One Day Specialized International Workshop on Halal Meat


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Halal Research Council is an organization working globally on Halal certifications in order to cater the needs of food and nutrition agencies and side by side non-food agencies especially in the FMCG sectors.
Halal Research has organized “One Day Specialized International Workshop on Halal Meat” on 8th October, 2013 at Dubai. The key goal of the International Workshop was to highlight the importance of consuming Halal Meat, Halal Meat export, Halal International Meat Market Potential and development of Halal Meat Concept among the masses.

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  • One Day Specialized International Workshop on Halal Meat

    1. 1. October 23, 2013 1
    2. 2. October 23, 2013 ANIMAL WELFARE AND STUNNING Prof. Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Hala Research Council 2
    3. 3. October 23, 2013 SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE FOR MUSLIMS 3
    4. 4. THE HOLY QUR’AN October 23, 2013  The Holy Book of Muslims    Six suras (chapters) named after the animals  Over two hundred verses in the Holy Qur'an deal with animals  In Islam animals and all the creations believed to praise the Almighty Allah 4
    5. 5. SUNNAH AND AHADITH October 23, 2013  Sunnah – Refers to the actions and practices of the Holy Prophet (pbuh)  Ahadith - Collection of accounts of suhaba karam on the sayings, practices and approvals of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and passed on to their followers  Muslims seek guidance and inspiration from the Holy Qur’an, Sunnah and Ahadith 5
    6. 6. REGULATIONS ON FOOD IN ISLAM October 23, 2013  Holy Qura’n permits consumption of good and safe food (halal and tayyab)  Foods and drinks injurious to health prohibited in Islam  Major emphasis on prohibition, apart from other foods and drinks, is meat  Islam provides specific guidelines on consumption of meat 6
    7. 7. October 23, 2013 SLAUGHTERING 7
    8. 8. ‫3102 ,32 ‪October‬‬ ‫4: ‪HOLY QURAN - AL-MAIDAH‬‬ ‫حرمتو عليكمو الميتةو والدمو ولحمو الخزنزريرو وم او أهلو لغيرو ا َّ‪‬‬ ‫ا ُ مِّ ْحَ خْ ْحَْحَ خْ ا ُ خْ خْ ْحَ خْ ْحَ ا ُ ْحَ َّ ا ُ ْحَ ْحَ خْ ا ُ خْ ِ ِ ِ ْحَ ْحَ ا ُ ِ َّ ِ ْحَ خْ ِ للو ‬ ‫ ِ‬ ‫بهمو والمزن ْحَزنقةمو والمذوقذوذةمو والمتر مِّريةمو ْحَ زنطيحةمو ومم او أكلو ‬ ‫ ِ ِ ْحَ خْ ا ُ خْخ ِ ْحَ ا ُ ْحَ خْ ْحَ خْ ا ُ ْحَ ا ُ ْحَ خْ ا ُ ْحَ ْحَدْحَ ا ُ والَّ ِ ْحَ ا ُ ْحَ ْحَ ْحَ ْحَ ْحَ‬ ‫الس بعو إلو م او ذكيتمو وم او ذبحو ع ْحَ زنص بو وأنو تسخْتقسمذواو ‬ ‫َّ ا ُ ا ُ ِ َّ ْحَ ْحَ َّ خْ ا ُ خْ ْحَ ْحَ ا ُ ِ ْحَ ْحَل ىو الُّ ا ُ ِ ْحَْحَ خْ ْحَ ْحَ خْ ِ ا ُ‬ ‫ب الزلمو ذلكمو فس قو اليذومو ريئسو الذرينو كفرواو منو ِ زنكمو فلو ‬ ‫ ِ ْحَخْ خْ ْحَ ِ ْحَ ِ ا ُ خْ ِ خْ ا ٌ خْ ْحَ خْ ْحَ ْحَ ِ ْحَ َّ ِ ْحَ ْحَ ْحَ ا ُ ِ خْ دري ِ ا ُ خْ ْحَ ْحَ‬ ‫تخشذوهمو واخشذون يو اليذومو أكملتو لكمو ِ زنكمو وأتممتو عليكمو ‬ ‫ْحَ خْ ْحَ خْ ا ُ خْ ْحَ خْ ْحَ خْ ِ خْ ْحَ خْ ْحَ ْحَ خْ ْحَ خْ ا ُ ْحَ ا ُ خْ دريْحَ ا ُ خْ ْحَْحَ خْ ْحَ خْ ا ُ ْحَْحَ خْ ا ُ خْ‬ ‫نعمت يو ورضيتو لكمو الس لمو ِ زن او فمنو اضطرو ف يو مخم ْحَةو ‬ ‫ ِ خْ ْحَ ِ ْحَ ْحَ ِ ا ُ ْحَ ا ُ خْ ِخْ خْ ْحَ ْحَ درياً ْحَ ْحَ خْ خْ ا ُ َّ ِ ْحَ خْ ْحَص غ ٍ‬ ‫غيرو متج انفو لثمو فإنو اللو غفذورو رحي ا ٌ‬ ‫ْحَ خْ ْحَ ا ُ ْحَ ْحَ ِ غ ٍ ِ خْ غ ٍ ْحَ ِ َّ َّ ْحَ ا ُ ا ٌ ْحَ ِ م‬ ‫ْحَ‬ ‫8‬
    9. 9. REQUIREMENTS FOR MEAT - HOLY QURAN October 23, 2013  “Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than God; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a head long fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been partly eaten by a wild animal, unless ye are able to slaughter it (Al Maida - V:4) 9
