Levine capabilities - ali presentation


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Levine capabilities - ali presentation

  1. 1. Utilizing Sport For Social Change as Part of the Capabilities Approach of Development Muhammad Ali Center For Athletics and Social Change Forum Jeffrey F. Levine, J.D. University of Louisville
  2. 2. Presentation Roadmap and Discussion ò  International development and how it relates to capabilities approach ò  Intervention and application to development ò  Can capabilities approach partner with sports inventions ò  Effective interventions using sport-oriented capabilities approach ò  Goal to become vehicle for social change inside and outside of sports
  3. 3. What is Development? ò  Development is “a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy” (Sen, 1999, pg. 5) ò  The process of removing different types of “unfreedoms” that render individuals without a choice ò  Poverty ò  Repressive states (Sen, 1999) ò  Objective of development is to expand people’s capabilities ò  In other words “expand people’s choices.” (Sen, 1999, pg. 5)
  4. 4. The Capabilities Approach: How Does it Relate? ò  It is the expansion of one’s “capabilities” to lead the kind of live people value – and “ha[ve] reason to value.” (Sen, 1999) ò  Consists of “freedoms” and “functionings” ò  Political freedoms ò  Economic facilities ò  Social opportunities ò  Transparency guarantees ò  Protective security ò  Allows individuals to act as agents for social change (Dreze & Sen 2002)
  5. 5. Athletes as Change Agents ò  Agency – the ability of people to help themselves and also influence the world (Sen, 1999, pg. 18) ò  Agent – one who brings about change, judging those achievements based on one’s values and objectives (Sen, 1999) ò  Athletes can be agents for social change. ò  Athletes are in a unique position – role models with power ò  Through the capabilities approach, athletes can couple sport with a sustainable program to enact the social change they seek
  6. 6. Interventions, Projects, and Programs Defined ò Each one is an effort: ò  Intervention: Short-term, usually a few weeks to less than 3 months ò  Project: time-bound efforts to carry out specific set of activities ò  Program: Long-term efforts with multiple components ò  (Barker, 2007)
  7. 7. Different Approaches to Interventions ò Group education ò Service-based ò Community outreach, mobilization & mass media campaigns ò Integrated
  8. 8. Criticism of Interventions ò  General criticism: ò  Rarely do interventions go beyond the pilot stage or short-term time frame (Barker, 2007) ò  Sport for development interventions: ò  Little research conducted on which programs work and or what aspect make effective programs (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2013) ò  Sports-based programs not as effective as they could be…or counterproductive (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2013) ò  Western sport interventions may extend neocolonialism
  9. 9. Sport For Development Approaches ò  Dominant Approach (Darnell, 2010; Kay & Bradbury, 2009): ò  Targeting at risk groups and/or marginalized communities ò  Sport is effective vehicle because it organically provides: ò  Life skills ò  Social knowledge and values ò  Leadership skills ò  Sport functions to socialize neocolonialism values ò  Participation through sport alone not enough to cause social change (Coalter, 2006 &2010)
  10. 10. Sport For Development Approaches ò  Sport + Capabilities Approach? ò  Go above and beyond a “good” sports-based program ò  Sports intervention must contain an attempt to alter an unfreedom and/or a functioning ò  Social change ò  Human rights focus? ò  Freedoms (Sen, 2005)
  11. 11. Initial Thoughts on Capabilities Approach and Sports Programs ò  The Basics: ò  Sport is a good hook to recruit and retain participants (Hartmann & Kwauk, 2013) ò  Must be about more about sports. ò  Sport-based interventions using the capabilities approach ò  Focus moving from unfreedom to freedom and/or a functioning ò  Meaningfully connect sport to large social change goal ò  Connect/combine with other initiatives ò  Sport complements, does not dominate intervention
  12. 12. Some Discussion/Q & A ò  Are there best practices? ò  Strong vision and execution in social change goal ò  Multiple components (Lyras & Peachey, 2011) ò  Allocate appropriate funding for meaningful program longevity and follow up ò  Any specific examples? ò  World Scholar-Athlete Games ò  (Lyras & Peachey, 2011)
  13. 13. Utilizing Sport For Social Change as Part of the Capabilities Approach of Development QUESTIONS? THANK YOU!
  14. 14. Bibliography ò  Alkire, S. (2005) Why the capability approach? Journal of Human Development 6(1) 115-133. ò  Alkire, S. (2011) The capability approach and human development. Introduction to the capability approach. Oxford Poverty &Human Development Initiative. Lecture conducted from Oxford University, Oxford, UK. ò  Dreze, J. & Sen, A. (2002) Development and participation. Oxford. ò  Lyras, A. & Peachey, J. (2011) Integrating sport-for-development theory and praxis Sport Management Review 14 311-326. ò  Hartman, D. & Kwauk, C. (2013): Sport and development: An overview, critique and reconstruction. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 35(3), 284-305. ò  Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ò  Sen, A. (2005). Human rights and capabilities. Journal of Human Development (6(2) 151-166.