Characteristics of Adult Learning.
Badea Ana,Teacher Training House Arges
This paper work presents the particularities of adult learning reflected in practical
application, continuing education course directors, guidance and control in Arges-
efficient and effective management of university education. The training program is
provided by the Teacher Training House Arges, accredited by Ministry of Education,
with a total of 25 professional transferable credits.
Adult learning, education management, training, communication,
Approaching learning tools used in adults and also for children is easy
but inappropriate. Although both the child and the adult carries self Policy -
learning - there are essential differences between them. If the learning
process engages cognitive dimensions and also affective, motivational and
volitional dimensions of human personality that support "intentional
modification or conversion of human behavior conditioned by the
experience," then the differences become more apparent.
Dominance learning in children is given by the accumulation and
structuring. In adults learning is deep restructuring and creation, is
participation, and builds his entire working life experience. Therefore, in
contrast to the children learning, adult learning is based on real situations,
cut fromlife, thus taking advantage of their experience.
After Kidd (1981), adult learning is a "struggle" with the emphasis on
being active individual who seeks finds, establish, acquire (knowledges,
skills, habits). He wants something, does something, acquire something. All
these active verbs suggests that adult learning is not a simple
accumulation, but a reorganization, restructuring (sometimes unlearning)
of what is known. Moreover, it means a transformation of the entire
personality, a qualitative change in how to think, feel and act.
Among adult learning characteristics, Kidd identifies the following:
1. People learn throughout life, even through periods of development or
decline in this action
2. Learning effect is to change the role of the individual (acquired status
of a friend, a citizen, a family member, worker, etc.).
3. Through socialization, individuals acquire maturity (capability of self,
self-discipline, autonomy, self-understanding) and from this perspective
he approaches life events.
4. Experience (more, more diverse, organized differently) has great
importance in the adult decision to engage in learning.
5. The desire to act, to engage, to "wake up" to life leads to the status of
self-taught many adults - people who study life.
Adult learners have special significance during and aging. They perceive
reality in a proper manner, "see distant goals and value their time, contacts,
considers satisfactory social situations."
Resistance to learning is an attitude often manifested among adults. It is
the result of perception learning as "a painful process of change personally
and intellectually, as well as on that of the manual operations involved in
learning" (Kidd, 1981).
Adults become susceptible when they are required to overcome new
difficulties or learning approach, with the awareness of the condition and
their special role.
Overcoming these obstacles can be achieved by placing learning in a
group context stimulating creating an ambience (even from physically)
enjoyable and encouraging. Promote collaboration, respect their learning
pace, avoiding external constraints, all this leads to stimulation of appetite
for learning and building self-confidence.
To understand "how adults learn" must not only identify new roles that
they assume, the tasks facing, but also life circumstances they face.
Vivian Landsheere suggests that the articulation of work and learning in
a unified approach. Adults learn for themselves, to evolve professionally
and socially. From this perspective, must be activated and used adult's
ability and willingness to assume responsibility for their own training and to
plan the project to expand the knowledge, ability to overcome obstacles, as
well as that of their (self) assess skills and opportunities to progress.
We notice that the most obvious feature of adult learning is given by the
responsibility with which they seek to acquire knowledge and skills. The
adult is the "motivated" of his plans for life, his aspirations. He is an
independent man (contrary of child who is dependent) and engage in an
activity (learning) only if there is a correlation between their projects of life
and the urge to achieve them. Adult learner decides to revert to learn, only if
ge considers that must change his status (provided psychosocial learning) -
as a professional member of the family or in small groups. If any
professional work or social work or family situation did not cause this
desire, then you can convince him very difficult to learn (Urbanczyk, 1975).
How do adults learn?
Malcolm Knowles performed a characterization of the defining features
for adult learners, highlighting the following:
- Adults are independent
Therefore they should be allowed to express themselves freely. It is
advisable to be involved in the implementation of projects to reveal their
professional interests and knowledge, thus showing them how solving
various training tasks can help them in achieving personal goals.
