Welcome everybody!!!Bau Bau BauDo you remember me?I’m IGOR!!!
Today, many human activities have resulted in the emission of pollutants:move machine, to produce energy from fossil fuels, industrialprocesses, the distribution of fuels and fuel, space heating, agriculturalactivities and the breeding, the use of paints, glues and solvents in thedomestic environment and in industry are all at the origin of emission ofpollutants into the atmosphere.At the heart of almost all the ways in which theyare emitted into the atmosphere there is energy,its production, its processing and its use. Thatenergy is a very general concept, and itsenormous importance is linked also to the factthat it presents itself in a plurality of formsconvertible into one another. It speaks well ofthermal energy that is the one that is emitted when burning a fuel, ormechanical energy which is that associated with the movement ofmachines or in general of any material body, or of electricity, which is theone that propagates through the distribution network to reach into ourhomes and is used to illuminate, to functional appliances and often also forheating and cooking.
Energy consumption by sector 2005 50 45 36% Industry 40 33% 31% 35 30 Civil Use% 25 20 Transport 15 10 5 0
The electricity is in fact one of the most comfortable and useful, andtherefore more precious, energy, and this explains its increasing use.The world is increasingly hungry for energy, and also in Italy there isno exception to this trend: in 35 years, from 1973 to 2007, the overallenergy consumption in Italy has increased by almost 40 %. In this timehe has profoundly changed the basket or, as is commonly said, the mix of primary sources that supply energy to our country: in 1973 the oil weighed more than 75 % and natural gas (commonly called pure methane) for just over 10 %, while in 2007 the importance of oil has dropped to just over 42 % and that of natural gas has increased to over 36 %.These numbers illustrate the profound process of restructuring ourcountrys energy commonly called methane, which in 35 years has ledto the almost five-fold increase in natural gas consumption in Italy.Another important development in the energy field, which, however, iscommon to all developed and emerging countries, is the constantincrease in the use of electricity in the 15 years between 1993 to2007 in our country there has been an increase of electricity demandby as much as 38 %. The majority of this electricity is produced inItaly by thermal power plants, which produce electricity by burningfuel oil, natural gas, coal and, to a lesser extent, biomass.
In 2007, 74 % of the electricity consumed in Italy is produced by this typeof power. In addition, a significant proportion of electricity is importedfrom abroad: in 2007 this share amounted to about 13 % and is higherelectricity produced by hydroelectric power stations in the same yearaccount for a lower share of just 11 %.A further sign of the profound transformations that have occurred inrecent decades in our country comes from how much energy is used inindustry, domestic use (space heating, etc.) and transport: how to actuallybreak down what insiders call the end-use efficiency. Well, in Italy in the70s was the industry the largest consumer of energy, with a share of about37 %, followed by civilian with a share of about 30 % and the transportsector which accounted for approximately only 17 %.But the situation is rapidly evolving to thepoint that the second half of the nineties untiltoday (with one exception in 2005), thetransport sector consumes more energy, with ashare of about 30 %, followed a short distancefrom the civilian shares with an average of justunder 30 %, and theindustry lies in third place with a share ofabout 29 %. Are the transport sector from the70s to today has expanded further increasingits weight in terms of energy consumption by13 %age points.
The air we breathe can be contaminated by pollutants fromindustries, vehicles, power plants and many other sources. Thesepollutants are a big problem for the damaging effects they mayhave in relation to health or the environment in which we live. Theirimpact depends on various factors, such as the amount of airpollutant to which it is exposed, the duration of exposure and thedangerousness of the pollutant itself. The health effects may beminor and reversible (such as irritation of the eyes) or debilitating(such as a worsening of asthma) or even death (such as cancer).
In fact, the emission sources are myriad, and it is extremely difficult to classify and characterize them accurately. A first distinction that manages useful is that between large emission sources, or large industrial plants or production of electricity, and emission sources distributed, those sources that on their own are notvery relevant but which, because of their relative abundance are often themain culprits.Each category can then be analyzed with a finer classification, for exampleindustry, distinguishing the different types of plants for the production orprocessing of road transport, distinguishing between categories of vehiclesdepending on the size, type of fuel and of length, the latter being connectedto the potential of polluting vehicle (Euro 0, Euro 1).The main purpose is to achieve a quantification of emissions from each sourcecategory, in order to identify those that have a greater responsibilitypolluting thus aiming to better interventions to reduce emissions.The estimation of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere can also analyzehow they have evolved over time, the emission of pollutants into theatmosphere in our country, and in particular which had reflected emissionenergy choices and gradually adopted measures to reduce air pollution.
