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Workshop flippedlearning udiversidade do minho

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Taller sobre como implementar aprendizaje inverso en enseñanzas universitarias Como motivar a los alumnos hacerles llegar la información a aprender y reaccionar a sus necesidades

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Workshop flippedlearning udiversidade do minho

  1. 1. Cómo el modelo de aprendizaje inverso favorece el aprendizaje activo y la enseñanza funcional How flipped learning favors active learning and functional education Alfredo Prieto Martín Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas Universidad de Alcalá 1
  2. 2. Plan of the workshop 1. Presentations and reflection on learning interests 2. Review of preparation tasks 3. Think Pair Share exercise: What the students who learn more do? 4. Powerpoint presentation 4.1 The problem of the abuse of expositive model 4.2 The solution 4.3 Why the flipped model is the perfect environment to introduce more active and inductive learning in our classes 4.4 flipped learning Works! …. even with iberian students? 4.5 Experimentation of different Methods • TBL with Socrative quizzs • Peer instruction with flashcards • Just in time teaching Feed back on urgent doubts and student questions 5. How to implement the model and win more learning? 5.1 Increasing student motivation 5.2 Sending information to learn, instructions, deadlines and forms of assessments 5.3 Analytic of student responses and how to react to students interests difficulties and doubts.
  3. 3. Biopic of the teacher • PhD in Biology. Professor of immunology at University of Alcalá (Spain). • Winner of Best Young Researcher Prize University of Alcalá 2000 • Since 2004 to 2017 gives teaching courses at 29 Spanish and portuguese universities • Coordinator of the interuniversity teaching innovation group lectura-aholics anonymous since 2010 to 2017 • 4th in the world ranking for TEMS 2013 (Top E-learning Movers & Shakers en 2013) • Winner of innovation teaching Prize Universidad de Alcalá 2014 • Cocreator of the National register of teachers who use flipped Learning in Spain and other Spanish speaking countries • Author of the books • “Metodologías inductivas: el desafío de enseñar mediante el cuestionamiento y los retos.” • “Flipped Learning: aplicar el modelo de aprendizaje inverso.”
  4. 4. 1. Presentations and reflection on learning interests • What we want to learn?
  5. 5. 2. Review of preparatory tasks• Ver vídeos de Eric Mazur y Abelardo Pardo • Debéis leer el documento que os adjunto a este mensaje sobre los métodos de fomento del estudio previo, pues en la sesión presencial desempeñaréis el papel de los alumnos en un examen de evaluación formativa al estilo team based learning. Si leéis el documento adjunto entenderéis de que se trata. • Tras leeros ese documento adjunto debéis responder en este link y al cuestionario de reflexión y expectativas previas sobre el taller. Tras reflexionar sobre cada pregunta y tras contestar a todas a dar a Submit. Si al menos algunos de vosotros podéis contestar el jueves o el viernes ( antes del fin de semana) me vendrá bien para conocer vuestras inquietudes y necesidades iniciales. • Último asunto urgente contestar a esta sencilla encuesta sobre vuestro nivel de partida en el dominio de las herramientas tecnológicas que son más útiles para implementar el flipped Learning de una manera coste-eficaz. Cuestionario de nivel de partida en herramientas tecnológicas para el flipped Learning. Hacerlo no os llevará más de 5 minutos. 5
  6. 6. Important, but no urgent • Asuntos importantes, pero no urgentes, para los que encontréis un rato, os pido que vayáis pensando en escoger una clase o tema de alguna de vuestras asignaturas con la que podríais experimentar el uso del modelo inverso y que vayáis buscando ejemplos de vídeos instructivos, infografías, actividades de aplicables a ella, o si lo preferís las vayáis planificando o creando vosotros mismos. En el taller presencial reflexionaremos sobre cómo hacerlo y os enseñaremos algunos trucos que ayudan a que salga bien. • • La estrategia de búsqueda recomendada es combinar flipped y un término en inglés que defina la temática trata da en ese tema de vuestra asignatura. En portugués encontrareis menos información pero podéis probar con flipped y el nombre de vuestra asignatura o disciplina. Para buscar recursos específicos de un tema buscar con el nombre del tema en inglés y vídeo o, con el nombre del tema y flip. También podéis encontrar ejemplos y recursos inspiradores en esta entrada de mi blog profesor 3.0 Recursos de los profesores españoles que han implementado flipped learning en educación universitaria ordenados por materias • Who searched examples (show of hands)
  7. 7. Para los que tengáis más tiempo libre o mayor urgencia por aprender a aplicar este modelo a mejorar el aprendizaje de vuestros alumnos en vuestras asignaturas • 2 Abrir cuenta en la App Socrative (socrative.com) como teacher y crear un cuestionario de evaluación formativa. • Para aprender a usarlo os ofrezco un par de tutoriales • Socrative for teachers tutorial breve 3 min en inglés • vídeo tutorial de Socrative en español que hizo Mercedes Márquez de la U Jaume I https://youtu.be/5x3oxM2-W0M 10,51 min • También os recomiendo leer estas entradas del blog profesor 3.0 sobre cómo lograr que los alumnos hagan estudio previo. • Los cuatro elementos que necesitamos para invertir nuestras asignaturas • Aspectos críticos para lograr el éxito en el flipped • Saludos y feliz preparación para el taller, nos vemos el día 24.
