• Muhammad Alif Afifi Bin Zafri ( F55-113-0009 )
• Muhammad Haris Aiman Bin Muhamad Yani ( F55-113-0014 )
• Tamim Dahri Bin Abdul Razak ( F55-113-0006 )
• Alternating current (AC) is current whose direction periodically reverses.
• An AC voltage source is a voltage source that produces alternating
• Examples: Electrical outlets in the walls of your home provide alternating
current. The trainer that you use in lab also contains an AC voltage
source called a function generator.
As a junior engineer to M&H Consultant, you have to give a
detail presentation on how an AC System being generated to
the technicians whereby at the end of you presentation all the
objective state below are achieved.
SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORM AND ITS
• Amplitude is the maximum value of current or voltage. It is represented by either of the two peaks
of the sine wave.
• The peak-to-peak value of a sine wave, is the voltage or current from positive peak to negative...
• The second value of voltage is the actual useful voltage that is available and is called RMS. This
stands for Root Mean Square and it is the standard way of measuring and reporting alternating
current and voltage.
• The number of times the sine wave pattern cycle occurs in a second.
Symmetrical and periodic alternating waveforms
Symmetrical and non-periodic alternating waveforms
Non-symmetrical and periodic alternating waveform
Non-symmetrical and non-periodic alternating waveform
SINE WAVE GENERATE AND ANGULAR
• As the coil rotates around the central axis which is perpendicular to the magnetic field,
the wire loop cuts the lines of force set up between the north and south poles at different
angles as the loop rotates.
f ( rad/second )
HOW PHASOR RELATE TO SINE WAVE
• Basically a rotating vector, simply called a "Phasor" is a scaled line whose length
represents an AC quantity that has both magnitude ("peak amplitude") and direction
("phase") which is "frozen" at some point in time.
• A phasor is a vector that has an arrow head at one end which signifies partly the
maximum value of the vector quantity ( V or I ) and partly the end of the vector that
Radian= ( /180 ) x degree
Degree= ( ) x radian
HOW TO MEASURE WAVEFORM BY USING
• We can measure the peak value of wave by using oscilloscope by observe the
value of voltage at positive or negative maximum peak with respect to zero.
• We also can measure the peak-to-peak value by observe the value of voltage or
current from positive to negative peak. It is always twice peak value.
• We also can measure the RMS(root mean square) or effective value of
sinusoidal voltage that measured the heating effect of sine wave.
• After finished the presentation, we have able to identify and know the
characteristics of sine wave.
• We have also able to describe how sine wave being generated and have
able to use phasor to represent a sine wave.
• Finally, we have know how to use oscilloscope to measure the