    10. 10. October 23, 2013 HADITH ON SLAUGHTERING The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said:  “Verily Allah has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus, if you kill (an animal), kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters” (Sahih Muslim) 10
    11. 11. STEPS IN ISLMIC SLAUGHTERING 2. 3. 4. 5. Lay animal preferably on left flank Using very sharp knife give a cut on the neck This should sever oesophagus, windpipe, carotid arteries and veins Allow the animal to die Do not cut any part while it is still alive October 23, 2013 1. 11
    12. 12. ISLAMIC METHOD - ADVANTAGES clean and large cut made properly with sharp knife, in one go, major blood vessels are cut  Application of sharp knife in dhabh ensures that no pain is felt  Wound inflicted is clean  This sudden and quick haemorrhage October 23, 2013  When 12
    13. 13. ISLAMIC METHOD - ADVANTAGES lose between 40 and 60% of their total blood volume  A quick loss of blood pressure results in rapid loss of blood supply to brain, causing severe hemorrhage  Brain instantaneously starved of blood and no time to start feeling any pain  Causes immediate anaesthetization October 23, 2013  Animals 13
    14. 14. ISLAMIC METHOD - ADVANTAGES October 23, 2013  When brain deprived of blood, whole body goes into contraction and convulsion to squeeze blood up to the brain  Blood comes out from the cut before reaching the brain  This contraction and convulsion normal physiological reactions and cause no pain to animal  Islamic slaughtering perfect, most humane 14 and merciful to animal
    15. 15. ISLAMIC METHOD - ADVANTAGES October 23, 2013  Produces good quality meat without any health hazards  Muslims believe that this method prescribed for Prophets Abraham, Moses, and Jesus - Hence no cruelty to animals  Allah is Rahman Rahim (Most Compassionate, Most Merciful)  The last Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh), is Rahmatul-Alamin (the mercy to all worlds, 15 men, animals, etc)
    16. 16. October 23, 2013 PAIN DURING ISLAMIC SLAUGHTERING Study by Prof Wilhelm Schulze and his coworkers in Germany in 1978 concluded:  “The slaughter in the form of ritual cut is, if carried out properly, painless in sheep and calves according to the EEG recordings and the missing defensive actions”  This study cited by German Constitutional Court in its permitting of dhabiha and kosher slaughtering 16
    17. 17. WESTERN VIEW cut while animal still conscious  Animals die from excessive blood loss after minutes of struggling  Causes immense animal suffering  Considered unnecessarily very painful and cruel to animals being slaughtered consciously  Regarded as brutal and barbaric method October 23, 2013  Throat 17
    18. 18. WESTERN VIEW claim significant economic loss: bruising of meat - renders it unfit for human consumption damage to hides causes loss of product worker injuries result in decreased productivity October 23, 2013  Also 18
    19. 19. WESTERNER’S RECOMMEND humane transport, handling, and slaughter practices  Introduction of modern systems and equipment in slaughter process Will help to decrease animal suffering Also provide economic benefits as amount of meat and hide wasted reduced Worker and meat safety greatly increased October 23, 2013  More 19
    21. 21. October 23, 2013 A standard method of stunning animals for slaughter at the dawn of the 20th century as illustrated in Oscar Black,''Construction, Installation and Operation of 21 Public Slaughterhouses and Stockyards. A Manual for Medical and Administrative Officer'', Berlin, 1903.
