ENERGY SYSTEM: NEW DRIVING FORCE High oil price Oil Globaldepletion SUSTAINABILITY warming Energy Air quality security
OIL DEPLECTIONBefore oil is exhausted, it will reach a pruduction peak;this peak can be described as the highest pruduction level inthe history of oil, then a structural decline will start;it is important to determine the period in which this peakingwill occur, in order to implement mitigating measures;Predicting the exact timing of peak is a difficoult task due tothe lack of reliable data.
GLOBAL WARMINGGlobal Warming is a global issue thatinvolves everything and everyone. One major effect is that natural disasters will worsen for example as The main reason for global warming hurricanes and droughts will become is something that is called the deadly. If people dont react soon and Greenhouse effect, which is when a take action the world will suffer. gas called CO2 or also known as carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere and with which the sun’s rays inevitably cause the Earth to warm up.
ENERGY SECURITYA degree of self-sufficiency in energy production is seen asessential to mantain economic and social stability as well as futureprosperity.
AIR QUALITYAir quality is defined as an indication ofthe condition of air relative to therequirements of one or more biotic species Air quality indices (AQI) are numbersand/or to any human need or purpose. used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location.
THE ITALIAN ENERGY POLICYmarket liberalisation;diversification of energy sources;transfer of power to the regional authorities;energy security;energy efficency;environmental protection.
THE ITALIAN ENERGY POLICYThe Italian energy mix majorly relies on oil and gas imports.Oil utilization is gradually decreasing, while gas and renewable energies are registering a trend of growth. Shares in energy production % Oil 43.1 Gas 36 Solid fuel 8.6 Renewables 6.8 Electricity (imports) 5.5
THE ITALIAN ENERGY POLICYFinal energy uses registered an increase in line with the GDP increase but withdifferent trends in the different sectors. The transport sector, in particular, showed arelevant trend of increase. Sector % Industry 28 Sector 30 Residential/services 32.1 Others 9.9
THE ITALIAN ENERGY POLICY THE ITALIAN ENERGY POLICYThe Italian power generation and industry sector is pretty unique compared to those ofmost industrialised countries.This is due to the following characteristics: electricity demand is growing very strongly despite a weak level of economic activity;this is due to the increase in electricity consumption in the residential and industrial sectorfrom the current relatively low levels. Italy has a high dependency on natural gas and fuel oil; these two fuels have thedisadvantage of having prices linked to those of crude oil, which has increaseddramatically in the last three years. Italy has a very high dependency on electricity imports with respect to otherindustrialised countries, with a share of 14% of gross electricity consumption coming fromabroad. Italy has a low level of consumption of coal and the complete absence of nuclear.
THE ITALIAN ENERGY POLICY 1981- Law 308/82 The first National Energy Plan was elaborated- address the issues of energy efficiency and renewable energies and basis for future publicregulations and financial incentives. 1988- A second National Energy Plan was elaborated- five objectives for the year 2000:1.implementation of policies of energy saving and rational use of energy;2. protection of environmental and human health;3.development of energy sources;4. utilization of mixed energy sources and different geopolitical supplies;5. improvement of competitivness of the production systems.1999- Italy adopted the European Commission’s White paper on renewbles-This document gave the state of art of R.E.technologies and indicated policies, strategiesand production targets up to 2008-2012 for each type of sources.
THE ITALIAN ENERGY POLICYCurrently, support for renewble energy is based on:1. Green certificates for energy production.2. national and regional financial contribution.3. Fiscal incentives.4. RECS and certification
The hydroelectric power plant converts the Through works of water supply, canals and tunnels branch water is then hydraulic energy of a watercourse, natural or piped into tanks and loaded, through penstocks, turbines through the artificial, into electricity. inlet valves (safety) and regulating the flow (distributors) according to the application for energy.On arrival at the place ofemployment, before beingused, the energy passesback into a transformer thatthis time, raises the currentdensity and lowers thevoltage so as to make itsuitable for domestic use. The electricity thus obtained must be transformed to be The alternator is directly connected to the transmitted over long distances. turbine which is installed in accordance with a Therefore, before being conveyed to transmission lines, provision for vertical or horizontal axis. It is the electricity passes through the transformer, which basically a rotating electrical machine capable lowers the intensity of the current produced by the of transforming mechanical energy into alternator, however, by raising the voltage to thousands of electrical energy received from the turbine volts.
