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Learning to language learning

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Learning to language learning

  1. 1. LEARNING TO LANGUAGE LEARNING Wallace,J.(1991) Training Foreign LanguageTeachers. Cambridge University Press By: Dolly Ramos G
  2. 2. ACQUISITION & LEARNING  Acquisition:  It refers to the spontaneous , unconscious and incidental process of internalization that result from natural language use  Learning:  to acquire the
  3. 3. ACQUISITION & LEARNING  Pick up the lg naturally  Implicit knowledge  Formal teaching is not necessary  Using lg for real communication  Formal teaching is necessay  Knowing about the lg  Knowledge of the rules ACQUISTION LEARNING
  4. 4. DIFFERENCES  Innate  Exposed all the time  No emotional barrier  Natural motivation  No interlanguage  Learned  Not used all the time  Might be emotional barrier  Less motivation  Reliance on L1 First Language Second Language
  5. 5. FIRST, SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE  Concern on children’s learning  The main charateristics of Foreign lg Learning Amount of time Type F or S Responsibility of the teacher
  6. 6. LEARNING THE FIRST LANGUAGE  READING  Age 5 L1 incompletely developed  Age 5-6 Literacy skill is on process  SPEAKING & WRITING  Age 7  Narrative & Extended discourse  Reference to characters  Age 11& 15 (not fully developed)  Relative Clauses & pronouns Logical understanding  Co-ordinators language
  7. 7.  LINGUISTIC DOMAINS (P,M,S,L, conversation & discourse)  largely independent  Child’s early experience(family)  Narative & discourse  Vocabulary  Teacher Consider:  Childrens’ individual differences and lg strengths LEARNING THE FIRST LANGUAGE
  8. 8. LEARNING A SECONDLANGUAGE  Children learn faster than adults. (Hypothesis)  Critical Period Hypothesis  Children learning is more effectively before puberty (mechanisim assited the L1)  Lightbown & Spada (1999) Against the Hypothesis  Factor needs  Motivation native- profiency SL  Context communicative-goal FL
  9. 9. THE INFLUENCE OF L1 ON L2  Competion Model Bates & Whinney(1989)  Explain how L1 learning affects L2 &FL  L1 Reliable or Unreliable  Babies (particular cues) transfer to SL  Learning the whole & the parts  7-8 age. Sound and rythm  12-14 age. Word order
  10. 10. AGE ANDLANGUAGE FIRST  Who has less prolonged attention?  How would a lesson influence a childs lg development?  Does conversation develop independently from extended discourse?  How can our L1 affect language learning?
  11. 11. IS YOUNGERREALLY BETTER  Catherine Snow & Marian Hoefnagel (1978)  X= beginning Y = end TASK CHILD ADOLESCEN T ADULT PRONUNCIATION AUDITORY DISC MORPHOLOGY SENTENCE REPET SENTENCE TRANSL SSENTENCE JUST/ VOCAB TEST STORY COMPREH
  12. 12. IS YOUNGERREALLY BETTER  Catherine Snow & Marian Hoefnagel (1978) TASK CHILD ADOLESCEN T ADULT PRONUNC Y Y X AUDITORY DISC XY MORPHOLOGY XY SENTENCE REPET XY SENTENCE TRANSL XY SSENTENCE JUST/ XY VOCAB TEST XY STORY COMPREH Y X STORY TELLING Y X
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES TOSTARTINGYOUNGWITH FOREIGN LG  ADVANTAGES  Early starters develop & maintain SOME areas fo the lg skill  Listening comprehension  pronunciation  Language development  DISAVANTAGES  grammar slower  Cognitive development
  14. 14. CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS “…is a way of comparing languages in order to determine potential errors for the ultimate purpose of isolating what needs to be learned and what does not need to be learned in a second language learning situation..” Gass & Selinker, p72
  15. 15. THANKYOU See you next Monday do not forget your to study and read
  16. 16. CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS HYPOTHESIS (CAH) " The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner. " Fries (1945) "...those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are different will be difficult." Lado (1957)
  17. 17. CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS ASSUMPTIONS (1) 1- Errors are accounted for by considering differences between L1 and L2 2- The greater the differences, the more errors will occur 3- Focus on dissimilarities in learning; similarities require little new learning 4- Difficulty and ease in predicted by differences and similarities between L1 and L2
  18. 18. CAH: Two positions A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomes A posterior or weak view: comparison between languages will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors.
  19. 19. Second Language Acquisition 19 TYPES OF ERRORS: INTERLINGUAL & INTRALINGUAL Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic comparisons Intralingual – based on language being learned

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