    22. 22. STUNNING METHODS methods used in technologically advanced countries: 1. The Captive Bolt Pistol 2. Pithing 3. Electrical Stunning 4. Water Bath Stunning 5. CO2 Gas Stunning 6. October 23, 2013  Some Cardiac Arrest Stunning 22
    23. 23. CAPITIVE BOLT STUNNING October 23, 2013  “Captive bolt pistol,” penetrative and nonpenetrative  Hit on the head of animal  Penetrative stunners drive bolt into the skull  Causes unconsciousness both through physical brain damage and concussive blow to skull 23
    24. 24. POSITION OF THE BOLT October 23, 2013 24
    25. 25. CAPTIVE BOLT STUNNING October 23, 2013  Bolt on non-penetrative stunner 'mushroomheaded' and impacts on brain without entering the skull  Process induces immediate unconsciousness caused by concussive blow through brain trauma  Captive bolt considered a humane stunner and stunning  Method widely used for farmed animals 25
    26. 26. CAPITIVE BOLT STUNNING  Penetrating stunners preferred - induce unconsciousness immediately in the animal  Maximum effect obtained when muzzle of stunner firmly held against head of the animal  Pistol placed on the centre of animal's forehead and either trigger-fired or fires automatically on contact with animal's head  Bolt flies out of barrel but remains attached to the pistol 26
    27. 27. CAPITIVE BOLT STUNNING October 23, 2013 Advantages claimed  Easy and simple technique as far as it’s working is concerned  Induces unconsciousness immediately 27
    28. 28. PITHING  Involves inserting a wire or rod through a hole in the head made by captive bolt  Rod slid up and down to destroy lower part of brain and spinal cord  The Farm Animal Welfare Council say: From purely hygiene considerations, practice not favoured  On animal welfare grounds, provided animal has been effectively stunned, no evidence that the practice increases suffering by hastening 28 brain death
    29. 29. PITHING pithing destroys spinal cord  Kills the animal, and also may reduce reflex kicking which occurs at stunning  Contributes to safety of slaughterman  Currently, pithing not practiced because it may lead to spread of fragments of neural matter through the carcass October 23, 2013  Double 29
    30. 30.  USA regulations disallow importation of beef from cows killed by pithing, due to risk of  Bovine spongiform encephalopathy  (BSE, or "mad cow") disease  European Union also banned practice on animals intended for human consumption. October 23, 2013 PITHING 30
    31. 31. ELECTRICAL STUNNING head-only stunning used to stun cattle, calves, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and ostriches  A pair of electric tongs placed on either side of animal's head to ensure good electrical contact  An electric current passed through the brain supposedly causing a temporary loss of consciousness  Animal remains un-conscious while throat is cut and dies from loss of blood  Animal may recover from a stun if throat not cut quickly October 23, 2013  Electric 31
    32. 32. ELECTRICAL STUNNING October 23, 2013  Amount of voltage varies according to: type of animal techniques used and individual creature’s size and behavior  Animals to slaughter can regain consciousness and then face the knife that will kill them  Cattle normally stunned electrically by three sequential cycles 32
    33. 33. October 23, 2013 ELECTRICAL STUNNING The RSPCA say:  'There is increasing scientific evidence that some animals stunned electrically using tongs regain consciousness before they die from loss of blood’  Two reasons for this: either insufficient electrical current passes through brain to stun animal, or time interval between stunning and sticking exceeds 20 seconds and animal 33 starts to regain consciousness
    34. 34. ELECTRICAL STUNNING October 23, 2013 The Scientific Veterinary Committee of EU says:  Under commercial conditions, a considerable proportion of animals are: either inadequately stunned or require a second stun  mainly because of: poor electrode placements, bad electrical contacts and 34 long stun-to-stick intervals
    35. 35.  The Committee also expresses concern: 'The strength of electric current used should be high enough for the species to induce a stun within one second of application  Otherwise, animals could suffer a potentially painful electric shock before being stunned October 23, 2013 ELECTRICAL STUNNING 35
    36. 36.  Meat Science  Volume 90 (4):956–961; 2012,  A perspective on the electrical stunning of animals: Are there lessons to be learned from human electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)? October 23, 2013 RESULTS OF A STUDY 36
