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  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems
  2. 2. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems By: Ali & Adeel
  3. 3. Overview of Artificial Intelligence (1) • Artificial intelligence (AI) – Computers with the ability to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain • Artificial intelligence systems – The people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligence
  4. 4. Overview of Artificial Intelligence (2) • Intelligent behaviour – Learn from experience – Handle complex situations – Determine what is important – React quickly and correctly to a new situation – Understand visual images – Process and manipulate symbols – Be creative and imaginative
  5. 5. Artificial intelligence includes : • games playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers • expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms) • natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languages
  6. 6. Major Branches of AI (1) – Perceptive system • A system that approximates the way a human sees, hears, and feels objects – Vision system • Capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures – Robotics • Mechanical and computer devices that perform tedious tasks with high precision – Expert system • Stores knowledge and makes inferences
  7. 7. Major Branches of AI (2) – Learning system • Computer changes how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback – Natural language processing • Computers understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language, such as English – Neural network • Computer system that can act like or simulate the functioning of the human brain
  8. 8. Artificial intelligence
  9. 9. Artificial Intelligence (2) Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence But there are number of advancement in field of AI like: • Brain simulation • Games in competition against humans • ontology (human-like reasoning) • Motion and manipulation (human-like movement) • Natural language processing • Other (like problem solving and communication protocol)
  10. 10. Brain simulation • Ahuman hybrid of latest neurobiology data and Numenta findings aimed to implement human personality by means of computer program, started in 2008 as independent research. • Blue Brain Project, an attempt to create a synthetic brain by reverse-engineering the mammalian brain down to the molecular level.
  11. 11. Games in competition against humans The great est advances have occurred i n t he f i el d of games pl ayi ng. The best comput er chess programs are now capabl e of beat i ng humans. In May, 1997, an IBM super- comput er cal l ed Deep Bl ue def eat ed worl d chess champi on Gary Kasparov i n a chess mat ch.
  12. 12. ontology (human-like reasoning) • Mycin, an early medical expert system. It is used as assist to a medical doctor with reasoning and learning from experience
  13. 13. Motion and manipulation (human-like movement) • AIBO, the first robot pet for the home, grew out of Sony's Computer Science Laboratory (CSL). Famed engineer Dr. Toshitada Doi is credited as AIBO’s original progenitor • It is a succession of increasingly sophisticated working robots
  14. 14. Natural language processing • FreeHAL, a self- learning conversation simulator (chatterbot) which uses semantic nets to organize its knowledge to imitate a very close human behavior within conversations .
  15. 15. Other (like problem solving and communication protocol) • SYSTRAN, a machine translation technology by a company of the same name, used by Yahoo!, AltaVista and Google, among others. • Siri, a voice-interface artificial intelligence program built into the iPhone 4S. • TD-Gammon, a program that learned to play world-class backgammon partly by playing against itself (temporal difference learning with neural networks).