Constitutional convevntion and factions

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Constitutional convevntion and factions

  1. 1. Chapter 6 The Revolution Within 1.  Compare and contrast Common Sense and The Declaration of Independence. How did these two documents shape the ideas for American Liberty and Natural Rights? 2.  Why was the Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations so significant 3.  Describe the role of women and African Americans as the United States emerged as a new nation conceived in “Liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”
  2. 2. Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences by Samuel Jennings (1792)
  3. 3. We hold these truths to be self evident.. >George Washington owned over 300 slaves including one named Harry Washington >Thomas Jefferson owned over 100 slaves including mistress Sally Hemings (Right) 1799 List of over 300 slaves of our 1st President
  4. 4. Founding Fathers on Religion 1.  Prayer of Protection 2.  Separation of Church & State 3.  Deism 4.  Virginia’s Statute of Freedom of Religious Toleration Act 5.  A land of spiritual pluralism for future immigrants Virginia’s Statute of Religious Freedom (Written 1777 Ratified 1786)
  5. 5. Southern Attitude Henry Laurens: John Laurens: “I’d rather lose the war “Awww, Pop!” than lose my slaves.”
  6. 6. To free or enslave?? (Left) Virginian planter Robert Carter III Manumitted over 400 slaves beginning in 1796 (Right) First Supreme Court Chief Justice, John Jay owned five slaves as late as 1800
  7. 7. John & Elizabeth Lloyd Cadwalader Mercy Otis Warren by Charles Wilson Peale
  8. 8. Abigail Adams•  Ladies Association •  Gender & Politics •  Republican Motherhood
  9. 9. Deborah Sampson Don’t mess with Debbie…Disguised as a young boy, at 21 Deborah enlisted in the Continental Army – proved her courage in several battles, and even, according to Foner – extricated a bullet from her leg to avoid her true gender from being discovered by a doctor.
  10. 10. Chapter 7 Creating a New Nation "You and I, dear friend, have been sent into life at a time when the greatest lawgivers of antiquity would have wished to live." So John Adams wrote his friend in 1776. "When, before," he asked, had three million people "full power and a fair opportunity to form and establish the wisest and happiest government that human wisdom can contrive?"
  11. 11. Would the US fail as other Republics? 1.  Define a Republic 2.  Ancient Roman Republic Failed as others 3.  Absolute power tends to corrupt. 4.  The Founding Fathers were faced with this question of “Power in Government.” Why & How??? The Roman Senate was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, however it always was forced to contend with corruption and the absolute power of Caesars >>> Kings >>> Emperors >>> History Teachers J!!
  12. 12. What is a Constitution? A constitution is an agreed-upon set of rules and laws that tell people how their government is set up, what their government can do, and what their government can’t do. In the United States today, every state has a constitution. Some organizations have constitutions. The most famous constitution in America is the U.S. Constitution.
  13. 13. 1777 -1787 Confederation of America: “A firm league of Friendship for Self Government” The “u” was small before they enlarged it to a Capitol “U”!!
  14. 14. State Legislatures like Massachusetts Lead the Way 1.  Each colony devised their state constitutions based on the rule of self-government that restricted abusive central authority = Balance was the KEY 2.  In 1780 Massachusetts, amended theirs to include 3 Articles that separated their government powers into the Legislature; Governor; & State Judicial (sound familiar?) 3.  The people from rural towns in Mass elected delegates to go to a specially elected constitutional convention. Then the convention sent its draft back to the state legislature for ratification. The Massachusetts constitution of 1780 was therefore a direct act of legislation by the sovereign people. 4.  "We... the people of Massachusetts,…” began their State Constitution…(again sound familiar?)
  15. 15. Woe’s Me: The Articles r Killin’ Me 1.  Define Sovereignty as it applied to the distribution of power in the “u”nited States during the Articles of Confederation. What four factors must a nation have to be sovereign? 2.  List & describe two successes of the Articles of Confederation. Hint: They were both ideas of Thomas Jefferson. 3.  List eight weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. 4.  Briefly describe how the Shay’s Rebellion forced the Nation to reevaluate it’s form of government. 5.  Describe the man who thought of the idea for the Annapolis Convention and what was its outcome?
