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Session ID:
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171
Listen to your database.
How to understand an Oracle AWR
report.
4/8/2019
Alfredo Krieg
Senior Cloud Performance Architect
Viscosity North America
@alfredokrieg
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com
Leverage what Makes Viscosity Different
Our Mission:
•We Enable Business Transformation at a Time
when Companies must Change to Survive
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com
Viscosity is a team of experts specializing in
Oracle Cloud and Engineered Systems.
We are lot more than just Oracle
SharePlex Platinum Partner
MongoDB Consulting Partner
Neo4J Consulting Partner
Kyriba - Treasury Management
We’ve written 22 books on Data, Cloud, and Oracle…
Industry Experts
o Viscosity founders hold 27+ years each
in the Oracle space
o Authors of 22 books in the Oracle
space
o 5 ACE Directors, only 36 in the United
States. 1 Oracle ACE.
o Direct connections to Oracle support
and Product Managers support
o Expertise in Engineered Systems, ZFS,
ODA, Oracle 11g, 12c, 18c, RAC/ASM,
Data Guard, Performance Tuning &
Oracle Licensing
o Hire only best of the best
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com 6
Viscosity Pillars
And Delivery Models
Database
InfrastructureAppsData
Data Integration
IAAS / PAAS
Data Warehousing
Analytics
GoldenGate
SAAS / PAAS
CX ERP SCM HCM
PAAS
Web Applications
Mobility
EBS / JDE / PS
IAAS
Public Cloud
Bare Metal Cloud
AWS Azure Bluemix
Engineered Systems
Exa- ZFS @Customer
X86 / Sparc
Workshops Assessments
Proof of
Concepts
Training Turnkey Projects
Managed
Services
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com
Performance
Health Checks
How’s it running?
Apps
SaaS/PaaS,
Mobility, Application
Development
DBA
Services
Remote and
On-site
On-Call Support
Managed
Services
ZERO DOWNTIME
Migrations
Professional
Services
Where you need it most
Staff Aug
Workforce Capacity on
Demand
Oracle License Management
Get the most out of your Oracle
investment
7
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com 8
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com 9
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com 1
@ViscosityNAviscosityna.com 1
Alfredo Krieg
• Oracle ACE
• Senior Cloud Performance Architect at Viscosity North America
• Database Performance Tuning, Exadata, OEM and EBS
• Oracle Technologies since 2004
• Blog www.alfredokriegdba.com
• alfredo.krieg@viscosityna.com
@alfredokrieg
Disclaimer
• The opinions expressed in this presentation are solely mine, and not that of my
employer.
• This is the method I use and could be other more efficient methods.
Agenda
• What is time?
• Why we use time?
• Time consumed VS time waited
• Is the DB system CPU-bound or I/O-bound?
• Where we should focus?
• What is a bottleneck?
• Identify TOP SQL
What it covers?
• Is my personal method
• It won’t cover how to tune SQL or DB parameters
• It won’t cover system statistics
• It covers how to quickly find a bottleneck
• How to find the TOP SQL responsible of the bottleneck
What is time?
• By looking at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/time
– The indefinite continued progress of existence and events in the
past, present, and future regarded as a whole.
– The continued progress of existence as affecting people and
things.
– The length of time taken to run a race or complete an event or
journey.
– British The moment at which the opening hours of a pub end.
– Baseball American Football A moment at which play stops
temporarily within a game. Photo by Jon Tyson on Unsplash
What is time?
• Alfredo’s definition:
“Is a measure in which an Oracle database process performs the requested work”
Photo by Lukas Blazek on Unsplash
Why we use time?
• Most human beings care about time
• We have machines that measure time
• Easy way to compare performance
• Oracle’s instrumentation is time based
Elapsed Time vs DB TIME
• Elapsed time is the amount of time (start-end) of the report
What is DB TIME?
