7. cvs 2

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7. cvs 2

  1. 1. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Blood circulation) S.S.MOORTHY SEMENCHALAM M.Sc. Comm Health (Occ Health) UKM B.HSc. Nursing (Aust) Dip Med Sc. (Moh)HSC 1004-3/1 Jan 08
  2. 2. Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this session, studentwill be able to:1.State the differences between artery and venous2.State the 2 main circulations of the body3.Identify various blood vessels that supply blood to various parts of the body.4.State the normal range of blood pressure5.List the factors that controlling blood pressure6.Define pulse7.List 7 pairs of sites where pulse is palpableHSC 1004-3/2 Jan 08
  3. 3. HSC 1004-3/3 Jan 08
  4. 4. 1. Circulatory System • Located throughout your body, your blood vessels are hollow tubes that circulate your blood. • 3 varieties of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries • During blood circulation, the arteries carry blood away from the heart. The capillaries connect the arteries to veins. Finally, the veins carry the blood back to the heart.HSC 1004-3/4 Jan 08
  5. 5. Arteries • The heart pumps blood out through one main artery called the aorta. • The main artery then divides and branches out into many smaller arteries so that each region of your body has its own system of arteries supplying it with fresh, oxygen-rich blood.HSC 1004-3/5 Jan 08
  6. 6. • The arteries deliver the oxygen-rich blood to the capillaries where the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs. • The capillaries then deliver the waste-rich blood to the veins for transport back to the lungs and heart.HSC 1004-3/6 Jan 08
  7. 7. aorta arteries capillaries veinsHSC 1004-3/7 Jan 08
  8. 8. Veins • Veins are similar to arteries but, because they transport blood at a lower pressure, they are not as strong as arteries. • Veins receive blood from the capillaries after the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide has taken place • Therefore, the veins transport waste-rich blood back to the lungs and heart.HSC 1004-3/8 Jan 08
  9. 9. Veins-Con`t • It is important that the waste-rich blood keeps moving in the proper direction and not be allowed to flow backward. This is accomplished by valves that are located inside the veins. • The vein valves are necessary to keep blood flowing toward the heart, but they are also necessary to allow blood to flow against the force of gravity. For example, blood that is returning to the heart from the foot has to be able to flow up the leg.HSC 1004-3/9 Jan 08
  10. 10. Veins-Con`t • Because it lacks oxygen, the waste-rich blood that flows through the veins has a deep purplish color. • Because the walls of the veins are rather thin, the waste-rich blood is sometimes visible through the skin as a bluish color.HSC 1004-3/10 Jan 08
  11. 11. Capillaries • Capillaries are very thin and fragile. • The capillaries are actually only one epithelial cell thick. • The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place through the thin capillary wall.HSC 1004-3/11 Jan 08
  12. 12. • The red blood cells inside the capillary release their oxygen, which passes through the wall and into the surrounding tissue. • The tissue releases its waste products, like carbon dioxide, which passes through the wall and into the red blood cells.HSC 1004-3/12 Jan 08
  13. 13. Arteries and Arterioles • Thicker wall • More muscle • Small diameter • More elastic – Rebounds – Tough – Evens flow – Resists stretchHSC 1004-3/13 Jan 08
  14. 14. Veins and Venules • Thinner walls • Larger diameter • Less muscle • Closer to skin • Less elasticHSC 1004-3/14 Jan 08
  15. 15. Capillaries • Consist of Endothelium: layer of simple squamous epithelium • one cell thick • Facilitates exchange of gases ,nutrient and waste product between the blood tissueHSC 1004-3/15 Jan 08
  16. 16. HSC 1004-3/16 Jan 08
  17. 17. HSC 1004-3/17 Jan 08
  18. 18. Blood circulation1. Pulmonary circulations2. Systemic circulations3. Portal circulationHSC 1004-3/18 Jan 08
  19. 19. 1. Pulmonary circulation • Deoxygenated blood: Rt. ventricle to the lungs via pulmonary artery. • In the lungs, carbon dioxide is excreted & oxygen is absorbed • 2 pulmonary veins from each lung empty into Lt. atriumHSC 1004-3/19 Jan 08
  20. 20. HSC 1004-3/20 Jan 08
  21. 21. 2. Systemic circulation Left Ventricle Aorta Body Superior / Inferior Vena Cava Right AtriumHSC 1004-3/21 Jan 08
  22. 22. BLOOD VESSELSHSC 1004-3/22 Jan 08
  23. 23. 1. Aorta• Largest artery in the body• 3 parts: i. Ascending aorta ii. Arch of aorta iii. Descending aorta in thoraxHSC 1004-3/23 Jan 08
  24. 24. Ascending aorta • 5 cm; behind sternum • Right & left coronary arteries; arise just above the aortic valve levelHSC 1004-3/24 Jan 08
  25. 25. Arch of aorta• 3 branches: i. Brachiocephalic (head & arm) artery - at sternoclavicular joint divide into: right common carotid artery right subclavian artery ii. Left common carotid artery iii. Left subclavian artery HSC 1004-3/25 Jan 08
  26. 26. Descending aorta • Runs inferiorly on body of thoracic & lumbar vertebrae • 2 parts: - Thoracic aorta - Abdominal aortaHSC 1004-3/26 Jan 08
  27. 27. 2. Veins• 3 major veins that enter right atrium of heart: i. Superior vena cava (all body regions superior to diaphragm) ii. Inferior vena cava (all body regions inferior to diaphragm) iii. Coronary sinus (venous blood from heart wall)HSC 1004-3/27 Jan 08
  28. 28. VEINS OF THE BODYHSC 1004-3/28 Jan 08
  29. 29. Applied anatomy from cardiovascular system • Arterial pulse - radial artery, carotid artery, femoral artery, dorsalis pedis • Measurement of blood pressure - brachial artery • Intravenous infusion/ injection, blood taking - median cubital veinHSC 1004-3/29 Jan 08
  30. 30. Blood Pressure Measuring the pressure or force of blood exerted on the vessel walls• Systolic pressure- when the ventricles contract and blood is forced into the arteries• Diastolic pressure- when the ventricles relax and pressure in the arteries fallHSC 1004-3/30 Jan 08
  31. 31. Blood Pressure (BP): Measurements• "Blood pressure" – Systolic over diastolic – About 120/80 mmHg• Sphygmomanometer – "Estimate of pressure" – Korotkoff soundsHSC 1004-3/31 Jan 08
  32. 32. Blood Pressure (BP): MeasurementsHSC 1004-3/32 Jan 08
  33. 33. Factors Controlling Blood Pressure 1. Blood volume 2. Cardiac output 3. Peripheral Resistance 4. Distribution/ViscosityHSC 1004-3/33 Jan 08
  34. 34. PULSE Palpable expansion of arterial wall when the artery is close to a surface or passes over a bony prominentHSC 1004-3/34 Jan 08
  35. 35. • 1. Temporal artery at the temple eye • 2. External maxillary (facial) artery at the point of crossing the mandible (lower jaw) • 3. Carotid artery on the side of the neck • 4. Brachial artery on the inner side of the biceps • 5. Radial artery on the radial bone side of the wrist • 6. Femoral artery in the groin • 7. Popliteal artery behind the knee • 8. Posterior tibial pulse behind the inner ankle • 9. Dorsalis pedis artery on the upper front part (of the footHSC 1004-3/35 Jan 08
  36. 36. Thank you Questions please….HSC 1004-3/36 Jan 08

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