrumental in the
• George Whitfield used his
acting background to give
“Fire & Brimstone” style of
worship; large, emotionally
• Like the Enlightenment the
movement stressed the
importance of the
individual, toleration &
freedom to worship
Salutary Neglect becomes a
Policy of the Past
» What is salutary neglect?
» Navigation Acts (1651, 1690s, 1750s)
» Revenue Act of 1762
• Writs of Assistance: British government also encouraged the Royal
navy to apprehend and detain smugglers. Customs officials
became more aggressive in using search warrants, called "writs of
assistance" to track down smuggled goods. A young Boston
attorney, James Otis, assailed such writs as contrary to the British
constitution and beyond the Power of Parliament to administer.
James Otis Jr.
• James Otis considered himself a loyal British subject. Yet in February 1761, he argued
against the Writs of Assistance in a nearly five-hour oration before a select audience in
the State House. His argument failed to win his case, although it galvanized the
•John Adams said of Otis "I have been young and now I am old, and I solemnly say I
have never known a man whose love of country was more ardent or sincere, never one
who suffered so much, never one whose service for any 10 years of his life were so
important and essential to the cause of his country as those of Mr. Otis from 1760 to
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
• Competition in North
America led to a war
(1754-1763) between old
rivals France and
• The French in North
America were tradesmen
(furs) not long-term
• Ohio River valley was the
site of the conflict
• The Colonists supported
the British while the
Natives supported the
The death of General James Wolfe, at the
conclusion of the battle in which the British
captured Quebec in 1759, became the subject of
American artist Benjamin West’s most famous
painting, which was exhibited to tremendous
acclaim in London in 1770.
SOURCE:Benjamin West (1738 –1820),The Death of General Wolfe, 1770.Oil on canvas,152.6 •214.5 cm.Transfer from the
Canadian War Memorials,1921.(Gift of the 2nd Duke of Westminster,Eaton Hall,Cheshire,1918.) National Gallery of
• Native Indians &
continue to battle west
• Indian feared that
American desire for land
would never end unless
they stopped them.
• Under the military
leadership of Ottawa
chief Pontiac and
spiritual prophet Neolin,
Indians battled the
colonists near the Great
Lakes for over the
MAP 6.4 The Quebec Act of 1774
With the Quebec Act, Britain created
a centralized colonial government for
Canada and extended that colony’s
administrative control southwest to
the Ohio River, invalidating the sea-
to-sea boundaries of many colonial
PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763
• To avoid further costly
conflicts with Native
Americans, the British
colonists from settling west
of the Appalachian
• The Proclamation
established a line along the
Appalachian that colonists
could not cross (They did
1. The British government had borrowed 150 million
pounds from banks and individuals (= $tens of trillions
in current value) to pay for the 7 yrs War. Interest on
the debt absorbed half the British gov. annual revenue
and burdened English citizens with huge taxes.
2. Parliament and the King reasoned that as British
subjects the American colonists should help shoulder
the national debt for the war and continued English
3. All this was rationalized via the concept of “virtual
representation” whereby members of Parliament
represented the entire Empire regardless of whether
American colonists voted for members or not – this was
the course of loyalty to the King and Empire for their
protective liberties. “The interests of all who lived under
the British crown were taken into account.”
How would you justify the British view that the colonists owed loyalty to the
existing government and gratitude of past actions?
Sir Issac Newton’s Third Law of
To every action there is always an equal and
opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on
each other are always equal and are directed in
• England Acts
• Colonists React
• England gets stricter
• Colonists get angrier
• England stands firm
• Colonists stand united
The Sugar and Stamp Acts
• External vs. Internal (Indirect vs. Direct)
• The costs of the Seven Years War and the
subsequent defense of the North American
empire added to the huge government debt.
• In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act to
raise revenue from the colonies.
• Colonial protest arose in the cities, especially
Boston where a non-importation movement
soon spread to other cities.
• James Otis, Jr. developed the doctrine of no
taxation without representation.
• Prime Minister Grenville ignored American
protests and passed the Stamp Act.
The Stamp Act Crisis
• The Stamp Act precipitated an unprecedented crisis.
• Colonial concerns included the long-term constitutional
implications regarding representation of the colonists in the
• Several colonies passed resolutions denouncing the Stamp
• Massachusetts, especially Boston, emerged as a center of
• To counter the growing violence, the Sons of Liberty was
It was James Otis who suggested an inter-
colonial conference to agree on a united course
of action. With that, the STAMP ACT
CONGRESS convened in New York in October
Patrick Henry proclaimed that he was not a
Virginian, but rather an American. What unified
the colonists and what divided then at the time
of the Revolution?
