Chapter 6 The Revolution Within
1. Compare and contrast
Common Sense and The
Independence. How did
these two documents
shape the ideas for
American Liberty and
2. Why was the Adam
Smith’s Wealth of
Nations so significant
3. Describe the role of
women and African
Americans as the United
States emerged as a new
nation conceived in
“Liberty and dedicated to
the proposition that all
men are created equal.”
Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences by
Samuel Jennings (1792)
We hold these truths to be self evident..
over 300 slaves
owned over 100
(Right) 1799 List of
over 300 slaves of
our 1st President
Founding Fathers on
1. Prayer of Protection
2. Separation of
Church & State
4. Virginia’s Statute of
5. A land of spiritual
pluralism for future
immigrants Virginia’s Statute of Religious
Freedom (Written 1777 Ratified 1786)
Henry Laurens: John Laurens:
“I’d rather lose the war “Awww, Pop!”
than lose my slaves.”
To free or enslave??
(Left) Virginian planter Robert Carter III Manumitted over 400
slaves beginning in 1796
(Right) First Supreme Court Chief Justice, John Jay owned
five slaves as late as 1800
John & Elizabeth Lloyd Cadwalader Mercy Otis Warren
by Charles Wilson Peale
Don’t mess with
Debbie…Disguised as a
young boy, at 21
Deborah enlisted in the
Continental Army –
proved her courage in
several battles, and even,
according to Foner –
extricated a bullet from
her leg to avoid her true
gender from being
discovered by a doctor.
"You and I, dear friend, have been sent into life at a time
when the greatest lawgivers of antiquity would have
wished to live." So John Adams wrote his friend in
1776. "When, before," he asked, had three million
people "full power and a fair opportunity to form and
establish the wisest and happiest government that
human wisdom can contrive?"
Would the US fail as other
1. Define a Republic
2. Ancient Roman
Republic Failed as
3. Absolute power
tends to corrupt.
4. The Founding
faced with this
Why & How???
The Roman Senate was one of the most
enduring institutions in Roman history, however it
always was forced to contend with corruption and
the absolute power of Caesars >>> Kings >>>
Emperors >>> History Teachers J!!
What is a Constitution?
A constitution is an agreed-upon set of rules
and laws that tell people how their
government is set up, what their
government can do, and what their
government can’t do. In the United States
today, every state has a constitution.
Some organizations have constitutions.
The most famous constitution in America
is the U.S. Constitution.
“A firm league of
The “u” was small
enlarged it to a
State Legislatures like Massachusetts
Lead the Way
1. Each colony devised their state constitutions based
on the rule of self-government that restricted abusive
central authority = Balance was the KEY
2. In 1780 Massachusetts, amended theirs to include 3
Articles that separated their government powers into
the Legislature; Governor; & State Judicial (sound
3. The people from rural towns in Mass elected
delegates to go to a specially elected constitutional
convention. Then the convention sent its draft back
to the state legislature for ratification. The
Massachusetts constitution of 1780 was therefore a
direct act of legislation by the sovereign people.
4. "We... the people of Massachusetts,…” began their
State Constitution…(again sound familiar?)
Woe’s Me: The Articles r Killin’ Me
1. Define Sovereignty as it applied to the distribution of
power in the “u”nited States during the Articles of
Confederation. What four factors must a nation have to
2. List & describe two successes of the Articles of
Confederation. Hint: They were both ideas of Thomas
3. List eight weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
4. Briefly describe how the Shay’s Rebellion forced the
Nation to reevaluate it’s form of government.
5. Describe the man who thought of the idea for the
Annapolis Convention and what was its outcome?
The Good, Bad & The Ugly
1. Treaty of Paris of 1783 Gains
Independence and Land for US
2. Virtues of Freedom are
expressed by other groups like
Republican Women, African
Americans, Native Americans &
the Public Sphere
3. Thomas Jefferson exemplifies
nationalism: Virginia Statute of
Religious Toleration; Empire of
Liberty; Advocate of
International Rebellion for the
Consent of the Governed i.e.
4. The Good: State Legislatures
Have Established a Template for
5. Land Ordinance of 1784/85
6. Northwest Ordinance of 1787
1. The Land Ordinance of 1785 laid the foundation for
future American land policy.
2. The Land Ordinance of 1785 set forth how the
government of the United States would measure,
divide and distribute the land it had acquired from
Great Britain north and west of the Ohio River at the
end of the American Revolution.
