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5. skeletal muscle system

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5. skeletal muscle system

  1. 1. SKELETAL MUSCLE S.S.MOORTHY SEMENCHALAM M.Sc. Comm Health (Occ Health) UKM B.HSc. Nursing (Aust) Dip Med Sc. (Moh)11/26/12 1
  2. 2. Learning ObjectiveAt the end of these session students should be able to:• State the 2 classifications of bones• List the functions of bones• Name the types of bones• List the composition of bone• List the types of joints• Described 3 types of muscle tissue• State the characteristics & structure of muscle tissue• State the relations of muscle and movement11/26/12 2
  3. 3. 1. BONE Axial Skeleton – forms the long axis of the body eg. bones of the skull, vertebral column, rib cage, hyoid bone Classification of Bones Appendicular Skeleton – relating to an appendage, 126 bones eg. bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder girdle, hip girdle11/26/12 3 4
  4. 4. Functions:Axial skeleton/bones Involved in protecting and supporting of the body and organsAppendicular skeleton/bones Help in movement11/26/12 4 5
  5. 5. 11/26/12 5 6
  6. 6. Functions of Bones• Support – forms the framework (central axis of body); gives shape, supports the body• Protection – provide protective case for brain, spinal cord & organs ( heart & lungs)• Movement – provide levers for muscle• Mineral storage – reservoir for minerals; e.g. calcium & phosphorus• Blood cell formation – haematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of bones• Attachment for muscles & tendons11/26/12 6 7
  7. 7. Number of BonesThere are 206 bones in our whole body• Upper limbs - 64• Lower limbs - 62• Vertebrae - 33 ( C7,T12,L5,S5,CO4 )• Skull - 22• Ribs - 24• Sternum -111/26/12 7 8
  8. 8. Long bones Sesamoid Short bones Types bones of bones Irregular Flat bones bones11/26/12 8 9
  9. 9. 11/26/12 9 10
  10. 10. i. LONG BONES• Bones of the extremities• Cylindrically in shape (shaft) with expanded end• E.g. femur,humerus, tibia, fibula11/26/12 10 11
  11. 11. 11/26/12 11 12
  12. 12. ii. SHORT LONG BONES & SHORT BONES• Describes the bones of the hand & foot• E.g. metatarsal, metacarpal,carpals, tarsals11/26/12 13 13
  13. 13. iii. FLAT BONES• Like flat plate; curved or straight• E.g. sternum, scapula & parietal 11/26/12 14 14
  14. 14. iv. IRREGULAR BONES• Shape cannot be described because it is irregular• E.g. vertebrae, pelvic bone11/26/12 15 15
  15. 15. v. SESAMOID BONES • Seed- like bones seen in tendon eg.patella (knee cap) 11/26/12 16 17
  16. 16. GROSS ANATOMY OF BONES• External features of bones – projections, depression & openings - as sites for muscle, ligament & tendon attachment - as surface joints - conduits for blood vessels & nerves11/26/12 18 17
  17. 17. Internal features:• Compact bone – dense outer layer & hard• Spongy bone less hard (cancellous bone) – honeycomb of trabeculae filled with bone marrow11/26/12 19 18
  18. 18. Structure of Typical Long Bone• Diaphysis - tubular shaft; forming the axis of long bones - composed of compact bone + central medullary canal (houses fatty yellow bone marrow)• Epiphysis - expanded end of long bones - spongy bones inside11/26/12 19 20
  19. 19. Con`t Thin layer of articular cartilage covers end of epiphysis Long bone that are still growing has an epiphyseal plate or growth plate When the bone growth stops, the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone- epiphyseal line11/26/12 21 20
  20. 20. Structure of Typical Long Bone: Periosteum double-layered protective membrane supplied with nerve fibers, blood, and lymphatic vessels entering the bone via nutrient foramina Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers (collagen)11/26/12 22 21
  21. 21. AXIAL SKELETON 1. Skull 2. Vertebral column 3. Thoracic cage11/26/12 23 28
  22. 22. 1. Skull• Consist of 2 parts 1. Cranium – contain the brain 2. The face• Fused/ joined bones – not moveable• Mandible bone – moveable11/26/12 24 29
  23. 23. Consist of 11 bones 5. Sphenoid bone1. Frontal bone 6. Nasal bone2. Parietal bone 7. Lacrimal bone3. Temporal bone 8. Ethmoid bone4. Occipital bone 9. Zygomatic bone 10.Maxilla bone 11.Mandible bone 11/26/12 25 30
  24. 24. Frontal Nasal Parietal Temporalzygomatic occipital Mandible Maxilla 11/26/12 26 31