At the "economic boom" in the late 50° and 60° occurred in our country astrong process of industrialization, which had the side effect to produceheavy environmental impacts.In the same period there has been a tremendous increase in the mobility ofpeople and goods, and then transport, in particular road: the mid-50s to themiddle of the first decade of the twenty-first century, in Italy it has gonefrom about 2 million motor vehicles about 45 million! This has meant thatsince the last decades of the last century, the road transport sector are themain stable emission for a range of pollutants such as PM10, nitrogen oxides,carbon monoxide, benzene, and beforethe introduction of unleaded petrol leadfor This pollutant. Since the early90s, the penetration of catalyticconverters, more innovations and use ofmotor fuels with improvedcharacteristics, have on the whole led toa reversal of the trend - higher to lowerof pollutant emissions from roadtransport, which is going to add to thedecline in other sectors thanks to themeasures undertakengradually, especially in industry, energyproduction and domestic use.
The complex of the interventions described above has led, as is confirmed byofficial estimates ISPRA (Institute for Environmental Protection andResearch), a progressive and generalized decrease in emissions of pollutants intothe atmosphere in Italy since the early years 90: This process is particularlysignificant for certain pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (this pollutant emissionreduction process was already in place in the previous decade) lead andbenzene, for which 1990 to 2006, the total emissions reductions will have higheror equal to -80 %; for other pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, volatile organiccompounds and carbon monoxide reduction is greater than or equal to -40 %; forPM10 is of about -30 %; for l ammonia is about -10 %.The situation is different with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, which in 2006increased by 12 % compared to 1990.But what is the actual weight of the different sectors of issue? Also according toofficial estimates ISPRA road transport is responsible in recent years about 27 %of primary PM10 emissions and about 45 % of emissions of nitrogen oxides;industry weighs about 26 % for emissions of PM10 and about 18 % for emissionsof nitrogen oxides, space heating weighs about 13 % for PM10 emissions and about9 % for emissions of nitrogen oxides. There are then the pollutants in which acategory is highly prevalent, as is the case of ammonia for which the agricultureand livestock account for approximately 94 %.As for greenhouse gases in Italy, according to official estimates ISPRA, theindustry is responsible for 28 % of emissions, followed by road transport (26%), the production of energy (22 %) and from the space heating (14 %).
One can define the air pollution such as the presence in the atmosphere of substancesthat cause a measurable effect on the human being, animals, vegetation or on differentmaterials; these substances are usually not present in the normal composition of air, orthey are at a level of concentration below.Pollutants can be classified into two main groups: those anthropogenic, man-made andnatural ones.The atmospheric contaminants, may also be classified into primary that is released intothe environment as such (such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen monoxide) and secondary(such as ozone) that are formed subsequently in the atmosphere through chemical-physical reactions .The pollution caused by these substances in open environments is called external (oroutdoor), while pollution in confined spaces, such as buildings, is referred to as internalor indoor pollution. The quality of indoor air is in fact often referred to as Indoor AirQuality.So far they have been cataloged about 3,000 air contaminants, produced mostly byhuman activities with various industrial processes, using means of transport or othercircumstances.The mode of production and release of various pollutants are extremely varied, so aremany variables that may affect their diffusion into the atmosphere.
The need to limit the presence of pollutants in the air often involves theuse of various abatement systems. These systems have proved almostindispensable part of industrial activities that produce airborne pollutantsin large quantities.Depending on their function, the technologies for reducing pollutants inindustrial emissions are divided into three broad categories.In the case in which the pollutant is associated with significant economicvalue, are chosen processes that allow its recovery and eventualrecycling, such as absorption or condensation.If the pollutants present in the emissions are characterized by a goodcalorific value and is not very convenient from an economic point of viewtheir recovery for reuse in the production cycle, we proceed instead totheir incineration with recovery of their thermal energy in the form.If industrial processes involving the liberation of gaseous emissions-richparticulates must proceed slaughter instead of the pollutants through theuse of systems such as the deposition chambers, cyclones, wetseparators, electrostatic precipitators.