Repeal of the Stamp Act
• British merchants worried about the effects of the growing non-
importation movement petitioned Parliament to repeal the
• Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in March 1767 but passed
the Declaratory Act.
• James Otis and Sam Adams in Massachusetts, Patrick
Henry in Virginia and other colonial leaders along the seaboard
screamed "Treason" and "Magna Carta"!
Declaratory & Townsend Act
Several issues remained unresolved.
1.First, Parliament had absolutely no wish to send a message
across the Atlantic that ultimate authority lay in the colonial
legislatures. Immediately after repealing the Stamp Act,
Parliament issued the Declaratory Act.
2.CHARLES TOWNSHEND persuaded the HOUSE OF
COMMONS to once again tax the Americans, this time through an
import tax on such items as glass, paper, lead, and tea.
3.Reactions in the colonies were similar to those during the Stamp
Act Crisis. Once again non-importation was implemented.
Extralegal activities such as harassing tax collectors and
merchants who violated the boycotts were common. The colonial
assemblies sprung into action.
4.Colonists organized committees of correspondence, Sons of
Liberty, Daughters of Liberty & used all methods of the Public
Sphere to spread the idea that British tyranny must end and
American liberty should prevail!!
Tar & Feathering
Spatial Ground for
• Petition, Grievance, Declaration
• Committees of Correspondence
• Sons of Liberty, Daughters of
• Boycotts, Smuggling, Embargo
• Propaganda, Direct
“Letters from a
Dickinson was an attorney from
Pennsylvania who urged economic
sanctions against England.
His Dickinson's writings entitled
Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer
were published in newspapers in
1767 and 1768.
The twelve letters were widely read and reprinted throughout the thirteen colonies, and
were important in uniting the colonists against the Townshend Acts. The success of his
letters earned Dickinson considerable fame.
Dickinson argued that the colonies were sovereign in their internal affairs. He thus
argued that taxes laid upon the colonies by Parliament for the purpose of raising
revenue, rather than regulating trade, were unconstitutional.
Despite his passionate appeals for immediate reform Dickinson advocated a peaceful
resolution to the pending violent conflict
• On March 5, 1770, the inevitable happened. A mob of about 60
angry townspeople descended upon the guard at
the CUSTOMS HOUSE. When reinforcements were called, the
crowd became more unruly, hurling rocks and snowballs at the
guard and reinforcements.
• In the heat of the confusing melee, the British fired
without CAPTAIN THOMAS PRESTON's command. Imperial
bullets took the lives of five men, including Crispus Attucks, a
former slave. Others were injured.
• What was the lesson? Americans learned that the British would
use force when necessary to keep the Americans obedient.
Although large-scale fighting between
American minutemen and the British
redcoats did not begin until 1775, the
1770 BOSTON MASSACRE gave each
side a taste of what was to come.
Boston Tea Party
The BRITISH EAST INDIA
COMPANY was on the
brink of financial
collapse. LORD NORTH
hatched a scheme to deal
simultaneously with the
ailing corporation and the
problem of taxing the
colonies. He decided to
grant the British East India
Company a trading
monopoly with the
three ships carrying tea to
enter Boston Harbor.
Before the tax could be
collected, Bostonians took
action. On a cold December
night, radical townspeople
stormed the ships and
tossed 342 chests of tea
into the water. Disguised as
Native Americans, the
offenders could not be
1st Continental Congress
Sept 5 - Oct 26, 1774
• 56 delegates from all colonies, except GA
• Met in Philadelphia…It was at CARPENTERS' HALL that
America came together politically for the first time on a
national level and where the seeds of participatory
democracy were sown.
• First and most obvious, complete non-importation was
resumed. The Congress set up an organization called the
Association to ensure compliance in the colonies.
• Boycott GB products
• Declaration of Rights & Grievances
– colonists have same rights as all Englishmen
• Plan to fight against British force
• Meet in May 1775 if necessary
Lexington & Concord: HEY: The
Regulars r’ Coming!!!...By Land
• Dawes and Revere warn Samuel Adams,
John Hancock & Joseph Warren & to hide the
• Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their
eyes…Militia aren’t pros but farmers
• Lexington Green >>>> Concord Bridge>>>If
you can’t beat them their way resort to
guerilla warfare (Like those pesky Indians
• During the battles of Lexington and Concord,
73 British soldiers had been killed and 174
wounded; 26 were missing. LORD PERCY,
who led the British back into Boston after the
defeat suffered at Concord, wrote back to
London, "Whoever looks upon them [THE
REBELS] as an irregular mob will be much
mistaken." Three British major generals
— WILLIAM HOWE, HENRY CLINTON,
and "GENTLEMAN JOHNNY"
BURGOYNE — were brought to Boston to
lend their expertise and experience to the
Old North Church &
Second Continental Congress
Nine Points to Remember
1. In May 1775, with Redcoats once again storming Boston, the
Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia.