  8. 8. 4. Cómo el modelo de aprendizaje inverso favorece el aprendizaje activo y la enseñanza funcional How flipped learning favors active learning and functional education Alfredo Prieto Martín Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas Universidad de Alcalá 8
  9. 9. Agenda 4.1 The problem of the abuse of expositive model 4.2 The solution 4.3 Why the flipped model is the perfect environment to introduce more active and inductive learning in our classes flipped learning Works! …. even with iberian students? 4.5 Experimentation of different Methods The Problems of abuse of expositive method 9
  10. 10. 4. 1 The problem: There is any problem with the abuse of expositive lectures in university? 1. Nearly all teachers abuse of “powerpoint shows” 2. Nearly all class time is employed in oral transmission of information to be learned 3. When students pay attention, we (the lecturers) can transfer information to be taken and studied for exams 4. Laptop invasion of university classes causes new problems. Lap top lecture (s XXI) Lectio midle age (s XIII) 10
  11. 11. What are the roles in the traditional lecture? • The teacher’s role • The monologist performer • Is active • He/she is the monologist. Suffers preclass anxiety, but also enjoy endorfine peaks on class and after class • It is an exciting experience (at least the first years you give and repeat a lecture) • The student role • The receiver • is passive and boring from the start • He/she is an anonymous member of a sleeping mass. • Student compromise, work and learning in class are of low level • For a growing part of students the lecture is a somniferous experience 11
  12. 12. Have traditional lectures Inconvenients in twenty first century university education? 1. There is little time for practice and application of the transmitted information 2. There are no in class oportunities to exercise skills and competences. 3. The work of students out of class is also scarce 4. So the learning is poor This student looks alert, but is sleeping 12
  13. 13. A flipped perspective: what university students look and do in a laptop lecture? • To discover this, you can enter silently and sit on the last rows and see what happens • Students in the first rows pay attention and take notes. • The rest twitt , send messages, surf the internet …. An optimistic dean would say to the press: «They are “informally exercising their web skills” 13
  14. 14. Is this active learning? • Ask a question to the class, wait one student raise the hand, and them give he/she the floor
  15. 15. Reflection: What the students should do in class time to understand informatition and learn to use it? 1. For deep understanding and develop competences a more active student role is needed 2. They have to work with the information, use it in new contexts , discuss with their peers 3. They need to act and reflect with the information to be learned 15
  16. 16. 4.1.2. ECTS learning = class work time + out of class work time • EHEA grades and ECTS credit are based on the assumption that students work for two hours out of class by each in class hour . Really? • However, out of class workload time is not measured sistematically. • Studies of real workload against official ECTS work load (Spain, UK), demostrate that out of class real workload is lesser than work load prescribed by ECTS credit. • We (the teachers) are happily ignorant of this difference. 16 What can we do to induce out of class student activity
  17. 17. To optimize student learning we need Real ECTS (=25 h.), not fake ECTS (<20 h.) • Real ECTS =25 hours of student work by credit 10 in class 15 out of class • Fake ECTS = 10 hours of passive learning in class + 7 hours of out of class work (intensive craming before the exam) • Actions have consecuences • Fake ECTS produce fake learning (also called crap learning) short term memory overload only to pass the exam and quickly forget. • Proposal of solution • We need induce out of class work that will be assessed and discussed in class 17
  18. 18. 4.1.3. Are traditional teaching methods damaging for student development? • Is endless listening teacher’s monologues bad for the development of our student’s skills for critical thinking, and written communication? National Institute for Learning Outcomes assessment study (Blaich & Wise 2011). Only moderate progress in one half of the students If we assess the development of students skills for critical thinking, cooperation and communication after 2 years of university education No significant change in one sixth Moderate decrease in one third of the students 18
  19. 19. Richard Arum & Josipa Roksa (2011) Academically adrift: limited learning in college campusses • Recent studies demonstrate the barely noticeable impact of university courses in the development of student competence for critical thinking, complex reasoning and proffesional writting. • Arum & Roksa study (2011) on 2.300 students in 24 US institutions, 45% of them do not show significant change in these competences during first year and half of university education. Bill Gates "Before reading this book, I took it for granted that colleges were doing a very good job." Derek Bok Underachieving Colleges “They learn much less, than they should” 19
  20. 20. 4.1.4. Problem statement How can we improve the learning of our university students? • Innovative alternatives to the lecture: 1. Functional education/Inductive learning. teaching by solving problems and cases, asking questions instead of telling answers. – Case study/project/problem based learning/inquiryBL – Its a very disruptive change 2. Active learning continuous improvement by progressive introduction of student centered activities within expositive lectures – It combines information transfer, with student thinking, action and reflection on what is understood 20
  21. 21. Reflection: Why you think is so limited the extension of the use of alternative, active and inductive methods in university clases? • Despite the evident advantages of these innovative methods, none of these methods is mainstream in university teaching • Only selected minorities of best and most compromised teachers use frequently these methods. • Only a selected group of universities (Manchester, Mc Master, Maastricht, Aarhus) impose these active and inductive methods as mandatory in some of their faculties. • In others (Yale, Harvard, BCU) there are voluntary teachers who implement the methods. • In Spanish universities less than one of each 100 university teachers use regularly these methods (data from Spanish registry of Flipped teachers) 21
  22. 22. Advantages and costs of active and inductive methods • Advantages: 1. They engage students 2. Allow exercise and development of skills and competences 3. They reach deep understanding and meaningful learning 4. They like it 5. They learn more • Costs: 1. They need more time to cover extensive curriculums 2. They demand more teacher work for preparation, study of student answers and teacher feedback 22 For most university teachers, costs outweigh the benefits and thus use active learning in a very limited fashion