- Adults have a rich life experience
They need to recognize their previous experience and even to be
- Adults are proposing to undertake to achieve whatever goal
It is recommended that the training program in which they are engaged to
be revealed in a transparent manner the goals and objectives that must be
- Adults are attracted to what is relevant
They need to understand the rationale for the need to learn something
new. It is recommended that they be given the opportunity to choose their
own projects they will realize, for just such projects will reflect their own
- Adults have common sense
That means that must be demonstrated how what they learn is useful in
Adult learning barriers
Unlike children, adults have many responsibilities, which creates, by
default, many barriers to engaging in a learning process.The reasons given
most often by adults are:
"I already know"
Participants who expressed such an attitude are generally those who think
it does not require the training because it is considered to be already trained
in this area. Typically, these are people who come more for a diploma. It
requires the trainer to use their experience in order to reach his goal.
There is necessary to prepare exciting training sessions for participants
who believe that participation in the learning session is irrelevant or boring.
Generally people are used to learn in a traditional style of type: trainer
dictates, they take their notes. The trainer should propose innovative
methods of content delivery
"Too old to learn"
This general attitude can be seen in older people, who for various reasons
do not have to believe that you learn. This behavior is determined by the
complex evolution of technology or specialized languages (eg trainer,
feedback). Many of them are not aware of the significance of these
languages and feel embarrassed that they are not able to participate actively.
Totally wrong! People learn as long as they live and it is a shame to not be
familiar with certain concepts. Active participation in class is a way to learn
"Lack of trust"
The fact that students attend a training session with different
backgrounds and different functions makes some of them do not participate
actively in class for fear of being derided (shy) or because they do not trust
the rest participants. They have emotions when they have to speak and avoid
getting involved in activities. They should be involved as much without
being singled out individually.
"Lack of time"
Whatever form courses (evening of short duration, distance) adult
invests time, they need to "break" from other activities and concerns of its
"Lack of money"
The number of institutions that offer free training is very low. Therefore,
the money is often a barrier to access adult education services, especially in
Caring for children, relationship with husband / wife household
obligations, "steal" the study time.
"Organizing schedule": work and the family obligations often requires
the study timetable changes and sacrifices.
"Problems of motivation"
They are inefficient adults in training process because they were forced
to learn, them having their own motivation.
"Lack of confidence"
Low self-esteem, past failures marks the adult, preventing him to
overcome frustrations and fears.
The most effective way to motivate adults is to increase the number of
arguments in favor of their own involvement in the educational process and
to decrease the number of factors-barrier or even removing. It's
recommended that the trainer/ instructor to know the attitude of adult
learning. Thus, he could find the motivation strategies, demonstrating the
correlation between adult learners and training activities and the successful
achievement of goals.
Everyone can learn at any age, any field of study. It is vital to apply
effective strategies and relevant training your own style, find those inner
resources to mobilize us. There are not valid arguments that with age and
decrease our intellectual performance, we lose our memory, we infantile
thinking. They're just subterfuges of our own, cheap and wrecks. We can
learn, we have the potential to unexplored depths. It really matters if we
really want to know more today than we knew yesterday, that tomorrow we
can do what we did today, thae tend to find other Americas, other bikes and
new theories of the match.
Adult education is an area of enormous complexity and, at first glance, it
seems to exist more current than the counter-current, more paradox than
consensus. In the literature can also be found phrases like "adult education" ,
"continuing education" (permanent education), "recurrent education",
"Lifetime Education" (lifelong education), "lifelong learning" .
Each of these terms put some relevant aspect of the phenomenon
examined, making it common idea of continuity of learning throughout
life.Theoretical problem of adult education began developing his
psychological and sociological aspects, namely by identifying and studying
the psychological development of adult periods E. Thorndike, LP Jung, D.
