Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Sports, Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. In November 2011, FIFApresident Sepp Blatterin an interview withAl Jazeera was asked ifhe thought racism wasa big problem in thesport.• The president of the sports world governing body replied: "During a match youmay make a movement to somebody or hurt somebody or you may say somethingto somebody who is not exactly looking like you, but at the end of the match it isforgotten.• "Racism is when there are spectators or movements of discrimination outside thefield of play. But on the field of play I deny there is racism."• “Maybe one of the players has a word or a gesture which is not the correctone, but the one who is effected by that, he should say that ‘this is a game’.• "If it happens in a league then they have to make this investigation and then theycome to a solution. “• "And what would that be? Theyd bring the two people together and say, shakehands."
  2. 2. • What is Racism?• Racism is when someone thinks different skin color or religious beliefsmake some people better than others.• Racists bully people who are different to them. They do this by name callingor violence.• Racism in association football is the abuse of players, officials and fansbecause of their skin color, nationality, religion or ethnicity. Some may betargeted (also) because of their association with an opposing team.However, there have been instances of individuals being targeted by theirown fans.• The relationship between ‘race’ and football takes a number of forms. It haslong been the case that a number of fans have used Saturday afternoons atfootball matches to air their racial prejudices but it is now recognised thatthis minority of racist fans is only part of the problem. What is also importantis how members of minority groups can become involved in football asplayers, coaches or spectators, the interest they take in football andwhether in certain areas they feel excluded.
  3. 3. Is Sepp Blatter right?Is there really no racism in football nowadays?Do racist utterance among footballers are caused by outburst of anger during the game?The Football Association are currently dealingwith two incidents where a player has beenaccused of racially abusing an opponent -Chelseas John Terry and Liverpools LuisSuárez, both of whom deny any wrongdoing.
  4. 4. Racism Football Sport: Real Literature Review• The phenomenon of racism in football is not as old as the conflict of racism in society in general, but neither is it as recent as the current worryingsituation in which some to believe (Back et al.1998). Back et al. (1998) identified that football grounds have provided one of the largest publicarenas in which racism can be openly expressed. It is against this background that the phenonomenon of racism in football has led to wide spreaddiscussion during the past couple of decades within the media, amongst policy makers and in the wider football community.• Recently, there has been a increase in the study of sport, racism and ethnicity (Jarvie 1991). Numerous factors which will be explained haveundoubtedly contributed to fuel this interest. However, a couple of considerations appear to have been of great importance. Firstly, blacksportsmen and sportswomen throughout the world have experienced remarkable successes in international sport (Jarvie 1991).• According to Mercer, (1994) and Shohat and Stam, 1994) this may be due to the fact that apparently each positive stereotype has a negativeresult. Therefore, as black men and women have come to excel in various sports, people of a non ethnic background have needed an explanationfor why what seemed to be an inferior race can outperform a superior one. This may be one of many factors which may have encouragedresentment for their success which in turn could have lead to abuse in a racist nature.• Secondly, a disproportionately high level of athletic participation by diverse ethnic minority cultures has often been used by liberal minded sportsenthusiasts as an excuse to indicate that there is no racism in these arenas. These authors use these examples to try and illustrate that there is noform or racism in certain sports, however authors such as (Williams 1992, 1994; Turner 1990; Holland 1992a, 1992b, 1995) have provenotherwise.• Bairner (1996) and Guha (1997) who are thought to be sporting enthusiasts argue the assumption that sport itself is relatively free from racism andthat sport, more than any other sphere of society, enjoys a certain degree of democratization and equality according to Jarvie (1991).However, “such accounts of sport which make general inferences about the changing nature of racial relations in society based on a considerationof athletic participation rates” (Jarvie, 1991, p. 3) are misleading due to their ignorance of the broader issues of power and domination withinsociety.• Although there has been a sizable interest of studies in the area of race and sport in the UK (Chappell et al. 1996; Norris & Jones,1998) focusingprimarily on the issues of “stacking” and “centrality” is useful evidence in a descriptive term. However, in terms of quantifiable data indicating thatthere is a decrease racism in sport, it would be very naïve to gain assumptions that their was a decrease in racism in sport from these sources.Maguire (1991) has therefore recognised that there is a need for greater qualitative as well as quantitative research into the area in the “hope thata more rounded picture may be produced” (p. 100).