  23. 23. Why inductive and active methods are not the mainstream methods? • What are their disadvantages? • Making activities needs “in class time” that is preferentially used for teachers for oral explanation and transmission of the information to be learned. • Activities slow down the pace of advance through the index of contents • Require more engagement and effort, not only by the students but also from teachers. • The extra-effort of the teachers is not usually rewarded and they are not stupid • The result is that: • “Only a minority of compromised university teachers use these methods in a minority of occasions” 23
  24. 24. Reflection How to increase the active learning and functional teaching (inductive learning) in university classes? 24
  25. 25. 2.1. How can we improve the learning of our students? There is any way of increasing class time for practice but maintaining high standards for content learning that will be rigorously assessed? Yes, there are some of them 25
  26. 26. At least eight ways to have more time to practise active learning activities 1. Prioritizing the really essential learning results (Wiggins & McTighe) 2. Flipping the use of space and time, in and out of class (Mazur, Novak, Michaelsen, Sams & Bergmann) 3. Adaptive learning, focusing on interests and difficulties of your students (Prieto) 4. Gamifying the course and activities (Sheldon) 5. Developing a formative low stakes assessment that gives grading value to activities (van der Vleuten) 6. Practicing reflective thinking autoevaluation and autoregulation of learning (Nilsson) 7. Using rubrics and coevaluation for assessment of complex activities (Levy) 8. Create a natural critical learning environment (Bain) 26
  27. 27. 1. Give Priority to Deep understanding of essential ideas don´t waste your class time class covering all the accessory things – G. Wiggins y J. McTihge Understanding by Design backward design from the desired essential learning results – Stage 1.Prioritize essential learning results and ideas to understand – Stage 2 What evidences will show that the learning result was attained?What feedback can help? – Stage 3 Plan how to help with activities and reflection on performance Grant Wiggins http://ecosensing.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Understanding- by-Design-Expanded-2nd-Edition.pdf Understanding by design Grant Wiggins y Jay McTighe The Understanding by design guide to creating high quality Units Grant Wiggins y Jay McTighe Capítulos de muestra http://jefeus.weebly.com/uploads/4/8/3/7/4837811/understan ding_by_design_guide_to_creating_high_quality_units.pdf Jay Mc Tighe
  28. 28. Establish your learning priorities What they should understand deeply enough to can transfer it to new situations? What is important they know and know how to do? With what (accessory) knowledgements they should be familiar? Is convenient to be familiarized with Important to know and knowhow to do Enduring understanding and transfer
  29. 29. Exercise change a traditional lecture into a interactive lecture • Cut the most accessory things in a class plan notes or the most accessory slides in a powerpoint presentation • Put these accessory things with in a Appendix final section • Now you have time (10 to 20 minutes) to introduce more questions and exercises 29
  30. 30. 2. Don’t waste so much class time into information delivery (your students can read) so deliver the information out of class time and devote your class time to practice and student teacher interaction. Induce the preparatory study of your students Blended learning Mazur Peer instruction, Novak Just in time teaching, Michaelsen Team based learning. Robles PEPEOLA These teachers deliver the information by electronic means Blended learning (BL) worked at US Universities, but not with secondary or high school students. Aaron Sams and Jonathan Bergmann applied BL using vídeos and podcasts and they hit in the spot Eric Mazur
  31. 31. What If we deliver information in formats the student like? What if we deliver the information to learn… in videos and podcasts My foundation will put the cash needed What if we create internet repositories of instructive videos?
  32. 32. 3. You have to focus class activities on the interests, needs and difficulties from your students (adaptive flipped learning model) 1. Use a flipped learning model , 2. Ask your students about their reaction of the instructive materials: understandings, difficulties, urgent doubts 3. Use this information to know their interests and needs 4. Give them feedback and focus class activities in overcoming these difficulties – This “On line dialogue” allows quick redesign (just in time teaching) of class materials and activities according to the student needs Alfredo Prieto
  33. 33. 4. Gamify your teaching to motivate your student effort and class engagement G1 Give them a mission they want reach, develop their professional profile needed for desired professional destination G2 Give XP points in exchange for student desired actions G3 Show accesibility and social proximity to your students Lee Sheldon G4 Customize your answers and interactions with your students, action/reaction G5 Make up a system (leaderboard) to visually aggreate points and achievements G6 See your students working and give them feedback of quality: immediate, discriminative and kind G7 Introduce real activities interesting and funny G8 Create opportunities to cooperative team work G9 Give them ranges of election and self-direction G10 Signal the dead lines and count downs G11 Give them Micro learning into small doses when needed G12 Sometimes break the routine, fiesta. G13 Level up, unleash posibilities, round up G14 They can make multiple trials
  34. 34. 5. Advance the formative assessment stimulate effort and to give feedback on what is needed to optimize performance 1. Use formative low stakes assessment to motivate the student work many times 2. Use in selected occasions authentic and valid high stakes assessment aligned with most essential learning results. 3. Use learning analytics to detect early students with problems and apply just in time solutions to the problems Cees van der Vleuten
  35. 35. 6. Encourage autonomous learning and student self regulation 1. Students have to see the value of the proposed tasks 2. Use coevaluation they have to assess to their peers a even practice self-assessment 3. Use assessments and quizzes to produce learning 4. Use reflective metacognitive tasks and portfolios then your students will reflect on whar the are learning and how can they demonstrate their learning Linda Nilsson
  36. 36. 7. Use analytic and holistic rubrics to improve your assessment • They will serve to: • Save time in grading • Give feedback with increased agility • Promote and orient the learning of your students • Incorporate your students to processes of peer assessment and self-assessment Dannelle D Stevens