3. After the Indian title had been purchased?, the
ceded lands were to be systematically surveyed, prior
to sale or settlement, into townships 6 mi X 6 mi
blocks (36 sq. miles). Of which each had thirty-six
sections of 1 sq. mi or 640 acres, the sixteenth was
reserved “for the maintenance of public schools.’‘ A
typical farm was ¼ section or 160 acres. The minimum
price per acre was $1.00. This allowed for a fair &
equal way to settle the western frontier. How? What
was the goal of Congress? Page 263.
1. Freedom of Religion
2. Right to Trial by Jury
3. No Cruel or Unusual
4. No slavery in the
territory Big Effect!
5. The N/W Ord. also
A. Few settlers…
B. When pop. Reaches
C. When pop. Reaches
60,000 then ….
D. Which state was
E. What other states
make up NW Territ.
The Bad: Articles of Confusion: A Weak Government for a
Articles of Confederation
1. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION were drafted and passed by the
Congress in November 1777.
2. The purpose of the central government was clearly stated in the Articles.
The Congress had control over diplomacy, printing money, resolving
controversies between different states, and, most importantly,
coordinating the war effort.
3. The most important action of the Continental Congress was probably the
creation and maintenance of the Continental Army.
4. The organization of CONGRESS itself demonstrates the primacy of state
power. Each state had one vote. Nine out of thirteen states had to support
a law for it to be enacted.
5. Furthermore, any changes to the Articles themselves would require
unanimous agreement. In the ONE-STATE, ONE-VOTE RULE, state
sovereignty was given a primary place even within the national
government. Furthermore, the whole national government consisted
entirely of the unicameral (one body) Congress with no executive and no
6. The worst issue about the Articles of Confederation was that it couldn’t
the one thing that got “us” into a war to begin with: Taxes
7. By the end of the war the New Confederation called the United States of
America was BROKE!!! Yes, we were independent however the new
nation was about to embark on a very tenuous beginning…..
Who? Like Bacon’s Rebellion before them
Indebted and bankrupt frustrated farmers in
Western Mass. Led by Amer. Rev. veteran
Daniel Shays took arms against their
governor over high taxes
Where? Raided armory in Springfield Mass.
Why? Believed their uppers house of state
government had abandoned them in favor of
Boston and New York bankers and land
speculators. Farms foreclosures and high
taxes were making them destitute.
Effect? Called into question the weaknesses
and inability of the Confederate Congress
under the Articles of Confederation to prevent
mob anarchy to protect American citizens.
What was needed was a strong central
federal government established by the will of
the people, not the limited one based by AofC
• Well Read, Well Bred, Well Fed…Wellcomed!!!
• Father of Constitution
• Virginian (Jefferson’s Neighbor, Washington’s confident used
Mount Vernon’s Library)
• Read extensively on European Governments from antiquity to
• Believed the Articles of Confusion needed to be amended….
• How???? He believe that under the Articles America had
abused an “excessive democracy.”
• This "excessive democracy," Madison grew to believe, was the
cause of a larger social decay which he and others (such as
Washington) believed had resumed after the revolution and
was nearing a tipping point. They were alarmed by Shays'
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679
• Without government there would
be “continual fear and danger of
violent death and life would be
solitary, poor nasty, brutish and
• Humans are basically
• Wrote Leviathan
John Locke on Role of
1. Natural Rights
2. Protection of Property
3. Consent of the Governed
4. Social Compact
5. Government Continued
Accountability to their
6. Right of people to overthrow
government if it breaks it’s
covenant with the source of
its power: of the people, by
the people for the people:
How is the Power Distributed in our
One of the most important
aspects of the U.S.
Constitution is that it
established the role of the
down its responsibilities
into three distinct branches.
What are they?
1. We the People
2. A more Perfect Union
3. Establish Justice
4. Insure Domestic Tranquility
5. Provide for the common defense
6. Promote the general welfare
7. Secure the blessings of liberty
To ourselves & our posterity
Purpose of Government
• Establish Justice
“The most sacred of
To create a system of fair,
reasonable & impartial laws
that protects society
“Injustice is anywhere is a
threat to justice
everywhere” Martin Luther
Purpose of Government
Insure Domestic Tranquility
“If men were angels,
government would not be
A function of our
Government insures that
society can live together
peacefully, without chaos
LAW & ORDER is
essential to maintain
Purpose of Government
Provide for the Common Defense
Defending the nation from
foreign threats and
enemies is another
important purpose to our
There are two sides to this
The security of the US
The ability of restraint as
we became more powerful
Purpose of Government
Promote the General Welfare
The laws and services that
the federal government
provides protects our society
from inherent dangers that
other may cause.
Purpose of Government
Secure the Blessings of Liberty
We must give up
some liberties to
protect the freedom
to pursue our own
Liberty is not
absolute, it must
come with inherent
protections so that
all society can live
Advanced Critical Questions??