• Although some qualitative research involving racism in English football has been carried out (Cashmore,1982; Howe, 1976; Maguire, 1991), thesestudies only concentrated on the experiences of top level Black players. This has been highlights to identify there is very little data on theexperiences of racism on lower league footballers. Therefore, this is a worthy study because not only will it explore the different avenues ofracism, but will also give a broader picture as to the experiences of racism in lower league footballers. It is believed that non-league football, whichconsists of the middle section of the football hierarchy in the United Kingdom, would prove to be a grounded place for such a study for a variety ofreasons. First, the realities of race relations could well be more real at lower levels of the game than in the polished environment of professionalsport (Hoberman, 1997) due to its less cosmopolitan nature (Maguire, 1991).• The need to investigate below the top level of sport has been echoed by Horne (1996),who stated that focusing on the lower level of soccerculture may be beneficial in understanding the differing forms of attachment to, and identification with, the game for Black players, as theseeveryday levels could well be “important sites for consolidating and possibly transforming racist attitudes” (p. 61). He further stated thatinvestigations at different levels of soccer are needed if involvement of ethnic minorities in sport and in the wider community are to be betterunderstood and appreciated Racism is undoubtedly a sensitive issue and it is important to be clear on what racism is when conducting the
  5. 5. “Due to outburst of anger footballers on the field do Racist Acts”
  6. 6. Drawings from Josiah C. Nott and George GiddonsIndigenous races of the earth (1857), which suggestedblack people ranked between white people andchimpanzees in terms of intelligence.
  7. 7. • Content analysis: The technique of unobstrusivemethods, which is systematic coding and objective recording ofdata. This includes economic and politicaldocuments, newspapers, television tapes, songs and so on.• Survey research: The researcher gathers data usinginterviews, questionnaires, or similar feedback from a set ofpeople sampled from a particular population of interest. Surveyitems from an interview or questionnaire may be open-ended orclosed-ended. Data from surveys is usually analyzed statisticallyon a computer.
  8. 8. • On 12 February 2011, Roberto Carlos signed acontract with Russian Premier League club AnzhiMahachkala. In March, during a game away atZenit Saint-Petersburg, a Banana was held nearCarlos by one of the fans as the footballer wastaking part in a flag-raising ceremony. In June, in amatch away at Kryla Sovetov Samara, RobertoCarlos received a pass from the goalkeeper andwas about to pass it when a banana was thrown onto the pitch, landing nearby. The 38-year-oldBrazilian picked it up and threw it by thesidelines, walking off the field before the finalwhistle and raising two fingers at thestands, indicating this was the second suchincident since March.
  9. 9. • Atletico football club were given the punishment, along with a fine of around £120,000, forincidents during their Champions League home match with Marseille on Oct 1.• Those incidents included outbreaks of violence between Marseille fans and Spanish policeafter the latter removed a banner that featured a prohibited symbol, as well as accusationsfrom Marseille officials and players that they had been racially abused by the Atletico fans.• The defender of Atletico Michel Salgado said: "You cant punish an entire fan base for theracist behaviour of a few people in the crowd. I think theyve been too drastic in theirdecision. Theres racism in every stadium due to a minority of the crowd. It has nothing to dowith sport. This punishment sets a precedent. Well have to wait to see what Uefa doeswhenever this happens again; if every stadium has to be shut down because of this, manygames will be played behind closed doors."
  10. 10. Date Whites Blacks Indians Pak/Ban ChineseESN % 1970 .68 2.33 .32IQ 1984 100 88 98Unemployed % 1991 11 25 13 29 10Men in prison%1995 .15 .98 .11 .11 .06Adults married%1994 60 39 72 74 62Singleteenaged mothers%1994 6 21 1 11How the Races AdjustIn 1976 Powell observed that blacks in Britain had a high rate of crime and were particularlyinvolved in mugging, a word which, he said, was “used by one part of the divided society todescribe its treatment at the hands of the other.” Apart from this, he did not have much to sayabout the degree to which different groups of immigrants have adjusted to life in Britain.Nevertheless, it is interesting to note that blacks, Indians, Chinese and Pakistanis together withBangladeshis have adjusted quite differently. Statistics for some of the major studies on this issueare summarized in the table on this page.
  11. 11. Does racism exist in football?Yes (80%)No (20%)Answers of peoplePOLL RESULTSIs it finally time to boot outFIFA president Blatter?Yes (89%)No (11%)
  12. 12. Racism still exists on football field and is becoming the big problem in our society