• 'DB Time' is the amount of elapsed time (in microseconds) spent performing
Database user-level calls not including the elapsed time spent on instance
background processes such as PMON.
SELECT Round(NVL((e.value - s.value),-1)/60/1000000,2)||' minutes' "DB Time"
FROM DBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODEL s, DBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODEL e
WHERE s.snap_id = &AWRStartSnapID AND e.snap_id = &AWREndSnapID
AND e.dbid = s.dbid AND e.instance_number = s.instance_number
AND s.stat_name = 'DB time' AND e.stat_id = s.stat_id;
How Does Oracle Calculate the "DB time" & "Elapsed" Time Presented in AWR Report (Doc ID 1934757.1)
Time consumed VS time waited
• User’s sessions and background processes spend time in the database
• They have 2 status ACTIVE and INACTIVE
• If ACTIVE they can be consuming time on CPU or WAITING
Sessions
ACTIVE
INACTIVE
CPU
WAITING
DB_TIME
Time consumed VS time waited
• V$SESSION
– STATUS
• ACTIVE - Executing SQL
• INACTIVE
– KILLED
– SNIPED – Inactive waiting on client
• CACHED – Oracle X/Open Transaction Processing interface
– STATE
• NOT WAITING (CPU OR WAIT EVENT)
• WAITING (Typically not performing work)
– TYPE
• USER
• BACKGROUND
Time consumed VS time waited
• SELECT SID,EVENT FROM V$SESSION WHERE STATUS='ACTIVE' AND
STATE='WAITING' AND TYPE='USER';
SID EVENT
---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------
18 jobq slave wait
472 jobq slave wait
476 Streams AQ: waiting for messages in the queue
585 Streams AQ: waiting for messages in the queue
Time consumed VS time waited
• SELECT SID,EVENT FROM V$SESSION WHERE STATUS='ACTIVE' AND
STATE!='WAITING' AND TYPE='USER';
SID EVENT
---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------
2 direct path read
14 cell smart table scan
22 cell smart table scan
30 cell smart table scan
91 cell smart table scan
92 SQL*Net message to client
192 cell smart table scan
276 cell smart table scan
Reading the AWR report
Reading the AWR report
Where we should focus?
• Time Model Statistics is the answer
• Based on Oracle’s Instrumentation
• Calculates the time spent by each session and categorizes it in buckets
“Time model statistics use time to identify quantitative effects about specific
actions performed on the database, such as logon operations and parsing. The
most important time model statistic is database time, or DB time. This statistic
represents the total time spent in database calls and is an indicator of the total
instance workload. DB time is measured cumulatively from the time of instance
startup and is calculated by aggregating the CPU and wait times of all sessions
not waiting on idle wait events (non-idle user sessions).”
DB1
DB1
Sessions
ACTIVE
INACTIVE
CPU
WAITING
63,019 sec
38,245 sec
60%
40%
CPU Bound system
DB1
Top SQL
DBT1
DBT1
Sessions
ACTIVE
INACTIVE
CPU
WAITING
13,604 sec
1,087 sec
8%
92%
I/O Bound system?
What is a bottleneck?
• Is the slowest operation is the set of operations
• In Oracle set of operations are called wait events
• Oracle’s instrumentation categorizes wait events into wait classes
• We make use of the wait interface (set of views) to access this data
• V$session_wait is the most useful
Can CPU be a bottleneck?
• Yes
• No easy way to reduce it apart of:
– Reduce the workload
– Buy more CPU power
• Kernel code execution burns CPU
– Even an I/O request
DBT1
I/O Bound system!!
DBT1
Top SQL
Summary
• From general to particular
• From DB Time to Top SQL
DB_TIME
CPU or I/O
Top SQL
Exadata SMART IO
Exadata SMART IO
ASH?
• Alfredo, will this method also work with an ASH report?...... Kind of..
CPU 40%
Others 50.37% (28.23%+15.54%+4.67%+1.93%)
Don’t know the DB Time!!