2. New Crisis…Significant Questions???
3. Military Defense of Liberty (They elect George Washington as
Commandeer of Continental Army….Why him????
4. Arrange to print their own dollars (Not yet with his face!!
5. They elect John Hancock at first President
6. They arrange for Franklin to elicit foreign help
7. Draft a final appeal to reconcile with the other George called
the Olive Branch Petition in July
8. No longer was the Congress dealing with mere grievances. It
was a full-fledged governing body.
9. Later in 1776, they form a committee to draft a formal divorce
decree headed by John Adams along with Franklin and a
young Virginian delegate named Thomas Jefferson…
Chapters 5 & 6 The Impact of the American War for
Independence & The Revolution Within
1. Compare and contrast
Common Sense and The
Declaration of Independence.
How did these two documents
shape the ideas for American
Liberty and Natural Rights?
2. Who were the significant
actors & events that played a
role during the war?
3. Explain how political, religious,
& economic freedom emerged
as focal points after the war
4. Describe the role of women
and African Americans as the
United States emerged as a
new nation conceived in
“Liberty and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are
We all need to learn
Common Sense in our
"O ye that love mankind! Ye
that dare oppose, not only
the tyranny, but the tyrant,
stand forth! Every spot of
the old world is overrun
with oppression. Freedom
hath been hunted round
the globe. Asia, and Africa,
have long expelled her.
Europe regards her like a
stranger, and England
hath given her warning to
depart. O! receive the
fugitive, and prepare in
time an asylum for
Thomas Paine, Common
Thomas Paine & Common
Sense• Where do you stand: Patriot, Loyalist or
still on the Fence?? Many 20% sided with
• In the long run, however, the patriots were
much more successful attracting support.
American patriots won the war of
propaganda. Committees of
Correspondence persuaded many fence-
sitters to join the patriot cause. Writings
such as Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
stirred newfound American nationalism.
He argued for two main points: (1) independence from England and (2) the creation of a
He wrote in the language of the people, often quoting the Bible in his arguments.
COMMON SENSE was an instant best-seller. Published in January 1776 in Philadelphia,
nearly 120,000 copies were in circulation by April.
Simple But Deadly… Indeed the Pen is Mightier
Than the Sword
All Kings Are tyrannical especially George III
Heredity privilege by blood is unnatural based on
rights of man…
He sought to provide a different perspective and
alternative views to the fate and destiny of man.
He spoke openly of independence from Great Britain
and advocated a new experiment in government
where the people maintained the power of
government and government served to secure
freedom to the people.
Thomas Paine proved that it does not matter what
class you are born into, or how great a formal
education you receive. What matters is what is in
your mind and heart.
The un-authored pamphlet quickly sold over 200,000
copies in two months (= to +35 million today!!).
Common Sense Main Points
• Any attempts to work with Great
Britain before the "nineteenth of
April, i.e., to the commencement
of hostilities, are useless now."
"The blood of the slain, the
weeping voice of nature cries, 'tis
time to part."
• "I challenge the warmest
advocate for reconciliation to
show, a single advantage that this
continent can reap, by being
connected with Great Britain."
Main Points of Common Sense
$$$".whenever a war breaks out between England
and any foreign power, the trade of America goes
to ruin, because of her connection with Britain."
Do away with monarchies because the
divine law (of God) should be "King of America"
and the people should form a government of their
own (a republican charter).
July 2, 1776
"these united colonies
are, and of right
ought to be, free and
that they are
dissolved from all
allegiance to the
British Crown, and
that all political
them and the State of
Great Britain is and
ought to be totally
~ Second Continental
1. Self Evident Truths
A. Equality Egalitarianism
B. Natural Rights to Life,
2. Power to rule emanates
from the consent of the
governed not a monarchy
3. Whenever the government
abuses their powers the
people can dissolve it!
4. The ideals of natural rights &
Egalitarianism have inspired
the aspirations for liberty
and rights of future leaders
Declaration of Independence
(1776) & Virginia’s Statute of
Religious Freedom (Written 1777
Where these two landmark are
united & depart
1. They both adhere to the natural rights of humans
2. They both argue against Monarchies & heredity rule
3. They both promote American independence via
armed conflict Why???
4. American Exceptionalism
5. Both Common Sense and the Declaration of
Independence were documents that ordained
America as a beacon for liberty and an asylum for
those searching for opportunity to live out their lives
free of oppression and freedom for achievement.