    37. 37. October 23, 2013 HIGHLIGHTS OF RESEARCH  ► Electrical stunning widespread method of commercial pre-slaughter stunning  ► Effective electrical stunning may be difficult to achieve in practical conditions  ► Effective stunning is particularly difficult to achieve with poultry  ► Electrical stunning parallels unmodified human electro-convulsive therapy (ECT)  ► Unmodified ECT is considered cruel in humans and is thus prohibited. 37
    38. 38. WATER BATH STUNNING waterbath widely used to stun chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese  Birds shackled upside down on a moving conveyor  Carried to an electrified waterbath  Heads immersed October 23, 2013  Electric 38
    39. 39. WATER BATH STUNNING of electrical current to ensure birds suffer a cardiac arrest and die when they enter waterbath  Not all birds will suffer a cardiac arrest  Scientific data show serious flaws with waterbath system  Consumer eats dead birds October 23, 2013  Strength 39
    40. 40. GAS STUNNING stunning being promoted because it results in less blood spots in meat and fewer hemorrhages on surface of carcass  Five gas stunning methods used - differ in gas composition and concentration  Use CO , Argon and Nitrogen 2  Debate October 23, 2013  Gas as to which gas mixtures most humane  Further work needed using larger numbers of birds, before concluding which method 40 more humane
    41. 41. GAS STUNNING CLAIMED  Efficient method for poultry birds  Different gas combinations can be used  Less blood spots on meat  Fewer hemorrhages produced on carcass October 23, 2013  ADVANTAGES 41
    42. 42. October 23, 2013 CARDIAC ARREST STUNNING  Cattle, sheep, pigs, rabbits and goats stunned and simultaneously given a cardiac arrest  Few abattoirs actually use these methods:  1. Electric current sent through head and body at the same time to span the brain and heart or  2. Electric current sent though head first to cause unconsciousness and then across chest 42 to cause cardiac arrest
    43. 43. CARDIAC ARREST STUNNING October 23, 2013  If administered correctly, these methods remove risk of animals regaining consciousness while bleeding to death as the heart attack should kill the animal outright  Scientific Veterinary Committee of EU say that when second method used, 'a considerable proportion of animals are either inadequately stunned or require a second stun’  By using method 2, animals could suffer 43 potentially painful cardiac arrest
    44. 44. METHODS GENERALLY AVOIDED October 23, 2013  All stunning methods supposed to impact some kind of negative influence  Some methods, like pithing, specially avoided  After confirmation of first U.S. BSE case, FSIS issued regulations (January 12, 2004) prohibiting use of air-injection captive bolt stun gun  Compressed air forces pieces of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tissue into bloodstream  Cattle blood could potentially transmit BSE if it contained 44
    45. 45. October 23, 2013 STUNNING - HISTORY  Stunning - process in which animals rendered immobile or unconscious before slaughtering for food  Pre-slaughter stunning originally introduced to protect personnel deputed to kill the animal  Idea - immobilize and keep animal motionless to facilitate killing procedures  Now stunning done to apparently prevent / reduce pain – hence compulsory 45 in many countries
    46. 46. STUNNING October 23, 2013  Prior to “humane slaughter” animals simply struck with a hammer (poleax) while fully conscious  The Humane Slaughter Act of 1933 in Britain conceived to make: stunning compulsory such methods as captive bolt pistol and electric tongs, means by which to achieve  The 1933 Act specifically outlaws the poleax 46
    47. 47. STUNNING October 23, 2013  Period marked by development of innovations in slaughterhouse technologies  Not all of them particularly long-lasting  Stunning not supposed to actually kill animal heart needs to continue functioning to pump maximum blood out of animal  Animals die from loss of blood after their throats are cut 47
    48. 48. October 23, 2013 TREATMENT OF ANIMALS IN ISLAM (ANIMAL RIGHTS) 48
    49. 49. ISLAM - MERCY FOR ALL CREATURES October 23, 2013  Islam has laid down rights for humans regardless of race, colour, language and riches  Islam also laid down rights for animals  Muslims must treat animals with compassion and not to abuse them  Animals, like humans, creations of Allah (swt)  Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was sent as a mercy to mankind and a blessing to all creatures:  We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all 49 creatures (21:107) ‫وملال أرسلنلاكل إلل رحمةل للعلالمنين‬ َ ِ‫ َ َ َ َعْ َ َعْ َ َ نيِ اَّ َ َعْ َ ل ً نيِ َعْ َ َ ني‬ 49