  16. 16. The Good, Bad & The Ugly 1.  Treaty of Paris of 1783 Gains Independence and Land for US 2.  Virtues of Freedom are expressed by other groups like Republican Women, African Americans, Native Americans & the Public Sphere 3.  Thomas Jefferson exemplifies nationalism: Virginia Statute of Religious Toleration; Empire of Liberty; Advocate of International Rebellion for the Consent of the Governed i.e. Paris 1789 4.  The Good: State Legislatures Have Established a Template for Reasonable Government 5.  Land Ordinance of 1784/85 6.  Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  17. 17. 1. The Land Ordinance of 1785 laid the foundation for future American land policy. 2. The Land Ordinance of 1785 set forth how the government of the United States would measure, divide and distribute the land it had acquired from Great Britain north and west of the Ohio River at the end of the American Revolution. 3. After the Indian title had been purchased?, the ceded lands were to be systematically surveyed, prior to sale or settlement, into townships 6 mi X 6 mi blocks (36 sq. miles). Of which each had thirty-six sections of 1 sq. mi or 640 acres, the sixteenth was reserved “for the maintenance of public schools.’‘ A typical farm was ¼ section or 160 acres. The minimum price per acre was $1.00. This allowed for a fair & equal way to settle the western frontier. How? What was the goal of Congress? Page 263.
  18. 18. 1.  Freedom of Religion 2.  Right to Trial by Jury 3.  No Cruel or Unusual Punishment 4.  No slavery in the territory Big Effect! 5.  The N/W Ord. also described how territories will become states> How??? A.  Few settlers… B.  When pop. Reaches 5,000…. C.  When pop. Reaches 60,000 then …. D.  Which state was 1st ? E.  What other states make up NW Territ.
  19. 19. The Bad: Articles of Confusion: A Weak Government for a new Nation
  20. 20. Articles of Confederation 1.  ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION were drafted and passed by the Congress in November 1777. 2.  The purpose of the central government was clearly stated in the Articles. The Congress had control over diplomacy, printing money, resolving controversies between different states, and, most importantly, coordinating the war effort. 3.  The most important action of the Continental Congress was probably the creation and maintenance of the Continental Army. 4.  The organization of CONGRESS itself demonstrates the primacy of state power. Each state had one vote. Nine out of thirteen states had to support a law for it to be enacted. 5.  Furthermore, any changes to the Articles themselves would require unanimous agreement. In the ONE-STATE, ONE-VOTE RULE, state sovereignty was given a primary place even within the national government. Furthermore, the whole national government consisted entirely of the unicameral (one body) Congress with no executive and no judicial organizations. 6.  The worst issue about the Articles of Confederation was that it couldn’t the one thing that got “us” into a war to begin with: Taxes 7.  By the end of the war the New Confederation called the United States of America was BROKE!!! Yes, we were independent however the new nation was about to embark on a very tenuous beginning…..
  21. 21. Shay’s Rebellion When? 1786-1787 Who? Like Bacon’s Rebellion before them Indebted and bankrupt frustrated farmers in Western Mass. Led by Amer. Rev. veteran Daniel Shays took arms against their governor over high taxes Where? Raided armory in Springfield Mass. Why? Believed their uppers house of state government had abandoned them in favor of Boston and New York bankers and land speculators. Farms foreclosures and high taxes were making them destitute. Effect? Called into question the weaknesses and inability of the Confederate Congress under the Articles of Confederation to prevent mob anarchy to protect American citizens. What was needed was a strong central federal government established by the will of the people, not the limited one based by AofC
  22. 22. James Madison… •  Well Read, Well Bred, Well Fed…Wellcomed!!! •  Father of Constitution •  Virginian (Jefferson’s Neighbor, Washington’s confident used Mount Vernon’s Library) •  Read extensively on European Governments from antiquity to modernity •  Believed the Articles of Confusion needed to be amended…. •  How???? He believe that under the Articles America had abused an “excessive democracy.” •  This "excessive democracy," Madison grew to believe, was the cause of a larger social decay which he and others (such as Washington) believed had resumed after the revolution and was nearing a tipping point. They were alarmed by Shays' Rebellion.