  37. 37. 8. Create a natural critical learning environment • The bests teachers, try to create a natural critical learning environment: • Natural because students encounter skills, habits, attitudes, and information they are trying to learn embedded in questions and tasks that find fascinating- authentic tasks that arouse curiosity and become intrinsically interesting, • Critical because students learn to think critically, to reason from evidence, to examine the quality of their reasoning using a variety of intellectual standards, to make improvements while thinking, and to ask probing and insightful questions about the thinking of other people. • (taken from: What the best college teachers do ) 37 Ken Bain
  38. 38. In natural critical learning environment • Students encounter safe yet challenging conditions in which they can try, fail, receive feedback, and try again without facing a summative evaluation 38 Teacher Ask a question Put a challenge Try to answer using information Reflect and discuss Hit or fail Teacher ot peers Give feedback on performance Refine your own learning (retry using feedback)
  39. 39. Elements of complex learningHigh expectations technology Low stakes assessments Drilling skills Feedback from trainer Competent practicioner Many oportunities to Try, Fail & retry
  40. 40. "Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try Again. Fail again. Fail better." Samuel Beckett 40
  41. 41. How to achieve that most students prepare for class? How to adapt our clases to their needs? How to develop a cost efficient Adaptive Flipped learning model
  42. 42. Our proposal for solution: Active learning = information to learn + activities to apply, analyze, transfer, create and communinate + critical and reflective thinking So Start using the Flipped classroom model, this: 1. signficantly decreases the class time needed for delivery of information to be learned… 2. so it gives us an opportunity for increased use of active and inductive methods in class time 3. The answers of students to forms after preparatory study give us information about their difficulties and interests 4. Analizing student responses we can redesign our classes to focus on resolution of student doubts and difficulties 42
  43. 43. Practical ways to apply these principles 1 Flipped classroom teacherr Improved in Class experiencer Studentsr Send via email the information to learn Teacher ask students and help them The problem of this simplest method is … the students don’t work (if the teacher don´t assess who made the preparatory work ) With good teachers and motivated students it Works if they do it role The simplest is not he best 43
  44. 44. Ways to send the information to be learned • There are many • E-mails • Html pages • Videos • Screencasts • Powerpoint casts • Text documents word and pdfs • Books and journal articles 44
  45. 45. Arrangenment and delivery of instructive materials Select an unit and 1. Think of desired learning results What do you want they learn? (Bloom taxonomy can help) 2 The first time Flipper question: search and curate videos or create them? 3.- Tools for video creation: start adding audio to powerpoint presentations, open a youtube channel. Edit your videos put subtitles. 4.- Assessment after watching videos put videos into forms (Google) or put questions into the videos (Edpuzzle, Flip tools) 5.- think of activities to make in the class time.
  46. 46. Flipped learning goes further than flipped classroom • We can ask students answer on line forms about their understanding of instructive materials. • With this information about student interests and difficulties the teacher redesign its class (just in time teaching) creating learning activities for exercising skills and formative assessment (teaching between desks, kikan shido). 46
  47. 47. Flipped classroom plus Just in time teaching 1 FC/JITT redesign just in time Teacher sendsr In Class experiencer Studentsr Send via email the information to learn When most student prepare for most clases and when teachers focus on student interests and difficulties the students undestand better and learn more This is better tan simple flipped classroom Teacher receivesr Teacher ask students and help them Teacher analyzes Apapt to student needs 47
  48. 48. There are several methods to assess and ensure the preparatory study • On line assessment (0 or low cost in class time) – Pepeola (Preparación y Estudio Previo por Evaluación On Line Automática, Robles, Barahona y Prieto) by MCQ – On line discussions – JiTT (Just in Time Teaching, Novak ) by open question forms • In class assessment (higher cost in class time) – TBL (Team based Learning, Michaelsen) – 8-10 question MCQ individual/group disscussion/ – PI (Peer Instruction, Mazur) 12MCQ for each class – In class questions and discussions/cases 48
  49. 49. Methods to induce and assess preparatory work Variants of flipped classroom TBL/JITT/PI/PEPEOLA Ejercicise Team based learning (TBL) Now we make a formative assessment of your understanding of characteristics differences and similarities between these methods First you should answer individually to a quizz of MCQ questions. Next you discuss make consensus responses and answer in little teams. Next well make and Space Race with socrative and finally we Will discuss the justification of the right answers for each of the questions
  50. 50. JiTT minimalist Forms for student preparatory work assessment (three questions) 1. Last name, first name 2. ¿Cual te parece la idea más importante que has aprendido en este tema y justifica por qué? 3. ¿Qué es lo que no consigues comprender o te ha quedado menos claro y explica cuál es tu dificultad? As a physicist I consider tree questions are enough for some “soft sciences”, but for the hard sciences like mine…. Dr. Sheldom Cooper My minimalist form is inspired in a combination of minute paper and muddiest point active learning methods Dr. José García Hidalgo Profesor de Geología Member of lecture-aholic anonymous
  51. 51. Just in time teaching, JiTT On line Form to: 1. stimulate student study, thinking and work 2. assess preparatory study by asking reflective questions 1. Last name, first name 2. What is the most important idea of this unit and justify why? 3. What part needs deeper treament in class time and justify why? 4. Make a summary in 200 words of the unit 5. What is the muddiest point? Explain why? 6. What question you like we answer in the first day of class? 7. What part of the unit you understand well and no further explanation is needed? Why? 8. What you understand watching the videos? 9. email address 10.¿On what question relative to this unit you’ll like inquiry on your own? 11.If you understood some important that you did not understand at first. Explain what is what you understood and write a question that can be answered by the peers who also understood this topic. 12.Made a constructive criticism of the instructive materials supplied and point what things should be changer or improved for better clarity and understanding 13 How much time have you spent in reading and making meaning of the documents and powerpoints? 14 How much time have you spent in watching and making meaning of the videos? 15 Were useful for you the audio transcriptions of the videos? 15 How much time have you spent in reflecting and answer to this form?