Super, E.H. Erikson, H. Moers, V.V. Ghinzburg, V.V. Bunak, U. Şchiopu,
E. Green I. Şchiopu) and social processes (OG Brimm, GH Mead). These
approaches in terms of two complementary domains essential for science
education shows internal and external determinism capacity, availability and
need for learning human nature.
Carl Gustav Jung, the psychologist considered age-centered psychology,
suggests further development in social life and institutions where religion
and myths have an important place. The psychologist Erik H. Erikson,
attracted by the ideas of Jung was interested in adult features, phenomenons
neglected in psychological literature, and teaching.
According to Erikson, there are eight stages or life cycles, including 3
adult - youth or early adulthood, middle adulthood and old age.
In other studies such as the life cycles, reference name being D. Super,
although there are outlined five stages of psychological development, adult
stages remain the same:
-Youth of 25 to 44 years of age, maturity period in which the integration
of the job and, in some cases, identify specific professional field;
- Maintain state between 44-65 years, dominated by professional
-Advanced ages characterized by professional disengagement.
How easily noticeable, D. E. Super uses position criterion to find
Allport outlines six specific features adult such as: self-consciousness
scale, relationships and intimate relationships, emotional security
fundamental concern of objective self-objectification, relative harmony with
their purchases from personal experience.
Another criterion for determining the stages of mental development that
can provide information on the need for adult learning is fundamental type
of activity and the type of relationships that define the four correlative sub-
identities of maturity: husband sub-dentity, social citizenship, and parental
The literature mentions that between 35-45 years adult consumes
stability, the implantation training, there is an intensive, cumulative , active
and creative work. Often at this age is also pursuing a college or a doctorate,
school improvement, recycling etc.. The reasons for the implications of an
educational nature lies in the feeling of competition seised by the adults in
the younger generation entering production. The gender aspect, given the
development of sub-identity, women require parenting education. At this
age, the 4 mentioned sub-identities interact equally, ensuring an individual
Age period between 45 and 55 years is characterized by assuming greater
social responsibility and citizenship training. Educational implications
influence the development of these sub-identities proportional to the number
of recycles covered.
By this age, learning reported in Performance - learning-motivating
factor for adult ages, cited by several researchers, involves personal value
and socio-professional learning which means that learning from a
professional person seeks to develop itself and streamlining the benefit of
Since the so-called "adult extended period" from 55 to 65 years, the
learning reasons are arising from involutive dynamics of the person and her
marital sub-identities and social- citizenship.
Grounds-order needs are more attenuated and the reasons are ego-
According to B.G. Ananev approach "rough" periodization problem
maturity, "rounded" lower and upper limits of adulthood and also
insufficient study of boundaries between adulthood periods complicates the
highlight moments of the past, of qualitative transformation having a
progressive or melts nature.
This picture summarizing the adult periods presented in terms of the
stages of mental development and educational implications exogenous, can
be completed with some considerations developed by A.N.Leontievthe
Russian scientist, who sees in the psychological dialectic a dialectical
movement from simple behaviors, reduced primary motivation in complex
behaviors maintained by a consistent ans socialised motivation.
Creative activity of the adult, in which is included the learning activity, is
mediated by normative and general evaluative symbols serving which
mantle as a guide of a behaviour and own cultural patterns and aspirations,
this assembly being social personality setting where internal motivations are
in perfect harmony with the regulatory requirements of the social
Socialization as a factor for adult learning requires motivation rather than
the acquisition of an old material synthesis, the idealistic change of its point
of view is based on realistic capacity purchase confrontation with
conflicting requirements and develop competence to practice some specific
Leontiev and Rubinstein argue that the influence of external conditions is
achieved through internal subjective conditions. Internal subjectivity
conditions is a dynamic formation and evolution, is a specific age forms of
physical, mental, spiritual and social development of the human personality.
I. A. Zimniaia supports the idea of subjectivity as a internal specific
learning factor, using measurable variables: age, gender, intellectual,
capabilities, level of aspiration and self-assessement etc. She uses a
systemic approach to his research learning motivation and noticed that with
the age dominant needs and their hierarchy change.