The term acid rain is generally understood the process of relapseatmosphere of particles, gases and acid rain. If this occurs in the form ofacid deposition precipitation (rain, snow, fog, dew, etc.) Is spoken of wetdeposition, otherwise the phenomenon consists in a dry deposition. Usuallythe public is instead the term acid rain coincide with the phenomenon ofacid deposition wet.Acid rain is caused primarily by sulfur oxides and, to a lesser extent, theoxides of nitrogen in the atmosphere is due to natural causes and humanactivities.If not come into contact with the water droplets, these gases andespecially particulates acids that are formed by them are received by theground by means of dry deposition. This deposition may be accomplished bydifferent mechanisms, primarily dictated by the size of the particles (byimpact and gravity), the state of air in contact with the receiving surfaceand the chemical structure and physical surface of the same. In each casethe dried deposits of SOx and NOx quickly lead to the formation of acidsrelative to the ground.In the case in which these gases come into contact with atmospheric waterthen originate acids before deposition. In the presence of water and oxidesof sulfur originate sulfuric acid, while the nitrogen oxides are transformedinto nitric acid; consequently these substances cause acidification of theprecipitation.
The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon without which life as we know itnow would not be possible. This process consists in a heating of the planetdue to the action of so-called greenhouse gases, compounds present in theair at relatively low concentrations (carbon dioxide, watervapor, methane, etc..). Greenhouse gases allow solar radiation to passthrough the atmosphere while obstructing the passage towards the areaof part of the infrared radiation coming from the surface of the Earth andfrom the lower atmosphere (the heat reissued); effectively acting like theglass of a greenhouse and help to regulate and maintain the temperature ofthe earth to the present values.This process has always occurred naturally and causes the temperature ofthe Earth is approximately 33 ° C warmer than it would be without thepresence of these gases.Now, however, it is believed that the Earths climate is likely to changebecause human activities are altering the chemical composition of theatmosphere. The huge anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases arecausing an increase in global temperature resulting, therefore, theprofound changes in load of the climate on a global level and local level.Before the Industrial Revolution, the man released very few gases into theatmosphere, but now the population growth, the use of fossil fuels anddeforestation contribute greatly to the change in atmospheric composition.
The ozone hole is a particular phenomenon, recorded for the first time in1957 over Antarctica, which covers the entire globe, or rather the entireglobal atmosphere. This is due to the element chlorine (Cl). It is a naturalelement present in the lower layers of our atmosphere (stratosphere)that, as a result of human activities, has seen enormous increase in itsrelative concentration. The chlorine content in many syntheticcompounds, the so-called CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) tends to react withozone, dissociated, and releasing molecular oxygen. Chlorine is a powerfulcatalyst in the processes of dissociation of ozone, each chlorine atom candestroy tens of thousands of ozone molecules. The destruction of theozone layer due to the thinning of the ozone layer in Earths atmospherethat protects and heals skin from harmful sun rays, to determine thepresence of a real hole in the ozone pollution. For this reason, thephenomenon is known as the ozone hole and ozone depletion. or textilefilters.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treatysigned in the Japanese city on December11, 1997 by over 160 countries at the ThirdConference of the Parties (COP3) of theUnited Nations Framework Convention onClimate Change and global warming. It enteredinto force February 16, 2005, afterratification by Russia, thus celebrating thesecond anniversary in 2007. The Treatyprovides for the obligation of industrializedcountries to reduce emissions in the period 2008-2012 of pollutants(carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, namelymethane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfurhexafluoride) to an extent not less than 5.2% compared to thoserecorded in 1990, which is considered as the base year.It also envisaged to exchange purchase and sale of emission of thesegases. Because the treaty could enter into force, had to be ratified byat least 55 signatory nations producing at least 55% of theemissions, the latter condition was achieved only with the accession ofRussia, to whom we owe 17.6 % of total emissions.
The world enters 6000 Mt of CO2, 3,000 and 3,000 by the industrializedcountries than in developing countries, so with Kyoto should enter 5850instead of 6000, a total of 3 million. Given the high costreduction, it is easy to understand why the protocol has reached largeaccessions. Among non-members are first and foremost the United Statesresponsible for 36.1% of total emissions, even Australia has announcedthat it will not accede to the Agreement, along with Croatia, Kazakhstanand Monaco.
Statement of the European Air Pollution2012Decision 2012/249/UEDecision concerning the determination of the periods of startup and shutdown for the purposes ofDirective 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on industrial emissions.2011Decision 2011/638/UEDecision of 26 September 2011 concerning on benchmarks for the allocation of greenhouse gasemission free of charge to aircraft operators pursuant to Article 3e of Directive 2003/87/EC of theEuropean Parliament and of the Council .Decision 2011/540/UEamending Decision 2007/589/EC as regards the inclusion of guidelines on monitoring and reporting ofemissions of greenhouse gases derived from new activities and gases.2010Directive 2010/75/EU24/11/2010 directive on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control).Decision 2010/384/UEDecision on the Community-wide quantity of allowances to be issued in 2013 as part of the system ofthe EU Emissions Trading Scheme.Decision 2010/375/UEDecision on the allocation of quantities of substances under Regulation (EC) n. 1005/2009.Decision 2010/2/EUDecision determining, pursuant to Directive 2003/87/EC, a list of sectors and subsectors deemed to beexposed to a significant risk of carbon leakage carbon.