How then are they different??
1. Common Sense was written as a piece of propaganda to incite and
influence the undecided.
a. Paine was hesitant to even write his name; He was a recent immigrant
from humble arduous background angry about European social
aristocracies. Paine had an “Axe to grind!”
b. Common Sense was written for the common colonist using Biblical
references and reasonable arguments.
c. Though Common Sense became a best seller of its day, it never became
the landmark visionary statement that the Declaration has become.
1. The Declaration of Independence was a legal document severing the
colonial ties to England.
a. Jefferson, who was a southern slave owner/enlightened delegate
appropriated John Locke and the Age of Reason.
b. The theme of the Declaration originally addressed the horror of the slave
trade and exposed the contradiction of American society.
c. The Declaration, unlike Common Sense established the ideals for future
Americans to strive for respect, equality and freedom to pursue their
d. The Declaration became the model for other nations to emulate
1. Professional trained
Army by experienced
2. Financial Resources
3. Hire the Hessians
5. Native Americans &
HISTORY 117 AMERICAN REV. Reading Rev Quiz
1. Re-order the following list of events in chronological order
from earliest to latest:
a. Boston Massacre g. Common Sense
b. Treaty of Paris h. French & Indian War
c. Proclamation of 1763 i. Articles of
d. Boston Tea Party j. Intolerable Acts (Coercive)
e. Declaration of Independence k. 2ND
f. Sugar Act l. Battle of Bunker Hill
m. Stamp Act
2 Name an external act and a internal act by Parliament (not
3 List the three reasons why Thomas Paine claimed the
colonies should go to war against England in his Pamphlet
4 List three principles of Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of
1. French & Indian War
2. Proclamation of 1763
3. Sugar Act
4. Stamp Act
5. Boston Massacre
6. Boston Tea Party
8. Battle of Bunker Hill
9. Common Sense
10. Declaration of Independence
11. Battle of Saratoga
12. Battle of Yorktown
13. Treaty of Paris
Following the execution of Nathan Hale
& the loss of New York to the British in
the winter of 1776, Washington began
planning a spy network
Washington was able to create a strong and
successful chain of spies throughout the
New York area, beginning the secret service
in America. These agents, primarily the
Culper Gang, gathered countless amounts of
information for Washington, which greatly
aided in winning the war.
Can our civil
liberties such as
be endangered by
• The Continental Army encamped at Valley Forge in the
fall of 1777 with about 12,000 men in its ranks. Death
claimed about a quarter of them before spring arrived.
Another thousand didn't reenlist or deserted. But the
army that remained was stronger. They were fewer, but
more disciplined. They were weary, but firmly resolved.
• The next year, 1778, brought greater fortune to the
American cause. While Washington froze at Valley
Forge, Benjamin Franklin was busy securing the French
alliance. Now the war would be different indeed.
In December, Washington marched his tired,
beaten, hungry and sick army to VALLEY
FORGE, a location about 20 miles northwest
of British-occupied Philadelphia. At Valley
Forge, there were shortages of everything
from food to clothing to medicine.
Washington's men were sick from disease,
hunger, and exposure.
The American Crisis by Thomas Paine
December 23, 1776
1. These are the times that try men’s souls….
The summer soldier and the sunshine
patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the
service of his country; but he that stands by
it now, deserves the love and thanks of man
2. Why did Pain round out 1776 with this document?? Patriotism, Perseverance, Loyalty
(Don’t Be a Tory but a Patriot for Liberty)
3. The Continental Army was composed of former militia farmers, artisans and veterans
who only committed serving one year of duty.
4. General Washington after his a%# kicking by the British during the Battle of New
York was losing men to desertion. He also had serious problems with the Congress
who were not replenishing his army with enough military provisions to fight the well-
armed British. His troops were not adequately trained.
5. The pamphlet, read aloud to the Continental Army on December 23, 1776, three days
before the Battle of Trenton, attempted to bolster morale and resistance among
patriots, as well as shame neutrals and loyalists toward the cause:
Mr. Smith Goes to Wall Street
The man [sic] (or woman) who does their work,… conscientiously, must always,
be in one sense a great (person). ~Dianah Craik English Novelist (1826-1887)
Along with Common Sense &
The Declaration of
Independence, The Wealth of
Nations became when of the
most significant documents
written in 1776. Why???
Written by Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, the Wealth of Nations delved into the ideas of
freedom, liberty and natural laws should dictate not only a country’s economic policies, but the
According to Adam Smith, European Mercantilism was a suffocating unnatural economic system
that prevented the natural laws of supply and demand to bring about healthy economic relations
under competitive markets.
