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Exploration PowerPoint


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Exploration PowerPoint

  1. 1. Exploration
  2. 2. Exploration <ul><ul><li>What’s so great about Asia? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marco Polo - brought back stories of difficult journey to China and back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade routes were over land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not master ship builders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cartography not at height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s out there? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why Explore? <ul><li>Rise of Ottoman controlled lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more difficult and dangerous to travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for safer, more profitable trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spices & precious metals </li></ul><ul><li>Convert natives to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of adventure </li></ul>
  4. 4. God, Glory, Gold <ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in far away Christian land </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converting uncivilized people - lead to souls added to the Kingdom of God </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Glory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land, titles, and power would await any explorer who could bring glory to his financiers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No guarantee on what was to be found on these expeditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If sea route to Asia mapped- no more Muslims! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unexplored lands = lots of unclaimed treasures </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Early Exploring nations <ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal fam. supported exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous explorers: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator - slave/gold trade </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bartholomew Diaz - Cape of Good Hope (Africa) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vasco de Gama - 1st water route to East. Returned with 6000% of investment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience - Mediterranean trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding advantage - had to build ships to withstand rough Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took control of the Muslim spice trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By force & treaties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why so successful? – Guns & experience at sea. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Europeans take to the seas <ul><ul><li>T echnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in shipbuilding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateen sails, magnetic compass, three-masted caravel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sailors now equiped w/ muskets, pistols, small artillery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explorers could use against less technologically advanced nations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Spain <ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus knew the world was round </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Italian (brought his idea of reaching Asia by sailing west to Portugal 1st) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferdinand and Isabella - Spanish royalty - finance trip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1492 - sailed into the Bahamas, Cuba, and Hispaniola </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thought he landed in Indies (islands near Japan). Mistaken his entire life that he found Indies </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Economic/Political goals <ul><ul><li>Competitive about trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luxury goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly organized under under strong leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external not internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>man could affect destiny </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>curiosity & adventure </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Columbus’ fate <ul><ul><li>Left 40 men on Hispaniola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeted as hero in Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granted title and gov. position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returned 3 times over next 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferdinand & Isabella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>believed valuables were waiting to be discovered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No treasure found by men he left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men Columbus left found none, fought with natives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Columbus was given was taken away due to his lack of power and treasure . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Who’s land it is? <ul><ul><li>Pope issued statement in 1481 granting Portugal all land south of the Canary Islands and West of Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain appealed after Columbus’ discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) drew vertical line of demarcation through Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain - everything west of line ( the Americas ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal - everything east of line ( route around Africa ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Race to America <ul><ul><li>Aha! It wasn’t the Indies! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government sponsored explorers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Cabot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Venice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explored New England Coastline for England </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Florence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote letters describing the New World </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave his name to the new world as America </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The Conquistadors <ul><li>Spanish for conqueror </li></ul><ul><li>Used force to take more land - ran out of room in Cuba/Hispaniola </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Aztec gold </li></ul><ul><li>Hernan Cortez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welcomed by Aztec leader Montezuma - thought he was a god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 3 years destroyed Aztec civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500 men, 2 dozen horses, little artillery, native allies, & smallpox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Francisco Pizarro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incan Empire - copied Corte’s strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand Magellan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumnavigated the globe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Juan Ponce de Leon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida - Fountain of Youth </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Effects on the Natives <ul><ul><li>Queen Isabella – Natives aka “Indians” at this time her subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppose to protect natives, basically enslaved on sugar plantations, gold & silver mines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>250k at Columbus’ arrival - Hispaniola </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1538- 500 left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted to Catholicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American’s society replaced by European’s religion, language, culture, & gov. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Economic Impact <ul><ul><li>Establish plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vanilla </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>livestock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New to Europe: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potato </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cocoa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New to Americas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port gains connections w/Asian trading post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged IT as entry point for eastern trade </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Columbian Exchange
  16. 17. Rivals <ul><ul><li>Spanish – est. on Philippine Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England – est. relations w/ India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>form East India Co. to compete w/ Eng. & Port. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>form West India Co. to compete w/ SP & Port in America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American colony: New Netherland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fr & Eng rivalry brought down New Netherland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renamed : New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French colonies: Canada & Louisana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England – first Virginia & Mass., then entire eastern seaboard </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Trade & Colonies <ul><ul><li>Colony- settlement of people living in a new territory linked to a parent country by trade & direct gov. control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age of increased international trade </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Northern wave of exploration <ul><ul><li>Spanish/Portuguese- guarded geo knowledge/navigation tech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At Stake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military Power, Immense wealth, Religious Rivalry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England - 1600s Establish colonies after gaining nav/geo knowledge from naval wars with Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roanoke - most famous failed ENG colony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plymouth Rock (escaping Puritans) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jamestown, Virginia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British East India Company - manage military/economic relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France - Colonized Canada - fur trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netherlands (aka- Dutch) -Dutch East India Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia - maintained colonial presence for hundreds of years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ran pepper and spice Plantations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Effects of EU colonization <ul><li>Positive legacy for Europe - became rich/powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Moral & ethical price - war, greed, prejudice, religious intolerance, slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The world would never be the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of truly global economic system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of world trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EU est. ports - E. Asia, SE Asia, India, west coast of Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International trade positively affected economies </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Commercial Revolution <ul><li>New Financing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Stock Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pool resources of many merchants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cost/risk of colonization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>investors buy/share stocks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Class of merchants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attracted more investors - beginning of modern stock mkt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church revised ban on standard business practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchies granted trade monopolies to routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch East India Co. - Spice Islands, British East India Co - India </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Merchantilism <ul><ul><li>Goal - get as much silver/goal as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key - export more than you import </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of trade - positive (dif. between imports/exports) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England -tiny island, not many nat. resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for colonies to get nat. resources to make goods to export </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies job- provide nat. resources. Buy goods from mother country - customer base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Zero-sum gain – There was a fixed sum of wealth or </li></ul><ul><li> $$$ in the world & for every winner there is a loser… </li></ul><ul><li>(Countries needed to grab what they could before it was gone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social diversification - Bourgeoisie (middle class) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Balance of Trade <ul><li>Difference in value btw nations imports and exports </li></ul><ul><li>Balance = favorable – exports are of greater value than those imported. </li></ul><ul><li>Gov. encouraged exports by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>granting subsidies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High tariffs (taxes) on foreign goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies = source of raw materials & finished goods </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Triangular Trade
  24. 25. Inside the slave ship
  25. 26. Inside the slave ship