Training motivation is not expressed by developing positive and negative
attitudes towards learning worsening, but the structural complexity of the
motivational sphere factors that make up this area and triggers the
emergence of new relations more complicated, sometimes contradictory.
"Growing up" state and relations between them push, incite and cause the
individual to meet their maturation occurs with it. Realities, designated as
the mature or adult, are virtually identical, only the connotative register of
noun Maturityand of the verb Mature record some shades of ascent to
performance, relevant to our research. For example, the feminine noun
Maturity means "period of human life between youth and old age" but also
"state of full development, advanced stage experience, of acquiring
knowledge, diligence, depth (determined by age, by experience).
The Physicist David Bohm believes that maturity must be determined on
the basis of capacity "to study processes at which things become what they
are, from what they once were and it continues to change in the future to
become something else."
Romanian researcher I. Frăţilă link the concept of maturity with the
concept of performance. In his opinion, to be mature is to be capable of a
certain performance. He argues that the performance is the relevant
indicator, the defining feature of the state (status) of maturity.
In this context, the process of maturation, examined in relation to
achieving a high performance approaches, proves motivating learning
approaches during adult age.
According to developer vectors maturation process, in literature, an
indication of the chronological limit "top" of this process is proposed by
Romanian explanatory dictionary, namely old age. In many researchers
opinions regarding periodization ages, converge on the splitting of
involution (the decline of mental life, physical potential decreased, reducing
the sphere of communication and social relations between 65 and almost 90.
Such we can conclude that with the age about 70 years performance as
motivational valence of learning, loses relevance.
Thorndike and Lorge and Wechsler later developed general learning
capacity curve, respectively, the intellectual capacities curve. Scientists say
there is a cognitive and intellectual plateau 15-20 and 30-40 years. For this
age range is characteristic of maintaining biological and psychological
maturation of the individual and his (advanced stage experience, to acquire
knowledge, diligence, depth). According to expert opinion, "Thorndike's
experiments and conclusions are considered "cornerstone" of adult
education. Carefully and very thoroughly, Thorndike shows that age is not
an important factor for learning and sustains that all men and women can
learn. He made three general observations on adult learning:
1. The most advantageous time for learning is between 20-25 years
2. From now until around the age of 42 years occurs a decline in learning
capacity of about 1% per year
3. Correlated with age, the curve intellectual influence learning ability is
poor. People most capable and the common people has almost the same
4. The authors of several works referring to adult education mention
Thorndike's research notes on the issue of development plateaus.
Refuting research that considers all years after age 20 is a slip on slope
decline by introducing ceiling of 45, Thorndike encouraged "continuous
raising of the age at which it can be anticipated an excellent result learning."
If there is an upper limit to the performance, before accompanying aging
phenomena exert a strong negative influence, then, most likely, that it will
be at the age of 45 or the age at which most body functions begin to decade.
In case of biological aging - no accidents, illness, higher living standards,
widening motivation, increased length of enrollment in school may continue
to raise such a ceiling
Applying the concept of maturity in the analysis stages of mental
development, cognitive capacity and intellectual development of the
individual throughout life, highlights the synergy adults ages plateau of
maturity. Focusing on adult learning component ages "self": self-autonomy,
self-management, self-regulation, self-realization, self-assessement, self-
direction, homing require adult subject learning aspect of self-organization
Being an evolutionary system, human person expresses through learning
self-programming capability, acquiring informations, operations and
functions through the work performed.
According to one of the key ideas of synergetic, the future state of a
system organizes, forms, changes somehow the current state of the system.
In this context, we live ages that are motivating in relation to their
timeliness, and "in terms of motivation, an essential fact or agitation can be
continued instability and subsequent interstimulation characterize all living
Similarly, Walter B. Cannon pointed out that the system (human body) is
open, trained in a free exchange with the outside world and that the structure
itself is not permanent but constantly wear ground operation and continually
reconstructed through recovery processes. Bodies made of a material with
an extreme volatility and instability have learned in one way or another the
means to maintain constancy and keeping balance.