Governments must allow individuals the freedom to conduct their business without interference.
In a free-market economy, that is sometimes associated with greed,
Smith focused on self-interest, not greed. In Smith’s view, self-interest is important
because it provides people with incentives to serve others.
So how has the Wealth of Nations become merely a * in history and Karl Marx Communist
Manifesto emerge at the quintessential economic theory for modernity????
Ends the War
• A French naval unit led by ADMIRAL DE GRASSE headed north from the
• Washington's army was stationed near New York City at the time. Along with
a French unit from Rhode Island, Washington's troops marched over 300
miles south toward Yorktown. Along the way, he staged fake military
maneuvers to keep the British off guard.
• When Washington reached Virginia, Americans led by Lafayette joined in
the siege. The French navy kept the British out of CHESAPEAKE BAY until
Cornwallis was forced to surrender his entire unit of nearly 8,000 troops on
October 19, 1781.
• In the 1783 TREATY OF PARIS the British
agreed to recognize American independence
as far west as the Mississippi River. Americans
agreed to honor debts owed to British
merchants from before the war and to stop
persecuting British Loyalists.
• David had triumphed over Goliath.
Independence was achieved at last!
• The total loss of life throughout the
war is largely unknown. As was
typical in the wars of the era,
disease claimed far more lives than
battle. Between 1775 and 1782
a smallpox epidemic swept across
North America, killing more than
130,000 people. Historian Joseph
Ellis suggests that Washington's
decision to have his troops
the smallpox epidemic was one of
his most important decisions
More than 25,000 American Revolutionaries died during active military service. About
8,000 of these deaths were in battle; the other 17,000 recorded deaths were from
disease, including about 8,000–12,000 who died of starvation or disease brought on by
deplorable conditions while prisoners of war, most in rotting British prison ships in New
Cost of the War
The U.S. finally solved
its debt and currency
problems in the 1790s
d the establishment of
the First Bank of the
The British spent about £80 million
and ended with a national debt of
£250 million, which it easily financed
at about £9.5 million a year in
The United States spent $37 million at
the national level plus $114 million by
the states. This was mostly covered
by loans from France and the
Netherlands, loans from Americans,
and issuance of an increasing amount
of paper money (which became "not
worth a continental").
Off with their Heads while I eat my
1. The Guillotine was introduced by on 10
October 1789, Doctor Joseph-Ignace
Guillotin, a French physician, who stood
before the National Assembly and proposed
a more human way to executing French
citizens for crimes against the new Nation.
2. While America was debating the Bill of
Rights, the French Revolution spiraled into a
bloody evocation into mob rule,
infringements upon due process, and the
abandonment of their Enlightened Public
3. The period from June 1793 to July 1794 in
France is known as the Reign of Terror
The Revolutionary Tribunal sentenced thousands to the guillotine. Nobility and
commoners, intellectuals, politicians and prostitutes,all were liable to be executed on
little or no grounds; suspicion of "crimes against liberty" was enough to earn one an
appointment with "Madame Guillotine" or "The National Razor". Estimates of the death
toll range between 16,000 and 40,000….
• What did Smith mean by the “invisible hand”?
• (The invisible hand is the market system. Market
prices direct people pursuing their own interests into
activities that improve the economic well-being of the
• Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin is a prime example of supply
& demand in morality…
• Slave (labor) value increased with the production of
cotton (supply) & increased population (demand)
Test #1 Essay Grading Rubric
Value 20 points
1. Opening paragraph: Attention grabber; Thesis/Topic;
Sentences are Readable, Grammar, Punctuation, Relevant
3. Logical organization of Body: Supportive Facts from
4. Final paragraph: Summary, Connected to opening,
Critique, Conclusion /5
Prior to taking the test all essay prompts must be written
out so that on test day you’re capable of drafting an
organized reasonable essay consisting of specific
supportive facts without depending on generalities.
Who, When, Where, What, Why & How
[Conflict, Contingency, Continuity, & Change]
Grab the reader – Keep the reader – Rock the Reader’s
Test 1 Instructions:
1. Remove all from you
desks except for #2
2. Print your full name on
both scantron; Blue
Book; Date; Class &
which exam A/B you
3. You may begin once you receive your test…
4. Any roaming eyes and you’ll get no credit….
5. When you’re finished, place your scantron in your Blue Book and bring it to me…you
can then leave quietly (shhhhhh….)
6. But, hey, wait a second!!….Before you leave take the Study Guide for Test #2 – You
may need it !!
7. Have a great weekend & don’t forget to pre-read for our next class on Thursday