    50. 50. ANIMAL RIGHTS/WELFARE October 23, 2013  Islam recognized animal rights long before human rights recognized in Western World  Muslims have extensive rules relating to animal welfare and proper slaughter  These rules designed to respect and protect animals  Muhammad (pbuh) reported to have said: "For charity shown to each creature which has a wet heart (i.e. is alive), there is a reward” 50
    51. 51. TREATMENT OF ANIMALS ahadith on treatment of animals. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) prohibited to: cage animals beat animals unnecessarily allow animals to fight each other for sports or recreation for human entertainment shoot arrows at cattle or bird tied or held up saying "whoever shoots at a 51 living creature for sport is cursed” October 23, 2013  Numerous
    52. 52. FEEDING THE ANIMALS TO Holy Prophet (pbuh) advised his followers to:  show kindness to animals nourish animals well save animals from hunger and thirst  Numerous Ahadith in this respect: 1. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) passed near a camel whose back was shrunk to belly. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said: Be fearful regarding these animals; “ride them well and feed them well” 52
    53. 53. FEEDING THE ANIMALS October 23, 2013 2. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) saw a camel that had tears in his eyes  The Prophet (pbuh) went to the camel, and pampered him at his back  He became pacified  The Prophet (pbuh) told his owner, a young Ansari, to be fearful regarding the camel who was being kept hungry 53
    54. 54.  The October 23, 2013 KINDNESS TO BIRDS Holy Prophet (pbuh) in a journey was somewhat behind his companions  The companions saw a dove with its two chicks  They caught her chicks  When the Prophet (pbuh) came nearer them he said: who teased the dove regarding her chicks; give them back to her. 54
    55. 55. BRANDING ANIMALS Holy Prophet (pbuh) forbade to:  hit or mark animal on its face brand and mutilate live animals  A donkey whose face was spotted out of heated rod passed near the Holy Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) said: Don’t you know I curse the person who spots or beats an animal on the face? October 23, 2013  The 55
    56. 56.  Muhammad (pbuh) reported to have said:  “There is no man who kills [even] a sparrow or anything smaller, without its deserving it, but Allah will question him about it [on the judgment day]," Whoever is kind to the creatures of God, the Almighty is kind to him October 23, 2013 TREATMENT OF ANIMALS 56
    57. 57.  Muhammad (pbuh) is said to have loved his cat Muezaza so much that "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it” October 23, 2013 DISTURBING THE ANIMALS 57
    58. 58. MERCY ON ANIMALS (pbuh) reported as having reprimanded some men who were sitting idly on their camels in a marketplace, saying "either ride them or leave them alone” October 23, 2013  Muhammad 58
    59. 59. MERCY ON DOG – AN UNCLEAN ANIMAL October 23, 2013  Majority of Muslim jurists consider dogs to be ritually unclean  Outside their ritual uncleanness, Islamic fatawa, or rulings, enjoin that dogs be treated kindly or else be freed  According to one story, Muhammad (pbuh) is said to have informed a prostitute who had seen a thirsty dog hanging about a well and given it water to drink, that Allah forgave her because of that good deed59
    60. 60. MERCY ON DOG – AN UNCLEAN ANIMAL October 23, 2013  In a similar Hadith the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said that a person was forgiven for his sins just because he gave water to a thirsty dog  In response to the questions from his followers, the Holy Prophet said that everyone will be rewarded who shows mercy towards animals. 60
    61. 61.  The October 23, 2013 MERCY ON DOG – AN UNCLEAN ANIMAL historian William Montgomery Watt states that Muhammad's (pbuh) kindness to animals was remarkable  He cites an instance of Muhammed (pbuh) posting sentries to ensure that a female dog with newborn puppies was not disturbed by his army traveling to Mecca in the year 630 61
    62. 62. October 2013 October 23,23, 2013 62 62
    64. 64. BRANDING done for identification of animals  Two methods used: hot iron branding and freeze branding  Hot iron branding, though out of practice now due to animal welfare issue, but still used  Freeze branding - thigh region of animal shaved 64  Animal properly restrained October 23, 2013  Branding
    65. 65.  Steel October 23, 2013 BRANDING templates of number or alphabet then put in liquid nitrogen (-196 C) and immediately pressed against shaved area on thigh for few seconds  Due to freezing temperatur pigment cells die  The number/alphabet becomes visible as white area on skin due to pigmentless skin and hairs 65  If done properly this procedure usually harmless.