1. What were the five purposes of the
Legitimacy ~ Structure ~ Checks/Balances
~ Describe/Distribute Power ~ Elasticity (allow for
2. How can the states be involved in this
Ratification (9/13 needed to pass)
3. How can the basic rights of citizens be
Amendments: 1ST Ten Bill of Rights
Gotta Have a Plan, Man!
James Madison’s Virginia Plan: (Most Populated State, then)
This plan was favored by bigger states. It focused on building
one strong federal government. Representation was based on
the size of a state’s population with a one house legislature
William Patterson’s New Jersey Plan:
This plan gave each state equal representation regardless of
Roger Sherman’s The Connecticut Plan:
Known later as the “Great Compromise,” this plan established
the Senate, in which each state would have two senators, and the
House, where representation would be based on population.
Rights & Responsibilities of The Three Branches
Legislative Executive Judicial
1. Creates &
2. Creates lower
courts & lower
3. Can override a
Veto by a 2/3
4. Power of the
1. Approves or
2. Carries out &
4. Commander &
Chief of Armed
5. Makes Foreign
1. Interprets &
law by trying
2. Can declare
laws passed by
3. “Highest Court
of the Land”
Checks & Balances: Rights & Responsibilities of The Three Branches
Article I Legislative Article II Executive Article III Judicial
1. The Electoral College was established by
the founding fathers as a compromise
between election of the president by
Congress and election by popular vote. The
people of the United States vote for the
electors who then vote for the President
2. The National Census taken each 10 years can
increase or decrease each state’s electoral
votes based on population gains or losses.
An Electoral College where everyone is
What about the slaves
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise
between Southern and Northern states reached
during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in
which three-fifths of the enumerated population of
slaves would be counted for representation
purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes
and the apportionment of the members of the
United States House of Representatives. It was
proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger
An Abomination of Human Rights
for a Temporary Stop Measure
Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the United
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be
apportioned among the several States which
may be included within this Union, according to
their respective Numbers, which shall be
determined by adding to the whole Number of
free Persons, including those bound to Service
for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not
taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
Twas mercy brought me
from my Pagan land,
Taught my benighted soul to
That there's a God, that
there's a Saviour too:
Once I redemption neither
sought nor knew.
Some view our sable race
with scornful eye,
"Their colour is a diabolic
Negroes, black as Cain,
May be refin'd, and join th'
1. Phillis Wheatley was the first African American, the first slave, and the third woman
in the United States to publish a book of poems.
2. Kidnapped in West Africa and transported aboard the slave ship Phillis to Boston in
1761, she was purchased by John Wheatley as a servant for his wife. Young Phillis
quickly learned to speak English and to read the Bible with amazing fluency.
3. She published her first poem in 1767, and six years later, she published a book,
Poems on Various Subjects. That same year, John Wheatley emancipated her.
4. Wheatley demonstrated how African Americans once freed can possess the
equalities embodied by all Americans – a direct affront to Southern racist beliefs.
A brilliant African American during the
time of the early Republic who was a
mathematician, inventor, and publisher
of an Almanac that argued for
emancipation of all slaves.
Banneker’s correspondences with
Jefferson in 1793 exemplified both his
admonition of slavery and Jefferson’s
inner conflict with the institution. Why??
1. Banneker’s achievements refuted
Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia
(1785) which suggested African
Americans weren’t capable of reason,
self-control, and contributing to the
2. As a disciple of the enlightenment Jefferson also believed that the environment
can shape a person’s life over their heredity – with the exception of slaves…
3. Jefferson believed that America should have a homogenous society that excluded
slaves….who should be returned to Africa to enjoy their natural rights.
4. Banneker chastised Jefferson in a letter for being both the author of a document
that heralded the equality of men & “detaining them by fraud under groaning
captivity and cruel oppression.”
Sally Hemings (1773-1835) was a
slave at Monticello; she lived in Paris
with Jefferson and two of his daughters
from 1787 to 1789; and she had at
least six children.
She was a nanny to his children while
in Paris, nevertheless there are no
written documents that corroborate a
sexual relationship between the two.
1. However, all her children were light skinned and from former slaves resembled
2. They all were treated exceptionally well on Jefferson’s Monticello estate, and later
freed. Sally remained a slave.
3. In September 1802, political journalist James T. Callender, a disaffected former ally
of Jefferson, wrote in a Richmond newspaper that Jefferson had for many years
"kept, as his concubine, one of his own slaves." "Her name is Sally," Callender
continued, adding that Jefferson had "several children" by her.