The activities that we call learning (defined by education, giving itself
more intrinsic procedural meanings, dependent on physical ability, sensory,
intellectual, emotions and will of the person) is conducted in a single
organism. Mental and emotional qualities of the human being are very
complicated and unstable, but that at least you can count on a certain
stability in the body.
All these lead us to conclude that the essence of education must be
understood in a new way. In this context, it is relevant the statement made
by Paul Lengrand: "Education can not be simply added to the human life as
something imposed from outside. In philosophical terms, we can say that
education does not belong to the category defined as "to have" but to that of
Human existence in a state of "becoming" at every stage and in different
situations is the real essence of education. "
As mentioned above, the objective human learning ability increases and
tends phylogenetically trivial aspect of involution (1%) in the ontogenetic
aspect, and the most important qualities of the human intellect is able to find
itself the source motivation and evaluation.
Nature created all the prerequisites for ensuring biological and neuro-
cognitive human information interaction with the outside world throughout
The human brain develops throughout life, it does not atrophy. However,
according to James Robbins Kidd, "if not used, it seems that there are
negatively affected neural connections and functioning of individual brain
cells. Here's what some psychologists have argued that often senility may be
superfluous, being caused, allegedly, in almost 85 percent of cases, by the
lack of intellectual effort. "
Studies on the evolution of the ontogenesis of the intellectual, physical
and sensory characteristics of adult, made in the context of the learning
ability of its active principle of interaction,support older binomial learning.
Also, according to the summary conclusion of several studies conducted in
different time periods: the early twentieth century - the last decades of the
twentieth century (E. Thorndike, JR Kidd) 'in any of the healthy period of
life, age has no veto power on learning".
JRKidd in his "How adults learn," wrote the following: "Human beings
seem to pursue learning, learning seems to be a prerequisite for a healthy
body. The objective is to ensure the climate, the atmosphere, freedom and
self-discipline in which learning is facilitated. You can not work too much
in relation to the body-mind-emotions without meeting the conditions in
which the person will start on a path of learning . A human being requires
an "open field" for the kind of fight that is learning. Under convenient,
suitable, men and women can demonstrate their learning".
The steps above supporting human capacity to learn at adult ages and
logical development of knowledge as a permanent psychological process
can be continued. But we thought that we caught on a pleading of origin
intrasystemic to justify the aims of the education system imperfection age in
educational action. The relationship "age-learning" is not a problematic
ontological aspect of human development, but in the aspect of social
development. Informational and cognitive human interaction with the world
is produced naturally by empirical methods, based on previous cognitive
structures, affective-volitional by the potential of the individual. In this
context, John Dollard said: "He who learns is a person who wants
something, the learner is a person who sees something, the learner is a
person who does something, the learner is a person who acquires
something". To note that all of these verbs are active. In this sense, we
consider balanced debate dichotomous development and learning: learning
and development. With the exit of young developers aged periods (20-24
years) and shelf stability developers entering the adult (25-45 years) with
priority of involution (55 years), we consider relevant all learning theories
which describes the background of the development.
Inspired by psychological and sociological sciences for ages, learning
problem has been examined not only from its stage optics, as well as status
and social role (Sorin Radulescu). Polish sociologist J. Szczepanski in
"Basic Sociology" highlight the fact that the age group has an identity and
its own dynamics, including a set of roles and relationships of interaction
between these roles. Social role involves an expected, wanted or typical
behavior, which is associated with a given position expressed by status.
These notions are related and stages of economic development of society.
Industrial societies are characterized by standards supported by multiple
legal rules that establish the main social events occurring and to intervene in
the life of the individual, as well as the time at which the transition from one
age period to another: for example, childhood is associated with the period
of schooling, apprenticeship training to youth, adulthood with marriage, a
family and work activity, aging with the withdrawal of occupation. Social
norms and regulations on age and cultural significance of life course creates
what some authors define "normal predictable life cycle", meaning
behaviors and roles associated with each age period.