Session ID:
Remember to complete your evaluation for this session within the app!
171
alfredo.krieg@viscosityna.com
Collaborate 2019 - How to Understand an AWR Report

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Collaborate 2019 - How to Understand an AWR Report

  • 1. Session ID: Prepared by: Remember to complete your evaluation for this session within the app! 171 Listen to your database. How to understand an Oracle AWR report. 4/8/2019 Alfredo Krieg Senior Cloud Performance Architect Viscosity North America @alfredokrieg
  • 2.
  • 3. @ViscosityNAviscosityna.com Leverage what Makes Viscosity Different Our Mission: •We Enable Business Transformation at a Time when Companies must Change to Survive
  • 4. @ViscosityNAviscosityna.com Viscosity is a team of experts specializing in Oracle Cloud and Engineered Systems. We are lot more than just Oracle SharePlex Platinum Partner MongoDB Consulting Partner Neo4J Consulting Partner Kyriba - Treasury Management
  • 5. We’ve written 22 books on Data, Cloud, and Oracle… Industry Experts o Viscosity founders hold 27+ years each in the Oracle space o Authors of 22 books in the Oracle space o 5 ACE Directors, only 36 in the United States. 1 Oracle ACE. o Direct connections to Oracle support and Product Managers support o Expertise in Engineered Systems, ZFS, ODA, Oracle 11g, 12c, 18c, RAC/ASM, Data Guard, Performance Tuning & Oracle Licensing o Hire only best of the best
  • 6. @ViscosityNAviscosityna.com 6 Viscosity Pillars And Delivery Models Database InfrastructureAppsData Data Integration IAAS / PAAS Data Warehousing Analytics GoldenGate SAAS / PAAS CX ERP SCM HCM PAAS Web Applications Mobility EBS / JDE / PS IAAS Public Cloud Bare Metal Cloud AWS Azure Bluemix Engineered Systems Exa- ZFS @Customer X86 / Sparc Workshops Assessments Proof of Concepts Training Turnkey Projects Managed Services
  • 7. @ViscosityNAviscosityna.com Performance Health Checks How’s it running? Apps SaaS/PaaS, Mobility, Application Development DBA Services Remote and On-site On-Call Support Managed Services ZERO DOWNTIME Migrations Professional Services Where you need it most Staff Aug Workforce Capacity on Demand Oracle License Management Get the most out of your Oracle investment 7
  • 12. Alfredo Krieg • Oracle ACE • Senior Cloud Performance Architect at Viscosity North America • Database Performance Tuning, Exadata, OEM and EBS • Oracle Technologies since 2004 • Blog www.alfredokriegdba.com • alfredo.krieg@viscosityna.com @alfredokrieg
  • 13. Disclaimer • The opinions expressed in this presentation are solely mine, and not that of my employer. • This is the method I use and could be other more efficient methods.