  23. 23. Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 •  Without government there would be “continual fear and danger of violent death and life would be solitary, poor nasty, brutish and short.” •  Humans are basically selfish creatures •  Wrote Leviathan
  24. 24. John Locke on Role of Government 1.  Natural Rights 2.  Protection of Property 3.  Consent of the Governed 4.  Social Compact 5.  Government Continued Accountability to their constituents 6.  Right of people to overthrow government if it breaks it’s covenant with the source of its power: of the people, by the people for the people: Self-Government
  25. 25. How is the Power Distributed in our Federal Government? One of the most important aspects of the U.S. Constitution is that it established the role of the federal government, breaking down its responsibilities into three distinct branches. What are they? Baron de Montesquieu
  26. 26. 1.  We the People 2.  A more Perfect Union 3.  Establish Justice 4.  Insure Domestic Tranquility 5.  Provide for the common defense 6.  Promote the general welfare 7.  Secure the blessings of liberty To ourselves & our posterity
  27. 27. Purpose of Government •  Establish Justice “The most sacred of our duties”~TJ To create a system of fair, reasonable & impartial laws that protects society equally. “Injustice is anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere” Martin Luther King
  28. 28. Purpose of Government Insure Domestic Tranquility “If men were angels, government would not be necessary”~ JM A function of our Government insures that society can live together peacefully, without chaos and anarchy. LAW & ORDER is essential to maintain everyone’s happiness.
  29. 29. Purpose of Government Provide for the Common Defense Defending the nation from foreign threats and enemies is another important purpose to our Government. There are two sides to this coin: The security of the US The ability of restraint as we became more powerful
  30. 30. Purpose of Government Promote the General Welfare The laws and services that the federal government provides protects our society from inherent dangers that other may cause. For example: Health laws Pollution Education Infrastructures
  31. 31. Purpose of Government Secure the Blessings of Liberty We must give up some liberties to protect the freedom to pursue our own personal happiness. Liberty is not absolute, it must come with inherent protections so that all society can live together peacefully.
  32. 32. Advanced Critical Questions?? 1.  What were the five purposes of the Constitution?? Legitimacy ~ Structure ~ Checks/Balances ~ Describe/Distribute Power ~ Elasticity (allow for change) 2.  How can the states be involved in this process? Ratification (9/13 needed to pass) 3.  How can the basic rights of citizens be protected? Amendments: 1ST Ten Bill of Rights
  33. 33. Gotta Have a Plan, Man! James Madison’s Virginia Plan: (Most Populated State, then) This plan was favored by bigger states. It focused on building one strong federal government. Representation was based on the size of a state’s population with a one house legislature Unicameral William Patterson’s New Jersey Plan: This plan gave each state equal representation regardless of population. Roger Sherman’s The Connecticut Plan: Known later as the “Great Compromise,” this plan established the Senate, in which each state would have two senators, and the House, where representation would be based on population.