  52. 52. Advantages of Flipped Classroom with Just in Time Teaching 1. Allows each student to learn at his own pace and communicate its difficulties and interests 2. Students arrive class better prepared to participate and contribute in class activities 3. Teacher receives information on student difficulties 4. More time class for student centered activities: discussion, formative assessment, work in groups problem solving projects. 5. Working in class the students can help each other and receive help and feedback from the teacher 6. Teacher can help all students not only those who dares to ask 52
  53. 53. Peer instruction (in class assessment) 1. Teacher poses a concept test (a conceptually- challenging multiple-choice question) 2. Students think about the question and answer using flash cards or smartphones 3. The teacher asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right” 4. After “peer discussion” students answer again 5. The teacher ask students that changed its minds and leads a class-wide discussion about what is the right answer is and why the wrong answers are wrong. 53
  54. 54. Peer Instruction (interspersed MCQ questions, teacher explanations, peer and class-wide discussions) Procedure is adaptive and depends on the percentage of students that answer the right answers
  55. 55. Effective peer instruction requires • Before class – teacher identifies key concepts and misconceptions and create multiple choice questions that test deeper understanding and transfer – Students prepare for class studying the materials • During class – Episodes of peer discussion and instruction that spark expert like discussion – Leading a class –wide discussion to clarify the concept and resolve the misconception • After class – Teacher review votes and take notes about points discussed so next year peer instruction will be better 55
  56. 56. How peer instruction helps students learn … • Before class – Motivates preparatory study – Students know they do not understand concept X, but they know that Z exists and why X is important • During class peer instruction exercises – Test (assess) understanding and misconceptions – Exercise and Assess skill for transfer concepts into new contexts related with real world application – Students have opportunities to try, hit/fail, receive feedback without facing a high stakes assessment • After exercises – Show success – Review/recap – Mind maps to see the big picture 56
  57. 57. Tradicional teaching vs. Peer instruction Ganancia media Física 25% de la máxima posible Biología 17% Ganancia media Física 50-60% de la máxima posible Biología 33%
  58. 58. Comparison of learning gains Porcentajedegananciadeaprendizaje Conrespectoalamáximapotencial La incorporación de más métodos interactivos mejora los resultados del peer instruction PI PI + JITT
  59. 59. Example of concept tests for peer instruction 59 A. B. C. What is the correct answer? Why?
  60. 60. References • Hake, 1998. Interactive-engagement vs. traditional methods: A six- thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses . • Mazur, 1997. Peer Instruction: A User's Manual . New Jersey: Prentice Hall. • American Journal of Physics v66 p64-74. Using ConcepTests to Assess and Improve Student Conceptual Understanding in Introductory Geoscience Courses D.A. McConnell, D.N. Steer, K. Owens, W. Borowski, J. Dick, A. Foos, J.R. Knott, M. Malone, H. McGrew, S. Van Horn, L. Greer, P.J. Heaney 2006 Journal of Geoscience Education v54 n1 p61 • Ejemplos en Geología http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/interactive/ctestexm.html • Ejemplos en química • Chemistry • Muchos ejemplos • http://modeling.asu.edu/modeling/ConcepTests.htm • http://www.arborsci.com/60-questions-physics-students-should-know
  61. 61. Information and reactions to information 61 Information contained in the student responses to teacher questions Teacher reactions: create new instructive adds, in class feedback and redesign of plan of class ¿What topics are interesting, new, or of special value to the students? Deepening on those topics with examples and cases. Add interesting activities on these topics ¿What is already known? ¿Why? ¿What is clear? Do not waste your class time explaining it, instead construct new understandings on the top of it ¿What are the topics o concepts that are the most difficult to understand? Create new instructive materials and design activities which help to understand these topics ¿What is the most urgent doubt you need to be clarified? to answer doubts in a logical order, the teacher should aggregate doubts into thematic clusters and ordering doubts in levels of complexity/difficulty ¿How much time you worked seeing and reading the instructive materials? If necessary adjust the volume of instructive materials each week (in European universities students must work 40 hours per week) ¿Who did the preparatory work? The students who do preparatory work will receive a bonus in grade (tipically university courses in Europe consists of 15 units, student receives 0.66 % of the final grade per each unit studied)
  62. 62. There are several methods to give feedback to the students • On line feedback (0 or low cost in class time but it cost out of class teacher time) – Pepeola (automatic feedback + on line comments of the teacher) – Flipped learning forte (Prieto) teacher answer by email list the urgent doubts of the students • In class feedback (higher cost in class time) – Flipped classroom with JiTT – TBL (Team based Learning, Michaelsen) – PI (Peer Instruction, Mazur) – In class questions and discussions/cases 62
  63. 63. On line Feedback for the students: Flipped learning forte • Teacher answer to urgent doubts of the students and send responses via e-mail list before class Advantages Students receive feedback on their doubts Great learning results students perceive teacher compromise Problem extra-work for the teacher Only appropiated for small classes For larger ones we suggest flip in colours Adapt class activities to student interests and needs Formative assessment and feedback Alumnos Teacher 63