  25. 25. Function of the skull1. Cranial bones protect the brain2. Bone eye sockets protect the eye3. Temporal bone protects the ear4. Gives resonance of voice due to the air filled cavities called sinuses5. Keeps the air passage open to facilitate breathing11/26/12 27 32
  26. 26. 2. Vertebral Column• Consist of 24 movable bones• Sacrum & coccyx• Separated by intervertebral discs (cartilage) i. 7 cervical ii. 12 thoracic iii. 5 lumbar iv. 5 sacrum v. 4 coccyx11/26/12 28 33
  27. 27. 11/26/12 29 34
  28. 28. Functions of vertebral column1. Protects the spinal cord.2. Houses 31 pairs of spinal nerves going through the foramina3. Vertebrae articulate with the ribs, forming joints which move during respiration. 11/26/12 30 35
  29. 29. 3. Thoracic cage• Formed by 12 thoracic vertebrae• 12 pairs of ribs• 1 sternum/ breast bone• The ribs are attached to the sternum by costal cartilage• Two pairs of ribs (rib 11 & 12) –called as floating ribs- no anterior attachment11/26/12 31 36
  30. 30. Functions of thoracic cage1) Protects heart, lungs, major blood vessels2) Forms joints between the upper limbs and the axial skeleton.3) Manubrium (upper part of sternum), articulates with the clavicle bones4) Gives attachment to the respiratory muscles to enables respiration11/26/12 32 37
  31. 31. The Sternum (breast bone )11/26/12 33 38
  32. 32. APPENDICULAR SKELETON1. Shoulder girdle and the upper limb/extremity2. Pelvis girdle and the lower limb/extremity3. Arches of the foot11/26/12 34 39
  33. 33. 11/26/12 35 40
  34. 34. Ligaments• A band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilages• Function: support and strengthen joints11/26/12 43 36
  35. 35. 11/26/12 37 44
  36. 36. 2. JOINTS11/26/12 38
  37. 37. Joints = ArticulationsArticulation – site where two or morebones meetTwo Fundamental Functions of Joints: Allow the skeleton to have mobility Hold the skeleton together11/26/12 39
  38. 38. Classification of Joints: Structural Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial11/26/12 40
  39. 39. Classification of Joints: FunctionalFibrous joints – immovableCartilaginous joints – slightly movableSynovial joints – freely movable 11/26/12 41
  40. 40. Structural - Fibrous Joints-The bones are joined by fibrous tissues- No joint cavity- Most are immovable (synarthroses)11/26/12 42
  41. 41. Example of fibrous joint11/26/12 43
  42. 42. Example of fibrous joint11/26/12 44
  43. 43. Example of fibrous joint11/26/12 45
  44. 44. Structural – Cartilaginous Joints- Articulating bones are joined bycartilage- No joint cavity11/26/12 46
  45. 45. Example of cartilaginous joint11/26/12 47
  46. 46. Example of cartilaginous joint11/26/12 48
  47. 47. Example of cartilaginous joint11/26/12 49
  48. 48. Structural – Synovial JointsArticulating bones are separated by ajoint cavity containing fluidAll are freely movable diarthroses11/26/12 50
  49. 49. Example of synovial joint11/26/12 51
  50. 50. Synovial Joints: General Structures11/26/12 52
  51. 51. Synovial Joints: Friction-Reducing Structures11/26/12 53
  52. 52. Synovial Joints: Range of Motion Nonaxial – slipping movements only Uniaxial – movement in one plane Biaxial – movement in two planes Multiaxial – movement around all planes Three General Types of Movements: Gliding (slipping) Angular Rotation11/26/12 54
  53. 53. Gliding (slipping) movementsOne flat bone surface glides or slips over another bone11/26/12 55
  54. 54. Angular movements Involve change of angle between bones11/26/12 56
  55. 55. Example of angular movement Flexion- bending movementthat decreases theangle of the joint11/26/12 57
  56. 56. Example of angular movement Extension-straightening movement that increasesthe angle of the joint11/26/12 58
  57. 57. Example of angular movement Dorsiflexion & Plantar flexion - Up and down movement of the foot11/26/12 59
  58. 58. Example of angular movement• Abduction — movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane• Adduction — movement of a limb toward the midline or median plane• Circumduction — movement of a limb describing a cone in space11/26/12 60
  59. 59. Rotation movementsTurning of a bone around its own axis Example: Hip and shoulder joints11/26/12 61
  60. 60. Special Movements Supination and Pronation – movements of radius around the ulna –11/26/12 62
  61. 61. Special MovementsInversion and Eversion Protraction and Retraction11/26/12 63