  • 14. Agenda • What is time? • Why we use time? • Time consumed VS time waited • Is the DB system CPU-bound or I/O-bound? • Where we should focus? • What is a bottleneck? • Identify TOP SQL
  • 15. What it covers? • Is my personal method • It won’t cover how to tune SQL or DB parameters • It won’t cover system statistics • It covers how to quickly find a bottleneck • How to find the TOP SQL responsible of the bottleneck
  • 16. What is time? • By looking at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/time – The indefinite continued progress of existence and events in the past, present, and future regarded as a whole. – The continued progress of existence as affecting people and things. – The length of time taken to run a race or complete an event or journey. – British The moment at which the opening hours of a pub end. – Baseball American Football A moment at which play stops temporarily within a game. Photo by Jon Tyson on Unsplash
  • 17. What is time? • Alfredo’s definition: “Is a measure in which an Oracle database process performs the requested work” Photo by Lukas Blazek on Unsplash
  • 18. Why we use time? • Most human beings care about time • We have machines that measure time • Easy way to compare performance • Oracle’s instrumentation is time based
  • 19. Elapsed Time vs DB TIME • Elapsed time is the amount of time (start-end) of the report
  • 20. What is DB TIME? • 'DB Time' is the amount of elapsed time (in microseconds) spent performing Database user-level calls not including the elapsed time spent on instance background processes such as PMON. SELECT Round(NVL((e.value - s.value),-1)/60/1000000,2)||' minutes' "DB Time" FROM DBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODEL s, DBA_HIST_SYS_TIME_MODEL e WHERE s.snap_id = &AWRStartSnapID AND e.snap_id = &AWREndSnapID AND e.dbid = s.dbid AND e.instance_number = s.instance_number AND s.stat_name = 'DB time' AND e.stat_id = s.stat_id; How Does Oracle Calculate the "DB time" & "Elapsed" Time Presented in AWR Report (Doc ID 1934757.1)
  • 21. Time consumed VS time waited • User’s sessions and background processes spend time in the database • They have 2 status ACTIVE and INACTIVE • If ACTIVE they can be consuming time on CPU or WAITING Sessions ACTIVE INACTIVE CPU WAITING DB_TIME
  • 22. Time consumed VS time waited • V$SESSION – STATUS • ACTIVE - Executing SQL • INACTIVE – KILLED – SNIPED – Inactive waiting on client • CACHED – Oracle X/Open Transaction Processing interface – STATE • NOT WAITING (CPU OR WAIT EVENT) • WAITING (Typically not performing work) – TYPE • USER • BACKGROUND
  • 23. Time consumed VS time waited • SELECT SID,EVENT FROM V$SESSION WHERE STATUS='ACTIVE' AND STATE='WAITING' AND TYPE='USER'; SID EVENT ---------- ---------------------------------------------------------------- 18 jobq slave wait 472 jobq slave wait 476 Streams AQ: waiting for messages in the queue 585 Streams AQ: waiting for messages in the queue
  • 24. Time consumed VS time waited • SELECT SID,EVENT FROM V$SESSION WHERE STATUS='ACTIVE' AND STATE!='WAITING' AND TYPE='USER'; SID EVENT ---------- ---------------------------------------------------------------- 2 direct path read 14 cell smart table scan 22 cell smart table scan 30 cell smart table scan 91 cell smart table scan 92 SQL*Net message to client 192 cell smart table scan 276 cell smart table scan
  • 25. Reading the AWR report
  • 26. Reading the AWR report
  • 27. Where we should focus? • Time Model Statistics is the answer • Based on Oracle’s Instrumentation • Calculates the time spent by each session and categorizes it in buckets “Time model statistics use time to identify quantitative effects about specific actions performed on the database, such as logon operations and parsing. The most important time model statistic is database time, or DB time. This statistic represents the total time spent in database calls and is an indicator of the total instance workload. DB time is measured cumulatively from the time of instance startup and is calculated by aggregating the CPU and wait times of all sessions not waiting on idle wait events (non-idle user sessions).”
  • 28. DB1
  • 31. DBT1
  • 33. What is a bottleneck? • Is the slowest operation is the set of operations • In Oracle set of operations are called wait events • Oracle’s instrumentation categorizes wait events into wait classes • We make use of the wait interface (set of views) to access this data • V$session_wait is the most useful
  • 34. Can CPU be a bottleneck? • Yes • No easy way to reduce it apart of: – Reduce the workload – Buy more CPU power • Kernel code execution burns CPU – Even an I/O request
  • 37. Summary • From general to particular • From DB Time to Top SQL DB_TIME CPU or I/O Top SQL
  • 40. ASH? • Alfredo, will this method also work with an ASH report?...... Kind of.. CPU 40% Others 50.37% (28.23%+15.54%+4.67%+1.93%) Don’t know the DB Time!!
  • 41. Session ID: Remember to complete your evaluation for this session within the app! 171 alfredo.krieg@viscosityna.com