2009Regulation no. 1005/2009/CeEC Regulation on substances that deplete the ozone layer.Directive 2009/31/ECGeological storage of carbon dioxide and amending Council Directive 85/337/EEC, Directives of theEuropean Parliament and Council Directives2000/60/EC, 2001/80/EC, 2004/35/EC, 2006/12/EC, 2008/1/EC and Regulation (EC) n. 1013/2006 ofthe European Parliament and the Council.Directive 2009/30/ECAmendment of Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil andintroducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, amending Directive1999/32/EC for as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealingDirective 93/12/EEC.Directive 2009/29/ECAmendment of Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the EU system for the trading ofgreenhouse gas emission.Regulation 2009/443/CeLevels of performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Communitys integratedapproach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.Decision 2009/406/CeStates efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in order to fulfill the commitments of theCommunity with regard to reduction of greenhouse gases by 2020.Decision 2009/73/ECAmendment to Decision 2007/589/EC as regards the guidelines for the monitoring and reporting ofemissions of nitrous oxide.Decision 2009/52/ECSubstances that deplete the ozone layer allocation of quantities of controlled substances allowed for
2008Directive 2008/50/ECDirective on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe.2007Decision 2007/589/ECDecision establishing guidelines for the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissionspursuant to Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and the Council.Regulation no. 916/2007/CeRegulation amending Regulation (EC) n. 2216/2004 of the Commission on a standardized and securedsystem of registries pursuant to Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Counciland Decision No. 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and the Council.Decision 2007/531/CeQuestionnaire for Member States reports on the implementation of Directive 1999/13/EC onemissions of VOCDecision 2007/386/CeQuantities of methyl bromide for critical uses permitted in the Community between 1 January and 31December 2007 under Regulation (EC) n. 2037/2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer.
2006Decision 2006/944/ECDetermining the respective emission levels allocated to the Community and each of its Member Statesunder the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to Decision 2002/358/EC.Decision 2006/780/ECHow to avoid double counting of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions under the EU ETS emissionallowances for project activities under the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to Directive 2003/87/EC.Decision 2006/803/ECAmendment of Decision 2005/381/EC establishing a questionnaire for reporting on theimplementation of Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for trading greenhouse gas emissionswithin the Community and amending Directive 96 / 61/CE.Regulation 2006/1366/CeAmending Regulation (EC) n.2037/2000 regards the base year for the allocation of quotas ofhydrochlorofluorocarbons.Regulation 2006/1195/CeChanging Reg 850/2004 on inq. persistent organic.Decision 2006/534/ECIt concerning a questionnaire for Member States reports on the implementation of Directive1999/13/EC during the period 2005-2007Decision 2006/507/ECOn the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Stockholm Convention on PersistentOrganic Pollutants. (See Relevant Documents).Regulation 2006/842/CeRegulation on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases.Decision 2006/350/CeQuantities of methyl bromide for critical uses permitted in the Community between 1 January and 31December 2006 under Regulation (EC) n. 2037/2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer.
Regulation 166/2006/CeEstablishment of a European Pollutant Release and Transfer of pollutants.Decision 2006/61/ECSigning by the European Community of the Protocol on Pollutant Release UNECE and transfers ofpollutants.Directive 2006/51/ECChanges to D 2005/78/EC and 2005/55/EC as regards the requirements of the control system ofemissions in vehicles and exemptions for gas engines.2005Directive 2005/78/ECMeasures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants emitted from motor vehicles.Directive 2005/55/ECMeasures against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants emitted from motor vehicles.Decision 2005/468/ECDecision on substances that deplete the ozone layer, methyl bromide.Decision 2005/381/ECEstablishment of the questionnaire for reporting on the implementation of Directive 2003/87/ECconcerning the system for trading greenhouse gas emissions.Directive 2005/166/ECImplementation of the D. 2004/280 Ce concerning a mechanism for monitoring greenhouse gasgreenhouse emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol.Directive 2005/21/ECAdaptation to Technical Progress of the D. 72/306/CE concerning pollution caused by diesel engines.Directive 2005/13/ECChanging the D. 2000/25/EC on the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants by engines ofagricultural or forestry tractors.