Prejudices and stereotypes about age determines how it is perceived
/perceive themselves a certain age group in society. Sorin Radulescu states
that there are rare cases where the biases associated with age acts as a
"stigma" that under the labeling process mechanisms, prediction creative
fires. In other words, individuals can be identified, often with the image
conveyed by social stereotypes, adopting behaviors that correspond to this
image. "For all age steps, social structure destroy barriers motivation to
perform traditional roles, and once you lose motivation, it is establishing a
vicious circle: the skills and capabilities are damaged by neutralization and
neutralization actually encourages physical and mental incompetence. To
the extent that incompetence is obvious,it follows the social stereotype
which further undermines achievement motivation ".
The transition to postindustrial economy, boundary between social roles
and expected behavior became less rigid. The climate epoch is more liberal,
for which age-related norms have become more fluid and unstable than in
traditional societies. B.L. Neugarten notes that we live in a society irrelevant
in terms of age who are no longer fixed in precise chronological scales for
the exercise of roles. Thus, many people change their profession 40 or 50
years and return to school at any age. These findings indicate changes in
mentality and attitudes about age in contemporary society. In the same vein,
Constantin Cucoş states the following: Cultural "monochronic" single action
based on the principles as enshrined specific separate activity (such as
current civilization), are more efficient, but generate boredom and stress.
Multiplication and diversification of "simultaneity", could be the way out of
Demographic processes that record aging and declining birth rates, on the
one hand, and increasing longevity, on the other hand, weighted relationship
between age and learning. Moreover, from the point of view of sociology
ages, educational influences permanence is considered one of the factors
enhancers responsible for human longevity and activism.
- Training motivation for learning is not expressed simply by developing
positive attitudes and negative attitudes towards learning worsening, but the
development of structural complexity sphere motivational factors that make
up this area and triggers the emergence of new relations more complicated,
sometimes contradictory. The above analysis allows us to conclude that, as
the individual matures:
-Self-concept moves from dependency to self-direction.
-The tank is fill of experience and is a resource for learning.
-Time perspective changes from delaying application of knowledge to
-Education carried out on human individual over the age of 30 years is,
on the one hand, education for development, and on the other hand, keeping
education and to deal with involution.
-Criterion we can provide information regarding need for adult learning
is the fundamental type of activity and the type of relationship involved
which defin four subidentities correlative of maturity: husband, social
citizenship, and parental training subidentity.
-Training motivation for learning is not expressed simply by developing
positive attitudes and negative attitudes towards learning worsening, but the
development of structural complexity sphere motivational factors that make
up this area and triggers the emergence of new relations more complicated,
-Maintain and develop performance is the most common cause of
learning citied by adults.
-Learning motivation is weaker than the motivation for work and playful,
and should be sensitized by developing to the adults, the ability to learn
throughout their lives by exploring emotional valence, valence of learning
and applied learning outcomes.
I treated age binomial interaction and learning as a sui generis
relationship, interdependent and inter-motivational valence synergetic
triggers caused by a number of factors human characteristics, carrying the
two realities - characterand action one.Motivational approach to the
binomial requires synthesis of views on learning and personality theories of
optical human activity and the importance of motivation for learning in
terms of learning theory.
Practical business plan coverage of the topic is represented by
devising training programs effective and efficient educational management
education. The program was designed according to the modular
methodology for Accreditation of training programs for staff in higher
education, approved by OMECTS No. 5564 of 7 October 2011, the long
hours spent with a number of 102 hours and 25 professional transferable
Training program "Efficient and effective education in secondary
management Education," training for teachers in secondary education is
designed as a result of the needs analysis, which is according with the
policies and strategies of the Ministry of Education, in the context of the
National Education Law no. 1/2011 with subsequent amendments.
Training program "Efficient and effective education in secondary
management Education," is correlated with the objectives of national and
European strategic documents.