  64. 64. Flip in colours (2016)• In larger classes try to answer the doubts of all student (near 100) is hard work. • It is easier for the teacher to classify student urgent doubts: • In black those that should be answered by the own teacher • Black with yellow background those which need an inquiry by the teacher before to try to answewr • In green those that can be answered by peers with a higher degree of understanding • En rojo las que implican una confusión conceptual ¿pillas cuál puede ser? o una consecuencia de abordaje intelectual superficial y perezoso • En azul las que pueden ser buenas preguntas de examen • En rosa las que pueden dar lugar proyectos de indagación personalizados • En naranja las que pueden para iniciar buenos debates 64
  65. 65. 4.4 flipped learning Works! …. even with iberian students? 65
  66. 66. Flipping Hispania ¿What results we have obtained in the last years with iberian students? It will work even with Iberian students? They resisted romanization, muslim rule, French illustration … Can they resist the flipped learning movement? Indibil y Mandonio caudillians of the Illergetes Against the romanization 66
  67. 67. 2.3. What are our results of six years with this gamified flipped model? Alfredo Prieto Martín y el grupo de innovación Magistrales anónimos 67
  68. 68. Student work, in and out of class 68 • El EEES impuso un nuevo tipo de crédito que contabiliza el tiempo total del trabajo del alumno: la suma del tiempo de interacción presencial, y del tiempo del trabajo no presencial del alumno. • In Spain we changed the credit (to comply whith EHEA norms) but we don´’t apply its mandate to mesure out of class work of the students • ECTS is a legal fistion but in most studies is a fiction. Most of students do not made the legally established workload . • ¿Cómo resolvemos este problema de hacer estudiar y ejercitar competencias durante más tiempo a nuestros alumnos? • ¿Cómo van a desarrollar competencias si no las ejercitan lo suficiente? Our students work more hours along the cuatrimester and they are happy (is a myracle)
  69. 69. Impact of flipped model on work and learning of spanish university students: Relationship between out of class work and exam grades 69Clinical Immunology Fourth year Immunology Third year Méthods First year
  70. 70. •Cambiar de método de enseñanza aprendizaje manteniendo el método de evaluación permite comparar notas de promociones antes y después del cambio de metodología. •El efecto del cambio de método se mide en relación a la desviación típica original (s) •El efecto del nuevo método se mide hallando la diferencia de calificaciones medias y relacionándola con la variabilidad de las calificaciones con el método tradicional. •Cambio = (Nueva media – vieja media) / s original •Esta es una buena medida de la intensidad o fuerza del cambio en la media en relación a la desviación típica original (s) •¿ Qué significa un aumento de una s? ¿Size effect of flipped learning on grades on assesment exams (impact mesured in sigma s) Clase expositiva Flipped learning The new median (+1 s) equals to 84,1 percentil of the original distribution 70
  71. 71. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0-10 1O-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80 80-90 90-100 Clase Tradicional Flipped Forte 11,5% 41,6% With flipped learning forte (FLF) and flip in colours (FIC): the students learn more 6,0 % 41% % of students which reach mastery level (>8) increases four folds % of student failure (<5) decreases The mean grade increases 2 points (>1 s) 71
  72. 72. 72 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Expositivo tradiccional Just-In-Time Teaching Entorno gamificado Flipped classroom/JITT Flipped learning forte + feedback y formative assessment Expositive leacture Just-in-time teaching Gamified environment Flipped classroom Flipped learning forte /flip in colours 72720 % 45 % 61 % 90 % 100 %97 %95 % % students which do the preparatory work % of students which reach mastery (with exam grade >8) has been improved along the way + prior study and feedforward from the students + instructive vídeo + gamified environment (bonus)
  73. 73. What about skill development ? Problem based learning Activities Valor del aprendizaje Novedad del aprendizaje Dificultad de la tarea Disfrute con la experiencia Percepción del desarrollo de la competencia Presentación oral Muy alta Muy alta Alta Muy alta Alta Preparación de una presentación oral Muy alta Alta Alta/suficiente Alta Alta Comprensión de artículos originales de investigación Alta Muy alta Alta Suficiente Alta Trabajar con bibliografía en una segunda lengua (Inglés), Alta Alta Alta Baja Suficiente Búsqueda de artículos originales e información adicional en Internet Alta Suficiente Suficiente/baja Alta Alta Adquisición independente de conocimiento Alta Suficiente Suficiente Alta Alta Trabajo en equipo Alta Suficiente Suficiente Muy alta Alta Aprender a aprender por si mismos Alta Suficiente Suficiente Alta Alta Resolución de dudas y cuestiones en tutorías Alta Suficiente Suficiente Alta Alta Uso de TICs y softwares Alta Baja Baja Alta Alta 73
  74. 74. What about student perceptions in their teacher evaluations? In one scale from 1 to ten we obtained 9.x 74
  75. 75. The opinion of teachers who used flipped learning Are you satisfied with the effect of flipped learning on student engagement, class participation and learning? si (90,15%) si pero depende de …(5,47%) en proceso de prueba (3,28%) no (0,36%)
  76. 76. Conclusion Iberian students can not resist the combined effects of Marketing, gamified learning environment, Flipped Learning Forte and Flip In Colours 76
  77. 77. Two complementary Hypotheses 1. By what most students do in the flipped model and should not do in the traditional 2. By the effect of little prizes and dead lines on the work of students and teachers Why this new adaptive flipped model has so strong impact on student learning and adapt teaching to student needs? 77