  34. 34. Rights & Responsibilities of The Three Branches Legislative Executive Judicial
  35. 35. Legislative Powers: 1.  Creates & Passes Federals Laws 2.  Creates lower courts & lower judges 3.  Can override a President’s Veto by a 2/3 Vote 4.  Power of the Purse Presidential Powers: 1.  Approves or Vetoes Federal Bills 2.  Carries out & Enforces Federal Laws 3.  Appoints Supreme Court Judges 4.  Commander & Chief of Armed Forces 5.  Makes Foreign Treaties Supreme Court Powers: 1.  Interprets & Applies the law by trying federal cases 2.  Can declare laws passed by Congress and the President Unconstitutional 3.  “Highest Court of the Land” Checks & Balances: Rights & Responsibilities of The Three Branches Article I Legislative Article II Executive Article III Judicial
  36. 36. 1.  The Electoral College was established by the founding fathers as a compromise between election of the president by Congress and election by popular vote. The people of the United States vote for the electors who then vote for the President 2.  The National Census taken each 10 years can increase or decrease each state’s electoral votes based on population gains or losses. An Electoral College where everyone is confused…
  37. 37. What about the slaves The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
  38. 38. An Abomination of Human Rights for a Temporary Stop Measure Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the United States Constitution: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
  39. 39. Phillis Wheatley Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land, Taught my benighted soul to understand That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too: Once I redemption neither sought nor knew. Some view our sable race with scornful eye, "Their colour is a diabolic dye." Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain, May be refin'd, and join th' angelic train 1.  Phillis Wheatley was the first African American, the first slave, and the third woman in the United States to publish a book of poems. 2.  Kidnapped in West Africa and transported aboard the slave ship Phillis to Boston in 1761, she was purchased by John Wheatley as a servant for his wife. Young Phillis quickly learned to speak English and to read the Bible with amazing fluency. 3.  She published her first poem in 1767, and six years later, she published a book, Poems on Various Subjects. That same year, John Wheatley emancipated her. 4.  Wheatley demonstrated how African Americans once freed can possess the equalities embodied by all Americans – a direct affront to Southern racist beliefs.
  40. 40. Benjamin Banneker A brilliant African American during the time of the early Republic who was a mathematician, inventor, and publisher of an Almanac that argued for emancipation of all slaves. Banneker’s correspondences with Jefferson in 1793 exemplified both his admonition of slavery and Jefferson’s inner conflict with the institution. Why?? 1. Banneker’s achievements refuted Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia (1785) which suggested African Americans weren’t capable of reason, self-control, and contributing to the Republican Community 2.  As a disciple of the enlightenment Jefferson also believed that the environment can shape a person’s life over their heredity – with the exception of slaves… 3.  Jefferson believed that America should have a homogenous society that excluded slaves….who should be returned to Africa to enjoy their natural rights. 4.  Banneker chastised Jefferson in a letter for being both the author of a document that heralded the equality of men & “detaining them by fraud under groaning captivity and cruel oppression.”
  41. 41. Sally Hemings Sally Hemings (1773-1835) was a slave at Monticello; she lived in Paris with Jefferson and two of his daughters from 1787 to 1789; and she had at least six children. She was a nanny to his children while in Paris, nevertheless there are no written documents that corroborate a sexual relationship between the two. 1.  However, all her children were light skinned and from former slaves resembled Jefferson. 2.  They all were treated exceptionally well on Jefferson’s Monticello estate, and later freed. Sally remained a slave. 3.  In September 1802, political journalist James T. Callender, a disaffected former ally of Jefferson, wrote in a Richmond newspaper that Jefferson had for many years "kept, as his concubine, one of his own slaves." "Her name is Sally," Callender continued, adding that Jefferson had "several children" by her. 4.  What is certain is that while a slave owner Jefferson embodied the shameful contradictions of the ideals of an early American Republic founded on the very principles he drafted while owning humans beings in forced bondage.
  42. 42. September 17, 1787
  43. 43. The Constitution was Ratified on September 17, 1787 1.  Despite the “heated” debates over 4 months the 54 delegates from 13 states signed their names to our new framework for our government – the “bundle of compromises” created a firm but elastic 4000 word document that could be amended when necessary… 2.  The Constitution proposes a radical shift in power, from the individual states to a strong, central government and a president with real authority. 3.  However, since governments are created by the people for the people – The US Constitution was put forth to the 13 states to be approved “ratified.” Nine states were needed to make it the “Law of the Land.” Nice to get a unanimous mandate…. 4.  Two sides emerged: The Federalists led by Madison, Hamilton, Franklin and Washington and the Anti-federalists headed by Patrick Henry, George Mason and James Winthrop. 5.  Since the Federalists had originally come up with the main ideas for the Constitution they were in a better position to argue in favor of it. The 85 Federalist Papers became their “pulpit for approval.”
  44. 44. The Federalist Papers •  Five basic themes can be discerned from the words of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, including federalism, checks and balances, separated powers, pluralism, and representation. •  The Federalist Papers are published in newspapers, one or two a week over the next seven months •  The Federalist Papers have become the classic interpretation on the U.S. Constitution, cited about three hundred times over the last two centuries by the Supreme Court -- more than any other document. The Federalist Papers have almost acquired the authority of the Constitution itself, they're cited so frequently.