4. What is certain is that while a slave owner Jefferson embodied the shameful
contradictions of the ideals of an early American Republic founded on the very
principles he drafted while owning humans beings in forced bondage.
The Constitution was Ratified on September 17, 1787
1. Despite the “heated” debates over 4 months the 54
delegates from 13 states signed their names to our new
framework for our government – the “bundle of
compromises” created a firm but elastic 4000 word document
that could be amended when necessary…
2. The Constitution proposes a radical shift in power, from the
individual states to a strong, central government and a
president with real authority.
3. However, since governments are created by the people for
the people – The US Constitution was put forth to the 13
states to be approved “ratified.” Nine states were needed to
make it the “Law of the Land.” Nice to get a unanimous
4. Two sides emerged: The Federalists led by Madison,
Hamilton, Franklin and Washington and the Anti-federalists
headed by Patrick Henry, George Mason and James
5. Since the Federalists had originally come up with the main
ideas for the Constitution they were in a better position to
argue in favor of it. The 85 Federalist Papers became their
“pulpit for approval.”
The Federalist Papers
• Five basic themes can be discerned from the
words of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, including
federalism, checks and balances, separated
powers, pluralism, and representation.
• The Federalist Papers are published in newspapers,
one or two a week over the next seven months
• The Federalist Papers have become the classic
interpretation on the U.S. Constitution, cited about
three hundred times over the last two centuries by the
Supreme Court -- more than any other document. The
Federalist Papers have almost acquired the authority
of the Constitution itself, they're cited so frequently.
Federalist Paper #10
By a faction, I
understand a number
of citizens, whether
amounting to a
majority or minority of
the whole, who are
united and actuated
by some common
impulse of passion, or
of interest, adverse to
the rights of other
citizens, or to the
aggregate interests of
community. . . .Publius
A republic, by which I mean a government in which the scheme of
representation takes place, opens a different prospect and promises the cure for
which we are seeking. The federal
The Constitution forms a happy combination in this respect; the great and
aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local, and particular to
the state legislatures. A Republic affords Majority Rules (Republic) with minority Rights
Cost of the War
The U.S. finally solved
its debt and currency
problems in the 1790s
d the establishment of
the First Bank of the
The British spent about £80 million
and ended with a national debt of
£250 million, which it easily financed
at about £9.5 million a year in
The United States spent $37 million
at the national level plus $114 million
by the states. This was mostly
covered by loans from France and the
Netherlands, loans from Americans,
and issuance of an increasing amount
of paper money (which became "not
worth a continental").
Vision: A potent nation
based on a strong
fueled by urban
enterprise and fiscal
investments, growth of
American cities J!!!
As a delegate from New York, it was essential for his state to ratify the Constitution.
However, many western New Yorkers and urban artisans feared the new government
would take away their liberties.
Hamilton argued that the new government rather would protect their liberties and
freedom from it’s internal checks and balances and separation of powers.
Tyranny would be avoided in favor of a strong accountable federal government would
create the perfect balance between “liberty and power.”
In effect, Hamilton asks “Why has government been instituted at all? Because the
passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice without
He would know this better then most as his passions got the better of him in 1804 when
Anti-Federalist, Robert Bartlett: “You
men of ‘learning,’ you lawyers will take
control of this federal government.
Ordinary people with good sense will
never be able to get elected. And after you
grab all the power and the money, you'll
swallow up all us little folk. This will be a
government run by and for a tyrannical
And whom would you have representing
us in government? Not the rich, not the
wise, not the learned? Would you go to
some ditch by the highway and pick up the
thieves, the poor, and the lame to lead us?
Yes, we need an aristocracy to be running
our government -- an aristocracy of
intelligence, integrity and experience.
Constitution is Ratified along with a
Promise to Bill US…With Rights
• The Bill of Rights Provide Anti-Federalists with
an assurance that Individual Liberties will not
be sacrificed in favor of a strong central
government> Or an All Powerful JZ!!!
• First Amendment provides for Freedom of
Speech, Press, Petition, and Assembly (Public
Sphere) and lastly Religion (Spiritual Freedom)
• Any powers not stipulated in the Constitution
reside in the states…Assurance that states
remain somewhat sovereign
April 30, 1789 Washington is sworn
in as our First President in NYC
He takes over a
broke. A nation
What’s a former
hero to do??
Hamilton to the
Assumption is when you make an Ass
out of Hugh and Moi
1. The Federal Government will pay off its debts
and not repudiate them.
2. The Federal Government will get into more
debt and Assume all the debts of the states.