    66. 66. CASTRATION done to avoid undesirable effects of testosterone on carcass such as male odor and less marbling  Done in two ways: burdizzo castratator surgery  In cattle and sheep/goats castration done by Burdizzo castrator October 23, 2013  Castration 66
    67. 67. CASTRATION restrained, area around spermatic cord infused with local anesthetic agent and then burdizzo castrator applied to crush spermatic cord  If sufficient amount of local anesthetic used less or no pain felt by animal otherwise this procedure extremely painful  Pain killers given to avoid inflammation  Surgical castration done by trained vet  Animal retained and given anesthesia 67 October 23, 2013  Animal
    68. 68.  Skin October 23, 2013 CASTRATION over testes excised, spermatic cord tied with surgical thread  Testes removed by help of scalpel  A course of antibiotics and painkiller observed thereafter to avoid post operative complications. 68
    69. 69. October 23, 2013 TAIL DOCKING  In cattle usually done to remove badly injured part of tail  In sheep tail removed to avoid build up of feces which can result in fly strike  This helps in better breeding results as female reproductive parts are easily approachable by male 69
    70. 70.  In October 23, 2013 TAIL DOCKING lambs, a rubber band applied on tail by help of applicator, to cut off blood supply and tail behind rubber band easily removed  All these procedure harmless if done properly  In some cases wound complication can occur if wound is neglected  Wound be properly disinfected and should followed till complete healing 70
    71. 71. EAR TAGGING October 23, 2013  Ear tags used for identification of animals  Ear tags made of plastic or metal having some number on it  With the help of applicator tags are punched in center of ear  This procedure usually harmless but animal suffers pain 71
    72. 72. October 23, 2013 BULL FIGHTING  Bullfight involves maneuvers performed at close range, after the bull has first been weakened and tired by lances and short spears with barbs which are thrust into and then hang from the bull  After the bull has been hooked multiple times behind the shoulder the bullfight usually concludes with killing of the bull by a single sword thrust 72
    73. 73. BULL FIGHTING is a blood sport  perpetrated as a cowardly act resulting in suffering of bulls and horses  Bullfighting is cruelty, horrible spectre of animal abuse that ends in the slow and torturous death of an animal provoked and repeatedly gored with knives and swords  Bullfighting is barbaric October 23, 2013  This 73
    74. 74.  Prior October 23, 2013 BULL FIGHTING to entering the arena, bull is terribly abused for previous two days making him weak, half-blinded and mentally destroyed, whose chances of harming his tormentors is virtually nil  Drugs are administered to pep him up or slow him down, and strong laxatives are added to his feed to further incapacitate him 74
    75. 75. BULL FIGHTING October 23, 2013  Bullfight is composed of 3 separate “acts:” Men on horseback exhaust the bull They cut into his neck muscles with a pica - a weapon of about 6-8 inches long, and 2 inches thick Once it is thrust into the bull it is twisted round and a large, gaping wound appears  The bull then starts bleeding to death 75  The kill lasts about 6 minutes
    76. 76.  Bull October 23, 2013 BULL FIGHTING attempts to rise again, and gets up on his knees, only to receive further mutilation at the hands of his tormentors  He finally gives up, goes to his knees and lies down  His ears and tail are cut off (often when he is fully conscious), and his broken, bleeding body is dragged around the ring by mules  His body is taken away to be skinned, and even then he may not be dead at this time  Hundreds of horses die long as they are gored by 76 the pain-crazed bull
    77. 77. October 23, 2013 77
    78. 78. October 23, 2013 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 78
    79. 79. CONCLUSION October 23, 2013 Main aspects of adaptation of stunning procedures summarized as:  To protect slaughterer from any harm from the animal  Save animals from undue pain during killing  Facilitate slaughtering procedure  Economize meat production – slaughter more animals in less time 79  Increase meat quality and shelf life