  78. 78. Modelo Antes de cada tema En clase Después de clase Las vísperas del examen Resultados de aprendizaje Expositivo tradicional No hace nada Escucha ¿atentamente? Y toma notas La mayoría no hacen nada Se pegan la empollada previa al examen retención en memoria a corto plazo Malas calificaciones Comprensión y retención limitadas Poca capacidad de abstracción y transferencia Mucho se olvida tras la primera ducha De aprendizaje inverso Flipped classroom + Just in Time Teaching Ve vídeos y lee documentos Practica en clase análisis, juicio, Repasan para los cuestionarios de fin de tema (on line o en seminarios) Se pegan la empollada previa al examen partiendo de un nivel de comprensión de partida muy superior Calificaciones mejoran en una SD Realiza tareas de preparación Reflexiona sobre lo que no entiende Razonamiento hipotético deductivo Se concentra en lo que no entendió Mejora la percepción de la labor del profesor y la asignatura Se plantea preguntas y se las formula a su profesor Toma notas y formula preguntas al profesor Estudian para los exámenes de fin de módulo How changes what most of the students do in the flipped model? 78
  79. 79. flipped learning forte model imposes several dead lines to the students (2) and their teachers (3) For the teacher For the students Clase activa y evaluación formativa Enviar Parte o toda la información a ser aprendida Evalúa dificultades y replantea, se prepara para superar dificultades que tienen los alumnos Incluye actividades estudiar reflexionar y enviar feedforward revisar sus materiales y hacerlos llegar a sus alumnos. prepararse para la evaluación formativa Proporcionar Feedback Estudiar el Feedback Esta autoimposición de fechas límite induce cambios en hábitos de alumnos y profesores que aumentan el aprendizaje de ambos 79
  80. 80. Flipped learning achieves that most students learn doing precisely those things … Which in the traditional expositive model, only a select minority of the best students spontaneously does 80
  81. 81. 5. How to implement flipped learning 5.1 Increasing student motivation 5.2 Sending information to learn, instructions, deadlines and forms of assessments 5.3 Analysis of student responses and how to react to students interests difficulties and doubts. 81
  82. 82. 5.1 Increasing student motivation philosophical stone of education How can I change the habits of study and class participation of my students? How can I increase their motivation to study and participate in class?
  83. 83. Increasing the motivation of the students to do the preparatory work Marketing and gamification make miracles in student behaviour 83
  84. 84. We want to change habits of our students so they study before classes • First day of class “D day”. Very Effective marketing of flipped model is needed • Then week after week we have to show that we read our student responses and redesign our clases according to their needs • Students see the value of preparatory study, the good teacher can adapt the class to their needs • The good teacher act as a coach and facilitator of the interaction of the students with the instructive materials he/she develops 84
  85. 85. First day of class “D day” we show the results of the prior year A B C If these courses were optative. Which one you prefer? All students prefer C 85
  86. 86. One week before a new unit starts we send instructive materials and links to forms Example of hipermedia message 86
  87. 87. ¿Cómo les motivo para que hagan el estudio previo? Demostrándoles que los que lo hacen comprenden aprenden y sacan las mejores notas Bonificando Hasta un 10% por la realización de cuestionarios Apelando al sentido de misión si no aprovechas esta oportunidad seguirás siendo un aprendiz dependiente e incompetente para el aprendizaje autónomo Demostrando que les leemos y les conocemos (RRRR) Respondiendo A sus preguntas urgentes Replanteando la interacción en función de dificultades y necesidades Reconociendo públicamente a los que se lo han currado Recriminando en privado a los que no lo hacen o se lo toman a cachondeo 3. Marketing 2. Gamificación 4. día a día: análisis de Respuestas (feedforward) y devolución de feedback 1. Cuestionario Universal de reacción a Los materiales Método ágil de comprobación del estudio previo En el diseño y presentación de la asignatura (día D) Luego durante la impartición de la asignatura
  88. 88. Believe me: • A combination of marketing and gamified environment that rewards student study and participation in class… • induces changes in study student habits, increases increases class participation, student learning and student satisfaction with their learning 88
  89. 89. Marketing and gamificaction are the keys to success in student work and student learning 89 Immunology methods Immunology Imunol. Clin.
  90. 90. 5.2 Sending information to learn, instructions, deadlines and forms of assessments without wasting class time another of the philosophical stones of education How can I deliver the information to learn without wasting most of Class recitating notes?
  91. 91. Use a hipermedia to deliver content, instructions, an forms or quizzs for assessment of preparatory work • Electronic text with several links to instructive materials and on line forms to assess the preparatory work of your students 91
  92. 92. Example of hypermedia • Debéis leer el documento que os adjunto a este mensaje sobre los métodos de fomento del estudio previo, pues en la sesión presencial desempeñaréis el papel de los alumnos en un examen de evaluación formativa al estilo team based learning. Si leéis el documento adjunto entenderéis de que se trata. • Tras leeros ese documento adjunto debéis responder en este link y al cuestionario de reflexión y expectativas previas sobre el taller. Tras reflexionar sobre cada pregunta y tras contestar a todas a dar a Submit. Si al menos algunos de vosotros podéis contestar el jueves o el viernes ( antes del fin de semana) me vendrá bien para conocer vuestras inquietudes y necesidades iniciales. • Último asunto urgente contestar a esta sencilla encuesta sobre vuestro nivel de partida en el dominio de las herramientas tecnológicas que son más útiles para implementar el flipped Learning de una manera coste-eficaz. Cuestionario de nivel de partida en herramientas tecnológicas para el flipped Learning. Hacerlo no os llevará más de 5 minutos. 92
  93. 93. 5.3 How to Analyze student responses and react to students interests difficulties and doubts. Another of the philosophical stones of education How can I transform the doubts and difficulties from my students into learning opportunities?