3. Creditors who were wealthy bankers and
merchants were forced to rely on the new
government to be solvent so they would be
4. Therefore the needed economic trust and
confidence in the Federal Government would
be established and its credit rating would
Many oppose the Idea
• Henry Lee calls A Public Debt a Public Curse.
• Many state leader block the assumption bill in
• In 1790, New York City is a very small place,
and Hamilton and Secretary of State Thomas
Jefferson are neighbors. Jefferson has a more
pressing concern than assumption -- the location
of the nation's capital, presently situated in New
York City. He is eager to move the seat of
government far from the foul air of the country's
The Dinner Table Compromise
1. Hamilton needs The Assumption Bill to save
the integrity of the new Constitution
2. Jefferson wants the Federal Government’s
Capital to be relocated to a rural southern area
away from the crowded money makers of
NYC…+ it smells….
3. They happen to be neighbors and decide to
have dinner with James Madison as referee…
4. They strike a deal…Jefferson will support the
Assumption Bill and the Capital will be built on
the banks of the Potomac River in Virginia
The National Bank Crisis
The controversy began with the assumption
of the debt, which has vastly expanded the
power of the federal government. For
Hamilton though, this was just the
beginning. He sees America as an
undeveloped land with enormous
potential. He sets out to reshape the
country, to transform it into one that can
hold its head high among the great nations
of the world.
Hamilton vs. Jefferson: The
Beginning of Political Factions
Hamilton is convinced that the United States
must develop industry and commerce if it is ever
to become a great nation. Jefferson has a very
different vision for the country. He wants
America to remain primarily rural -- independent
farmers working the land with little interference
from government. Jefferson and his allies see
Hamilton's powerful central government as a
potent threat to individual liberty.
The Democratic Republicans Want:
1. A nation of agriculture, independent farmers
2. Individual Liberty Preserved
3. Less Interference from the Federal Government
4. Strict Interpretation of the Constitution (Do Exactly
what it states)
5. State’s rights respected and observed
6. Preference for French Liberty not English Aristocracy
7. Jefferson believed that the only honest profit is made
by the man who tills the soil. And everything that
Hamilton wanted must have seemed like a nightmare
The Public Sphere Emerges As a
Bastion for Political Bullets
1. Jefferson and his allies focus all of their energies on
opposing Hamilton and his plans. They band together
in a loose political alliance, calling themselves
"Republicans." Hamilton and supporters of
Washington's administration are called "Federalists."
2. This split is the first sign of what will become
America's two-party system.
3. Both Hamilton and Jefferson hire journalists and pay
them to attack the ideas of their opponents.
4. With unrestrained ferocity, these party organs attack
not only the policies, but the very character and
reputation of their opponents.
The French Revolution Divides the
1. In 1793, Louis the Sixteenth is executed. Many
Americans rejoice. Jefferson and the Republicans take
up the French cause and organize celebrations in the
streets. Another revolution is overthrowing a king, and
the people are taking control of their government.
2. Thomas Jefferson: They have been awakened by our
revolution. They feel their strength, their lights are
3. Alexander Hamilton: How can our people embrace the
most cruel, bloody, and violent event that ever stained
the annals of mankind? It is a monster born with teeth!
4. The French Revolution widens the gulf between the two
parties, pointing to a deep-seated difference in their
attitude towards popular politics. The Republicans
present themselves as the party of the common man.
1. Hamilton believes as fervently as Jefferson in the ideals
of representative government, but he has contempt for
the game of popular politics.
2. In the coming years, Hamilton will be cast as an elitist,
while Jefferson, born into the Virginia gentry, will
become the man of the people.
3. Thomas Fleming, Biographer: I think one of the ironies
of Hamilton's duel with Jefferson, his struggle for power,
was the fact that here was Jefferson -- owner of a
hundred or two hundred slaves, living on his plantation,
getting wealthy on their unsalaried labor -- and he
became the man of the people. And Hamilton -- working
for a living and like the average American -- has been
painted as the patron of the rich and so forth, and it's ...
history is full of ironies and this is one of the cruelest
ironies in many ways.
4. There are strong minds in every walk of life that will
overcome the disadvantages of their birth, and will
command tribute due to their merit. ~ Hamilton
The Election of 1800 A New
Revolution of Political Shifts & Ideals
• The vote among the electors is a tie at 72
between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson and
is sent to the House of Representatives, where
again there is a tie. In a flurry of letters, Hamilton
urges one congressman to switch his vote. The
tie is broken. Thomas Jefferson becomes the
third president of the United States.
• The Republicans are now firmly in control of the
government. Populist politics, which Hamilton so
hates, seems to be the order of the day. In his
mind, the country, which he has fought for most
of his life, is headed towards disaster.