Enzymes

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enzyme presentation for biology class

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Enzymes

  1. 1. Enzymes Mr. Hunter Hyde Park Academy 09/27/2009 AP Biology
  2. 2. Enzyme Activity <ul><li>Enzymes help biochemical Reactions to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most enzymes are proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are catalyst that reduce the activation energy of chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>An enzyme increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy of the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes help organisms maintain homeostasis. Without enzymes , chemical reactions would not occur quickly enough to sustain life. </li></ul><ul><li>Most enzyme assisted reactions are reversible </li></ul>
  3. 3. Enzymes affect specific substances <ul><li>A substance on which an enzyme acts on during a chemical reaction is called a substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes act only on specific substrates. </li></ul><ul><li>The enzyme amylase assist in the breakdown of starch into glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>The enzyme catalase assist in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water. </li></ul><ul><li>An enzymes shape determines its activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, an enzyme is a large protein with one or more deep folds on its surface. These folds form pockets called active sites </li></ul><ul><li>An enzyme’s substrate fits into the active site. An enzyme acts only on a specific substrate because ony that substrate fits into the active site </li></ul>
  4. 4. Enzyme Activity Competitive Inhibition <ul><li>A competitive inhibitor is a protein that mimics the substrate and competes for the active site </li></ul><ul><li>A non-competive inhibitor is a protein that binds to a site other than the active site and alters the conformation of the active site so that the substrate cannot bind. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Allosteric Regulation <ul><li>Enzymes constructed from two or more polypeptide chains, or subunits. </li></ul><ul><li>Each subunit has its own active site , and asllosteric sites are usually located where subunits are joined </li></ul><ul><li>The entire complex oscillates between two conformational states, active and inactive . </li></ul><ul><li>The binding of an activator stabilizes the enzyme that has the functional active site-thus allowing substrates to bind . </li></ul><ul><li>The binding of an inhibitor stabilizes the inactive form of the enzyme- substrate cannot bind </li></ul>

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