Could be used to underpin the approach to managing change. Designed for whole school improvement programmes but many of the suggested approaches seem to be more widely applicable.
Alan fletcher presentation online 3 from cs
Online Communities of Practice: Sustaining Teaching Projects Overseas Presented by: Alan Fletcher USQ Contemporary issues conference 2012
Presentation Overview:English Language teaching (ELT) projects overseasContinuing professional development (CPD) forsustainability: a strategic perspectiveLiterature review on communities of practice(CoPs)From theory to practice: management &collaborative approaches
Large Scale English Language ProjectsUnited ArabEmirates Oman Hong Kong Malaysia Brunei Singapore
Let’s hope your exit strategy is more effective …
Sustainability: a strategic viewWhat’s the main threat to Failure to renew theproject sustainability? project contractHow do we secure a new Impress the clientcontract?How do we Impress the Improve learningclient? outcomesHow do we improvelearning outcomes? Improve teaching Provide continuing How do we improve professional teaching? development (CPD)
The sustainability loop. Effective CPD improves learning outcomes necessary for project sustainability. Improved Teacher pedagogy CPD Project Improved security and learning sustainability outcomes Education project Client contract renewal Satisfaction
What’s the mosteffective way of providing professional Communities of development? practice Why CoPs? The literature supports their benefits
The literature suggests ...Constructivist approaches to learning (applies to teachers as learners).Learning happens best in social environments.Communities of practice are social environments.The social aspect applies to virtual communities.ICT enables more collaboration between professionals.
From theory to practice:implementing and sustaining CoPs200+ English Language teachers on this projectTeachers widely dispersed in different schoolsaround the country. Some isolated.Collaboration happens within schools but notso much between them.
ICT connecting professionals Connecting schools through online CoPs
Practical management considerations Culture Previous CPD efforts met teacher resistance. Restrictive influences caused by: teacher immersion into the local culture, local management cultures promote “permissive individualism” (Hargreaves, 2003, p. 163)Successful implementation and sustainability of CoPs may depend oneffective “re-culturing ” so innovations are adopted. (Fullan, 2000, p. 3).
Dealing with resistance …Waddell, Cummings & Worley (2000: ) suggest three strategies:empathy and support ( employer-employee relationshipbased upon trust and featuring active listening) effective communication (to reduce speculation and anxiety)participation and involvement in the decision-makingprocess (which improves motivation).The IDEAS model’s four ‘categories of individual and/or group action’(Crowther, Hann, & McMaster, 2001) reflect these strategies and couldcontribute to more effective project implementation.
IDEAS model’s four ‘categories of individual and/or group action.(Adapted from Crowther et al., 2001, Section B, p. 8).Interpersonal: engendering a sense of belonging and participation • focusingdiscussion on processes, not people or positions • facilitating communication across diversecommunities of interest • knowing when to ‘step back ’and let others lead • respecting andrecognizing individual initiative and contributions • building heightened expectations and goalsthrough shared learning.Educative: being passionate about quality teaching and learning in allcolleges • justifying personal values in terms of a better world • being motivated to action bycomplex educational issues • generating new educational meaning from individualcontributions • interpreting organisation-wide pedagogy (SWP) from successful practices •confronting organisational barriers with confidence and conviction.Strategic: articulating ‘big picture’ trends and understandings • linking ideas stageslogically and purposefully • encouraging the formation of links with outside agencies • encouraginginnovation • enabling staff to conceptualise holistic images of the organisationOperational: being well organised · establishing realisticexpectations · attentive to detail
ReferencesAmidon, D.M. (2003). The innovation superhighway. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.Crowther, F., Hann, L. & McMaster, J. (2001). Leadership; in Cuttance, P. School Innovation: Pathway to the knowledge society (Canberra, ACT: DETYA).Fullan, M. (2000). The three stories of education reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(8), 581–584.Fullan, M. (2002). The Change Leader. Educational Leadership 59.8 (2002): 16-20.Hargreaves, A. (2003). Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. London: Teachers College Press.Hargreaves, A., Fullan, M. (1998). What’s worth fighting for out there, Teachers College Press.Hord, S.M. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.Jackson, D. and Tasker, R. (2002). Professional Learning Communities, Nottingham, National College for School Leadership.Johnson, C. M. (2001). A survey of current research on online communities of practice. Internet and Higher Education 4 (2001) 45–60.Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Muilenburg, L,. and Z. Berge. (2000). A Framework for Designing Questions for Online Learning. DEOSNEWS 10 (2). http://www.emoderators.com/moderators/muilenburg.htmlSenge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.