  45. 45. Property as land, assets, and money Property as the intellectual capacity to think, believe & improve Government protects both
  46. 46. Federalist Paper #10 “Factions” By a faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community. . . .Publius A republic, by which I mean a government in which the scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect and promises the cure for which we are seeking. The federal The Constitution forms a happy combination in this respect; the great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local, and particular to the state legislatures. A Republic affords Majority Rules (Republic) with minority Rights (Democracy)
  47. 47. Cost of the War The U.S. finally solved its debt and currency problems in the 1790s when Alexander Hamilton spearheade d the establishment of the First Bank of the United States The British spent about £80 million and ended with a national debt of £250 million, which it easily financed at about £9.5 million a year in interest. The United States spent $37 million at the national level plus $114 million by the states. This was mostly covered by loans from France and the Netherlands, loans from Americans, and issuance of an increasing amount of paper money (which became "not worth a continental").
  48. 48. Alexander Hamilton’s Vision: A potent nation based on a strong capitalistic economy fueled by urban enterprise and fiscal responsibility. Banks, internal manufacturing, investments, growth of American cities J!!! As a delegate from New York, it was essential for his state to ratify the Constitution. However, many western New Yorkers and urban artisans feared the new government would take away their liberties. Hamilton argued that the new government rather would protect their liberties and freedom from it’s internal checks and balances and separation of powers. Tyranny would be avoided in favor of a strong accountable federal government would create the perfect balance between “liberty and power.” In effect, Hamilton asks “Why has government been instituted at all? Because the passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice without constraint.” He would know this better then most as his passions got the better of him in 1804 when
  49. 49. Two Views…. Anti-Federalist, Robert Bartlett: “You men of ‘learning,’ you lawyers will take control of this federal government. Ordinary people with good sense will never be able to get elected. And after you grab all the power and the money, you'll swallow up all us little folk. This will be a government run by and for a tyrannical aristocracy.”
  50. 50. Hamilton responds… And whom would you have representing us in government? Not the rich, not the wise, not the learned? Would you go to some ditch by the highway and pick up the thieves, the poor, and the lame to lead us? Yes, we need an aristocracy to be running our government -- an aristocracy of intelligence, integrity and experience.
  51. 51. Constitution is Ratified along with a Promise to Bill US…With Rights •  The Bill of Rights Provide Anti-Federalists with an assurance that Individual Liberties will not be sacrificed in favor of a strong central government> Or an All Powerful JZ!!! •  First Amendment provides for Freedom of Speech, Press, Petition, and Assembly (Public Sphere) and lastly Religion (Spiritual Freedom) •  Any powers not stipulated in the Constitution reside in the states…Assurance that states remain somewhat sovereign
  52. 52. April 30, 1789 Washington is sworn in as our First President in NYC He takes over a nation that’s broke. A nation that owes everyone and everybody What’s a former national military hero to do?? Delegate!!! Hamilton to the rescue
  53. 53. Assumption is when you make an Ass out of Hugh and Moi 1.  The Federal Government will pay off its debts and not repudiate them. 2.  The Federal Government will get into more debt and Assume all the debts of the states. 3.  Creditors who were wealthy bankers and merchants were forced to rely on the new government to be solvent so they would be paid back. 4.  Therefore the needed economic trust and confidence in the Federal Government would be established and its credit rating would increase internationally.
  54. 54. Many oppose the Idea •  Henry Lee calls A Public Debt a Public Curse. •  Many state leader block the assumption bill in Congress. •  In 1790, New York City is a very small place, and Hamilton and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson are neighbors. Jefferson has a more pressing concern than assumption -- the location of the nation's capital, presently situated in New York City. He is eager to move the seat of government far from the foul air of the country's commercial center.
