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PPT on marble

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  1. 1.  Doctor Harshikesh  Pathan Alhaj
  2. 2. Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite. The word "marble" derives from the Greek word mármaron which means "crystalline rock, shining stone"
  3. 3.  We often see that’s the marble is available in different of colours, this is due to various mineral impurities such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone.  For example :- Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities.  These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism.
  4. 4. Chemical Components of Marble Lime (CaO) 28-32% Silica (SiO2) 3-30% (varies with variety) MgO 20 to 25% FeO + Fe2O3 1-3%
  5. 5. Physical Properties of Marble Hardness 3 to 4 on Moh's Scale Density 2.55 to 2.7 Kg/cm3 Modulus of Rupture 12 to 18 N/mm2 Compressive Strength 70 to 140 N/mm2 Water Absorption Less than 0.5% (except Rainforest Green/Brown with 2-3%) Porosity Quite low Weather Impact Resistant
  6. 6. Name of Marble Origin Approx price in market per sq. feet Makrana white Makrana 1500 to 2000 Albeta Makrana 150 to 500 Kumari Makrana 30 to 80 Dungri Makrana 60 to 120 Chak dungri Makrana 200 to 500 Green Udaipur 60 to 90 Pink Udaipur 60 to 90 Brown Ajmer 50 to 80 Types of Indian marble
  7. 7. Marble Color Country Carrara marble white or blue-gray Italy Connemara marble green Ireland Murphy marble white United States Yule marble uniform pure white United States Pentelic marble pure-white, fine-grained semi translucent Greece Ruskeala marble white Russia Swedish green marble green Sweden Other types of marble
  8. 8. In flooring In stair
  9. 9. In wall decoration In corridor
  10. 10. In furniture
  11. 11. In facing In sculpture
  12. 12. Maintenance • Marble are easy to maintain and can be re-polished if you need to bring the shine back . • Marble is a porous material so if strong stain material is spilled on marble, it is recommended to wipe it quickly so that the marble does not absorb the stain • For general maintenance you just need to wipe off the marble to remove the stains. • Polishing can be done after a few years to bring back the shine.
  13. 13. • Marble flooring is known for its superior, royal and decorative appearance. It is considered as style symbol. • Marble flooring is durable. • Marble is also known for its' versatility in the art a from sculptures to monuments and from wall tiles to floor tiles. • Cool surface of marble tiles can be quite pleasant and comfortable during the summers. • Marble flooring is very easy to maintain and requires occasional sweeping and polishing. Advantages
  14. 14. • Marble stone is cool under foot so in areas where temperature is usually low for a longer duration, you may want to mix this flooring type with other flooring types to give warmth to a design. • Marble is quite expensive. If you want a near pure white look to a space, you will need to purchase expensive marble stone, • Marble is heavy in weight so structure strength of the underlying area should be ascertained before putting it. • Require routine maintenance. • Not suitable for high traffic area as it may loose shine. Disadvantages
  15. 15.  Kota Stone is a fine-grained variety of limestone . quarried at Kota district, Rajasthan, India. • The rich greenish-blue and brown colours of this stone are most popular. • It is an excellent building stone. • It is mainly used for exteriors, pathways, corridors, driveways, balconies, commercial buildings etc. • It is also suitable for use in chemical industries as flooring, wall fixing and lining.
  16. 16. Chemically, Kota Stones are siliceous calcium carbonate rocks Lime (CAO) 38-42% Cilica(SiO2) 20-25% Alumina (Al2O3) 2-4% Other Oxides like Na, Mg 1.5 to 2.5% Chemical Properties of Kota Stone
  17. 17. Compressive Strength 21.75 kg/sq. mm 21.94 Kg/ sq. mm Abrasion Resistance 18.12 (Abrasion value) 18.12 (Abrasion value) Oil Absorption Nil Nil Water Absorption 0.31 % 0.32 % Moh Hardness No. will scratch -3 Calcite will not Scratch- 2.1/2 Galena will scratch -3 Calcite will not Scratch- 2.1/2 Galena Density 2.5 to 2.65 Kg/m3 Porosity Quite Low Weather Impact Resistant Physical Properties of Kota Stone
  18. 18. Uses of Kota stone • It is used in flooring. • It can be used for roofing purpose. • It is used in corridors, lobby, drive path. • It can used for walls for interior or outdoor. • It can used in stair’s steps.
  19. 19. Advantages of Kota stone • Kota stone flooring is a fine, combine of magnificence and luxury giving used in the interior and exterior to enhance the look of the building. • Kota stone is hard, tough, oil resistant, and non-water absorbent, non-slippery and have excellent stone resolvability. • They are available in slabs and tiles form and can be set in any pattern of flooring. • Kota Stone is the ideal flooring material in the building and out side the building to impart a stronger and luxurious look to the floors. • Kota Stone is available in natural shades and it can be cut in to any size and shape as per the requirement. Look at the natural shades of kota floor: • It is an excellent building stone for humid regions and freezing regions, and it is non-porous and non-observant to water. • It is the cheapest stone s among the other natural stones. Kota stone are available in different sizes slab
  20. 20. Disadvantages of Kota stone • The stone tends to flake over a period of time. However, periodic polishing using polishing wax can eliminate this phenomenon. • Kota lacks the lustre of Marble or granite. • Unlike Marble and Granite, Kota is not available as large slabs. • Unlike Marble or Granite, Kota stone flooring does not give the appearance of a seamless flooring because Kota tiles are available only in small sized tiles. Also, there is a lot of variation in colour between tiles.
  21. 21. Marble v/s Kota Marble Kota Less compressive strength (7 to 14 N/sq. mm) More compressive strength (21 to 25 N/sq. mm) Available in large size Available in small size Less joints due to large size More joints Lustre(shinning) material Dull material Costly Cheaper More colour available Less colour available Stain can’t be removed Stain can be removed
  22. 22. Ppt is available at