A geothermal power plant consists of an area where the presence of hot fluids has beenGeothermal energy uses the Earths internal heat, generated in part detected, with depths varying from 60 toduring the formation of the planet and in part by the decay of 3000 meters from which the vapor present atradioactive isotopes in the mantle. high temperatures (150-250 °) is extracted by drilling and then conveyed in a pipeline The energy possessed by water, allowed to expand in a turbine coupledThe transformation of geothermal energy into to a generator, it is first converted into mechanical energy and then intoelectricity can be obtained with different electricity. The exhausted steam is piped to the condenser, where it istechnologies depending on the temperature and converted to water at high temperature, which passes into the coolingpressure of the hydrothermal system tower, where it is cooled and injected underground.
Biomass is a collection of materials of plant origin, waste fromagriculture, livestock, or reused in suitable timber industry power stations toproduce electricity.
GASIFICATION Is a process where the fuel is partially oxidised and the product is a fuel gas consisting of CO, CO2, H2, CH4, H2OPYROLISIS and N2. This fuel gas can be utilized in COMBUSTIONConsists in the an engine, gas turbine or boiler for heat where all the carbonheating up of the fuel and power production. in the fuel is totallyin the absence of transformed intooxygen. carbon dioxide and The product from where the onlythis process is product is heat. Thecharcoal, pyrolysis heat from theoil and a fuel gas. combustion processThe pyrolysis oil can can be used directlybe utilized as a fuel or for powerfor vehicles or for production.power production viaengine or gasturbines.
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form ofenergy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity. The total amount of economically extractable power available from thewind is considerably more than present human power use from all sources. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuel, is plentiful, widelydistributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse emissions.
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight intoelectricity, either directly usingphotovoltaic(PV), or indirectly usingconcentrated solar (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lensesor mirrors and tracking systems to focus a largearea of sunlight into a small beam.Photovoltaics convert light into electric currentusing photoelectricity.
PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECTThe photovoltaic effect is the creation of avoltage (or a corresponding electric current) ina material upon exposure to light. Though thephotovoltaic effect is directly related to thephotoelectric effect, the two processes aredifferent and should be distinguished In thephotoelectric effect, electrons are ejected froma materials surface upon exposure to radiationof sufficient energy. The photovoltaic effect isdifferent in that the generated electrons aretransferred between different bands (i.e., fromthe valence to conduction bands) within thematerial, resulting in the buildup of a voltagebetween two electrodes.
SOLAR CELLSSolar cells produce direct current electricityfrom sun light, which can be used to powerequipment or to recharge a battery.The first practical application of photovoltaicswas to power orbiting satellites and otherspacecraft, but today the majority ofphotovoltaic modules are used for gridconnected power generation. In this case aninverter is required to convert the DC to AC.
SOLAR PANELSPhotovoltaic panels based on crystalline siliconmodules are being partially replaced in themarket by panels that employ thin-film solarcells amorphous Si, microcrystalline Si), whichare rapidly growing and are expected toaccount for 31 percent of the global installedpower by 2013.Other developments include casting wafersinstead of sawing-concentratormodules, Sliver cells, and continuous printingprocesses. Due to economies of scale solarpanels get less costly as people use and buymore — as manufacturers increase productionto meet demands, the cost and price is expectedto drop in the years to come.
Renewable Energy Systems:Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System
HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS•PV modules and wind turbines are now widely used in developedcountries to produce electrical power in locations where it might beinconvenient or expensive to use conventional grid supplies, while otherhomeowners who choose the renewable energy sources prefer to connecttheir energy system to the grid as a huge ‘battery’ for someconvenientgrid-tied situation.• However, when electricity grids are non-existent or rudimentary, allforms of energy can prove very expensive. In such cases, solar and windenergy can be highly competitive.• The fact that natural energy resources are intermittent and storagebatteries are expensive, has led to the utilization of so-called hybridrenewable energy systems.
HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS As both wind and solar energy sources are inconsistent and non-stable. Hybridizing solar and wind power sources together with storage batteries to cover the periods of time without sun or wind provides a stable form of power generation. A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanicalPhotovoltaic or PV cells, known commonly energy. If the mechanicalas solar cells, convert the energy from energy is used to producesunlight into DC electricity. electricity (DC), the devicePVs offer added advantages over other may be called a wind generatorrenewable energy sources in that they give or wind charger. If theoff no noise and require insignificant mechanical energy is used tomaintenance. drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or pumping water, the device is called a wiindmill or wind punp.
HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS Wind-turbines and PV cells provide DC but most industrial uses of electricity require AC power. A semiconductor-based device known as a power inverter is used to convert the DC to AC.
PV-SYSTEM5 Solar Phtotovoltaic panels wired in series
Written by: Comenius Italian’s Group Istituto Isa Conti Eller Vainicher Lipari - ME