  55. 55. The Dinner Table Compromise 1.  Hamilton needs The Assumption Bill to save the integrity of the new Constitution 2.  Jefferson wants the Federal Government’s Capital to be relocated to a rural southern area away from the crowded money makers of NYC…+ it smells…. 3.  They happen to be neighbors and decide to have dinner with James Madison as referee… 4.  They strike a deal…Jefferson will support the Assumption Bill and the Capital will be built on the banks of the Potomac River in Virginia
  56. 56. The National Bank Crisis The controversy began with the assumption of the debt, which has vastly expanded the power of the federal government. For Hamilton though, this was just the beginning. He sees America as an undeveloped land with enormous potential. He sets out to reshape the country, to transform it into one that can hold its head high among the great nations of the world.
  57. 57. Hamilton vs. Jefferson: The Beginning of Political Factions Hamilton is convinced that the United States must develop industry and commerce if it is ever to become a great nation. Jefferson has a very different vision for the country. He wants America to remain primarily rural -- independent farmers working the land with little interference from government. Jefferson and his allies see Hamilton's powerful central government as a potent threat to individual liberty.
  58. 58. The Democratic Republicans Want: 1.  A nation of agriculture, independent farmers (Yeomen). 2.  Individual Liberty Preserved 3.  Less Interference from the Federal Government 4.  Strict Interpretation of the Constitution (Do Exactly what it states) 5.  State’s rights respected and observed 6.  Preference for French Liberty not English Aristocracy 7.  Jefferson believed that the only honest profit is made by the man who tills the soil. And everything that Hamilton wanted must have seemed like a nightmare to them.
  59. 59. The Public Sphere Emerges As a Bastion for Political Bullets 1.  Jefferson and his allies focus all of their energies on opposing Hamilton and his plans. They band together in a loose political alliance, calling themselves "Republicans." Hamilton and supporters of Washington's administration are called "Federalists." 2.  This split is the first sign of what will become America's two-party system. 3.  Both Hamilton and Jefferson hire journalists and pay them to attack the ideas of their opponents. 4.  With unrestrained ferocity, these party organs attack not only the policies, but the very character and reputation of their opponents.
  60. 60. The French Revolution Divides the Men Further 1.  In 1793, Louis the Sixteenth is executed. Many Americans rejoice. Jefferson and the Republicans take up the French cause and organize celebrations in the streets. Another revolution is overthrowing a king, and the people are taking control of their government. 2.  Thomas Jefferson: They have been awakened by our revolution. They feel their strength, their lights are spreading. 3.  Alexander Hamilton: How can our people embrace the most cruel, bloody, and violent event that ever stained the annals of mankind? It is a monster born with teeth! 4.  The French Revolution widens the gulf between the two parties, pointing to a deep-seated difference in their attitude towards popular politics. The Republicans present themselves as the party of the common man.
  61. 61. Such Contradictions…. 1.  Hamilton believes as fervently as Jefferson in the ideals of representative government, but he has contempt for the game of popular politics. 2.  In the coming years, Hamilton will be cast as an elitist, while Jefferson, born into the Virginia gentry, will become the man of the people. 3.  Thomas Fleming, Biographer: I think one of the ironies of Hamilton's duel with Jefferson, his struggle for power, was the fact that here was Jefferson -- owner of a hundred or two hundred slaves, living on his plantation, getting wealthy on their unsalaried labor -- and he became the man of the people. And Hamilton -- working for a living and like the average American -- has been painted as the patron of the rich and so forth, and it's ... history is full of ironies and this is one of the cruelest ironies in many ways. 4.  There are strong minds in every walk of life that will overcome the disadvantages of their birth, and will command tribute due to their merit. ~ Hamilton
  62. 62. The Election of 1800 A New Revolution of Political Shifts & Ideals •  The vote among the electors is a tie at 72 between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson and is sent to the House of Representatives, where again there is a tie. In a flurry of letters, Hamilton urges one congressman to switch his vote. The tie is broken. Thomas Jefferson becomes the third president of the United States. •  The Republicans are now firmly in control of the government. Populist politics, which Hamilton so hates, seems to be the order of the day. In his mind, the country, which he has fought for most of his life, is headed towards disaster.

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