  62. 62. Special MovementsElevation andDepression Opposition 11/26/12 64
  63. 63. Types of Synovial Joints-Diarthrotic Six Major Categories: Plane Condyloid Hinge Saddle Pivot Ball-and-Socket11/26/12 65
  64. 64. Types of Synovial Joints - Hinge Motion is along a single plane (only permits flexion and extension) Resembles action of a hinge Examples: elbow joint knee joint 6611/26/12
  65. 65. Ball & socket Example : SHOULDER JOINT HIP JOINT11/26/12 67
  66. 66. Condyloid• Oval shaped condyle• Angular motion but not rotationExample : Occipital condyles with atlas; metacarpals & metatarsals with palanges11/26/12 68
  67. 67. Saddle• Articulating surfaces of both bones (concave & convex regions)• Permits wide range of movementExample: Carpometacarpal joint of thump is the only saddle joint in the body11/26/12 69
  68. 68. Pivot• Rounded or conical surface of one bone fits into a ring of bone or tendon• For rotation Example: Joint between the atlas and axis; proximal radioulnar joint11/26/12 70
  69. 69. Gliding/Plane• Flat or lightly curved surfaces• Moving against each other• Sliding or twisting without circular movementExample: Between carpals (wrist) & tarsals ( ankle)11/26/12 71
  70. 70. 3. MUSCLE11/26/12 72
  71. 71. MUSCLE TISSUE• Study of muscles is called Myology• Muscles form 40-45% of total body weight• Motion - essential body function that results from the contraction and relaxation of muscles11/26/12 73
  72. 72. Cont..• Posture maintaining both during rest and at activity• Heat generated by skeletal muscle contraction produce 80% of all the body heat• Beating of heart is specific function of cardiac muscle• Smooth muscle throughout body help in movement of secretions, waste products, etc.11/26/12 74
  73. 73. TYPE OF MUSCLE TISSUE• 3 Types of muscle in the body - skeletal muscle - cardiac muscle - smooth muscle11/26/12 75
  74. 74. Types- skeletal muscle• 40 % of body weight• It is voluntary as it can be made to contract and relax at conscious level• Also called as striated muscle• Eg: diaphragm is structurally voluntary but it works automatically with breathing• Upper part of esophagus is voluntary but is not under conscious control11/26/12 76
  75. 75. Skeletal muscle tissueOver 600 muscle in bodySkeletal muscle tissue has three components (epimysium, perimysium, endomysium)- Connective tissue component- Nerve and blood supply- Muscle tissue proper11/26/12 77
  76. 76. 11/26/12 78
  77. 77. 11/26/12 79
  78. 78. Blood supply• Skeletal muscle fibers are well supplied by nerve and vessels which help in contraction, supply energy and transfer of waste products• Generally an artery and two veins accompany the nerve that penetrate skeletal muscle11/26/12 80
  79. 79. Skeletal muscle and movement• It produces movement by exerting force on tendons which in turn pulls on bones or other structures like skin• They cross at least one joint and are attached to articulating bone that form joint.• Abundant blood & nerve supply11/26/12 81
  80. 80. Group actions- Skeletal muscle act in groups- They are arrange in opposing pairs in joints like flexor and extensors- Muscle that produce desired movement is called prime movers / agonist- Muscle moving opposite are relaxing are antagonist11/26/12 82
  81. 81. 11/26/12 83
  82. 82. • MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES WORK IN PAIRS. • When one muscle or set of muscles CONTRACTS, the other RELAXES.11/26/12 84
  83. 83. • The Muscles of the upper arm are a goodexample of this dual action:ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES.FLEXOR, A MUSCLE THAT BENDS AJOINT.EXTENSOR, A MUSCLE THATSTRAIGHTENS A JOINT.11/26/12 85
  84. 84. A. When the BICEPS CONTRACTS, it FLEXES the elbow joint B. When the TRICEPS CONTRACTS, it EXTENDS the elbow joint C. A controlled movement requires contraction by both muscles.11/26/12 86
  85. 85. SMOOTH MUSCLE• Smooth muscle cell are small• Not striated• Contract more slowly• Is under involuntary control. And they to function as a unit and contract at the same time. e.g intestine11/26/12 87
  86. 86. CARDIAC MUSCLE• Share some characteristic with both smooth and skeletal muscle• Is under involuntary control and are influenced by hormon11/26/12 88
  87. 87. 11/26/12 89
  88. 88. Thank you Questions please11/26/12 90

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