  94. 94. Flipped learning 2.0: Transform student responses into formative feedback for students How to detect understanding problems and créate feedback that helps to overcome the learning difficulties of our students 94
  95. 95. Detection and resolution of student learning difficulties Quick analysis of student responses just in time teaching Design of lectures focused on overcoming student difficulties 95
  96. 96. • Recipe: • From Google spreadsheet copy & paste the students’ answers sheet • In Excel book “deconstruct” the data sheet of answers to the form • Deconstruct the matrix of responses in several sheets of the Excel book one per question you want analyze: 1. More interesting aspects más and new 2. Obscure ideas they do not understand well 3. Doubts that need urgent clarifycation 4. The main ideas they unnderstand thaks to the preparatory study 5. Time workload for the student 6. Name to assign grading bonification Example of student responses analysis (inspired by Ferran Adrià) Deconstruction of response sheet 96
  97. 97. Student answer analysis process: 1. column widening, 2. labelling, 3. ordering by labels, 4. quantification of obscure topics1. Column width adjusted for better reading 2. Add column to Label the type of doubt 3.Orderdoubtsbyitslabels 4. Quantificación of students who do not understad each concept 97
  98. 98. Visual display of obscure topics Adecuación de respuesta al patógeno These concepts need to be clarified: new ilustrative materials, examples, activities, additional explanations 98
  99. 99. How to solve these problems? Problem (muddiest point) Proposed Solution Receptors for DAMP and PAMP Is a problem so prevalent thst we have to create new instructive materials Somatic Recombination Recommend to see a instructive video. If the video is in English (Video somatic recombination) and automatic subtitles mistake genes with jeans, then teacher publish comments to video, one correct transcription of the audio Polarization of Th response New illustrations which clarify (examples with Mc Nulti) polarization process. Doble discrimination and autoinmunity Class Activity: Idea storm about things strange against is better do not react hectokilogigacell Life being Class Activity: Peer instruction ask some students explan the concept to peers Election of defense mechanisms against infections Explanation of how PAMPR estimulated by each pathogen induce different types of immune response Congenic Animals Explanation on the blackboard of endogamic crossess 99
  100. 100. Next year, we can change the free answer question by an multiple chice question (so analysis can be automated) • Qué es lo que mas te cuesta entender del tema marca una( o dos) A. DAMP y PAMP B. Recombinación somática C. Polarización de la respuesta D. Doble discriminación y autoinmunidad E. Ser vivo hectokilogigacelular F. Elección de mecanismos de defensa frente a las infecciones G. Animales congénicos H. Otra cosa, especifica cuál es 100
  101. 101. 2.4. Conclusions & recommendations: Changes in habits induced by the flipped model increase learning and grades in assessment exams •Start to use the simplest efficient method for flipped classroom : flipping classroom with just- in- time teaching ( FC/J-I-T T ). –Send documents and video materials and a universal reflective form created with googleforms or Office 365. –Do it before you start a new unit. Send to your students ask them view, read and answer the questionnaire with the promise they will obtain grading bonus. –It will be an easy change for them. 2 hours of outside class work by course and week will allow students win a 10% of the maximum grade 101
  102. 102. 2.4. Conclusions & recommendations: Changes in habits induced by the flipped model increase learning and grades in assessment exams •If you can, use student doubts to supply collectivized feedback (FLF) and to create activities (FIC) –If the teachers send responses to students urgent doubts and questions, they have to revise them. Especially if some questions can be candidates for exam questions – Use flip in colours to transform student questions into class activities –Announce formative assessment activities (TBL/PI), then they should prepare for in class formative assessment activities. 102
  103. 103. Flipped learning will improve 1. The work out of class of your students 2. The communication of information with your students 3. Your feedforward and understanding of your students difficulties 4. Your feedback and focus on the resolution of your students real difficulties 5. Class participation and activities 6. The Learning results from your students 7. The satisfaction of your students with the course 103
  104. 104. Changes for the teacher •You should develop the habit and the methodology for the study the reactions of your students to the learning materials you sent to them. •You should progressively adapt the use of time class to the needs and difficulties of your students. 104
  105. 105. Advice for the first time Flipper teacher 1. Look for a group of flippers in your discipline and level que innove 2. Look for a mentor or coach in flipped learning 3. Experiment with new teaching and learning methods and share its results. 4. Is mandatory to learn to use new Apps for forms and questionnaires for student response with smartphones , and Apps for the gamification 105
  106. 106. Agradecimientos A los miembros del grupo interuniversitario de innovación docente Ex-Magistrales anónimos Por su labor para acelerar la difusión de mejoras en los métodos de enseñanza y aprendizaje 106
  107. 107. Acknowledgments • To Editorial Narcea for publish in their Colección Universitaria our book Flipped Learning aplicar el modelo de aprendizaje inverso 107
  108. 108. Think about this, before going to bed and try to be better teachers 108
  109. 109. Electronic versión of this presentation at https://es.slideshare.net/alfredo.prietomartin 109https://es.slideshare.net/alfredo.prietomartin/workshop- flippedlearning-udiversidade-do-minho
  110. 110. If you need more information on these flipped methods I recommend you these books Paper and Kindle versions in Amazon Flipped learning: aplicar el modelo de aprendizaje inverso Metodologías inductivas Only in e-book version 110
  111. 111. Muito obrigado pela atençao! If you would like to know more … Read the blog Profesor 3. 0 http://profesor3punto0.blogspot.com.es/ follow to @alfredoprietoma on twitter • Alfredo alfredo.prieto@uah.es 111

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