    80. 80. CONCLUSION procedures have some limitations in October 23, 2013  stunning their use  They may also have merits and plus points  Regulatory Authorities given rules and regulations to be followed when these procedures are carried out  Despite having demerits, no stunning method has been banned completely except pithing because of chances of BSE particles  Further work continued to remove demerits and formulate new methods for animal welfare 80
    81. 81.  In October 23, 2013 CONCLUSION Jewish and Muslim methods stunning not allowed  Animals slaughtered with their religious methods - Kosher and Halal  According to research Kosher and Halal methods have lowest risks of BSE and other undesired contaminants 81
    82. 82.  With October 23, 2013 CONCLUSION normal stunning procedures – if animal not stunned on the first try, it is extremely stressful  Sometimes it takes as many as 6 tries to eventually stun the animal  The US American Meat Institute permits 5% of animals to be “missed” on the first try!  And most animal activist organizations in 82 the US accept this standard
    83. 83. CONCLUSION claim that they minimize suffering of October 23, 2013  Experts animal  An electric current or a bolt pistol does cause pain to the animal  Gas stunning may cause severe breathing difficulties or suffocation  Many animals die from stunning before slaughtering, especially chicken - in Britain that one-third chicken die before slaughtering  If animal dies prior to actual slaughter, then it would be unlawful (haram) to consume 83
    84. 84. CONCLUSION Stunning causes more blood to stay inside meat of the animal October 23, 2013 The aya says, "forbidden to you is the blood to consume." The aya says, "and that which has been strangled."  Stunning chicken by hanging upside down and forcing its head in an electrified water bath causes strangulation  Some chicken die from it, and if not, they 84 will die from electric current
    85. 85.  The aya says, "and an animal killed by a violent blow".  This is exactly the method that has been used in stunning – Captive bolt October 23, 2013 CONCLUSION 85
    86. 86. CONCLUSION scientists consider stunning cruel and painful to animal  Studies show that animal feels pain in stunning  Electricity used as a method of torture for humans in prisons and detentions  Stunning made apparently for two main reasons: the October 23, 2013  Many false imaginary idea that animal feels pain 86 when throat cut importantly kill more animals in less time
    87. 87. RESULTS OF SOME STUDIES ritual slaughter is being evaluated from an animal welfare standpoint, the variable of restraint method must be separated from the act of throat cutting without prior stunning. Distressful restraint methods mask the animals’ reactions to its throat being cut. Four stateof- the-art restraint devices have been designed, built and operated that hold cattle and calves in a comfortable upright position 87 during kosher (Jewish) slaughter (Grandin, 1994; Grandin and Regenstein, 1994). October 23, 2013  When
    88. 88. RESULTS OF SOME STUDIES determine whether cattle feel the act of having their throat cut, Grandin (1994), at one plant, deliberately applied the head restrainer so lightly that the animals could pull their heads out; none of the 10 cattle moved or attempted to pull their heads out. Observations of hundreds of cattle and calves during kosher slaughter indicated that there was a slight quiver when the knife first contacted the throat (Grandin, 88 1994). October 23, 2013  To
    89. 89. RESULTS OF SOME STUDIES of the cattle’s flight zone by touching its head caused a bigger reaction (Grandin, 1994, 1993b) than did the act of having its throat cut. The animal’s head must be restrained in such a manner that the incision does not close back over the knife. Cattle and sheep will struggle violently if the edges of the incision touch during the cut (Grandin, 1994). October 23, 2013  Invasion 89
    90. 90. October 23, 2013 ThANkS fOr yOUr pATIeNCe 90