Training program "Efficient and effective education in secondary
management Education" aims to develop and cross skilling interaction
and communication with the social and educational environment, taking
responsibility for the organization, strategic management and performance
improvement professional groups, self-control and reflective analysis of
their activities by the school managers.
In order to reveal the information and training needs of school managers
on current approaches of education policy at the national and European, a
needs analysis was undertaken.
The method used to identify training needs in the county of Arges was
Target group: teachers of pre-university education with leadership,
guidance and control
FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW GUIDE
SUBJECT: Efficient and effective education in secondary management
1. Lately it talks more about the management and managerial efficiency.
What's your managerial effectiveness?
2. How would you describe an effective manager?
3. How would you characterize current management into your school?
4. What are the strengths? But weaknesses?
5. In your opinion, how could it be removed weaknesses?
6. How would you argue the role of communication in effective
7. What are commonly used communication channels at the institution
where you come from?
8. In terms of inter-and intra-institutional communication, did you identified
disturbance? Please details!
9. Frequent changes of any kind may be, characterizes society. How to
adjust the school and the management of these changes?
10. What generates, in your opinion, organizational crisis situations?
11. How do you think these situations can be prevented?
12. How can respond Teachers Training House to the school managers
The analysis and interpretation of data obtained revealed the need to
implement training program "Efficient and effective education in
secondary management Education" program for the purposes of
addressing issues related to the development and effectiveness of
communication, time management and stress management, change
management and crisis, partnership relations and news in information.
PURPOSE of the program:
Specific professional skills development for achieving efficient and
effective management activities for management of schools and acquiring
these skills for teachers who aspire to leadership positions.
-Improve the quality of pre-university educational management;
-Improving professional skills categories of senior management, guidance
and control of secondary education
REFERNCE OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING PROGRAMME
O1 optimization intra and inter-process communication;
O2 Empowering students to manage time effectively;
O3 Empower learners to successfully adapt to change;Identification
O4 Identify crisis and finding ways of resolving these situations;
O5 Empowering students to use information resources to streamline the
The program is structured in three modules and addresses the
I.1. Comunication. Ttheoretical considerations.
I.2. The types of communication. Classification criteria.
I.3. The types of communication. Criterial classifications
I.4. Interpersonal communication.
I.5. The types of communication. Classification criteria.
I.7. Communication styles
I.8. Effects of communication media - advantages and risks. Evaluation Criteria Press.
I.9Elements (types) of communication with the media.
II.1.1. Time management concept.
II.1.2. Causes of inefficient management time.
II.1.3. Time as a management resourse.
II.1.4. Effective time management principles.
II.1.5. Job organisation
II.1.6. Management meetings
II.1.7. Behavioral styles of time management
II.1.8. Management Time and its techniques.
II.2.1. Defining stress
II.2.3. Stress causes
II.2.4. Stages stress.
II.2.5. Time- a significant generating source of stress
II.2.6. Stress symptoms.
II.2.7. Strategies to cope with stress.
II.2.8. Solutions to reduce stress
II.2.10. Emotional states control
III.1. Change management and organizational change stages
III.2. Factors change. Types of organizational changes.
III.3. Change barriers
III.4. Change management instruments.
III.5. Implementing and evaluating change.
III.6. Crisis management. Techniques for overcoming the crisis.
III.7. Management cooperation and conflict resolution
III.8. Partnerships mamagement.School and its partners.
III.9. Educational projects. Typologies. Funding sources.
Project Management Introduction.
The training program is in implementation, being promoted among
eligible teachers as proposed target group. The responsible Training
program is the author of this work, Teacher Ana BADEA, director of the
Teachers Training House- Arges.The announcement was posted on the
official website of the institution. First training group will begin on 1st June,
After following the training program, participating teachers will acquire
specific educational management skills, , and also communication and
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Bougnoux, Daniel,(2000) Introduction to Sciences Communication, Polirom
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