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China and japan xix century


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China and japan xix century

  2. 2. COLONIALISM IN ASIA      UK have expanded its colonies from India (yellow). France is based on southeast Asia (Indochina) (purple). The Netherlands are based in south-east Asia (Indonesia) (orange). USA, after spanishamerican war, they possessed the Philippines (green). Russia, they have expanded its territories into Central Asia and Manchuria (northeast Asia). (blue).
  3. 3. CHINA   By 1800 Chinese produced silks, high-quality cottons and fine porcelain. Economy was selfsufficiency. Chinese allowed only trade with West at the southern port of Guangzhou. The balance of trade was in favour of Chinese. For example, British imported millions of kilos of tea from China.
  4. 4. OPIUM WARS  European countries were determined to change the balance of trade withh China. In late 18th Century British merchants smuggled opium into China. By 1835 more than 10 million chinese were addicted to opium.
  5. 5.    Chinese asked british to stop smuggling opium into China. As UK refused to stop China declared war. British steam-powered boats and cannons defeated Chinese. In 1842 China signed the Treaty of Nanjing and gave Hong Kong to british.
  6. 6. SPHERES OF INFLUENCE  By late 19th century foreign nations took advantage of the weakness of China and attacked them. China gave them the control of the economy: an sphere of influence, a region in which the foreign nation controlled trade and investment.
  7. 7. THE BOXER REBELLION    Poor peasant and workers resented the privileges granted to foreigners. Chinese formed a secret organization called The Society of Harmonious Fists, known as the Boxers. In 1900 they surrounded the European district of Pekin and kept it under siege for several months. Months later a multinational force (english, french, germans, americans, russians, etc) of 20,000 marched toward Pekin and defeated the Boxers.
  8. 8. Boxer Soldiers Ending the rebellion
  9. 9. JAPAN: A MEIJI EMPEROR   Emperor Mutsuhito. By 19th century Japan had no contact with the industrialized world. Then, european countries and USA tried to convince/threat the Japanese to open their ports to free trade. In 1854 the prime minister signed a treaty and Japan opened two ports and gave permission to foreigners to trade.
  10. 10. REFORM AND MODERNIZATION   Emperor Mutsuhito deposed prime minister and established a new government. He chose the name “Meiji” for his reign, which means “enlightened rule”. Mutsuhito was 15 years old and reigned for 45 years. Rising Sun Flag. National flag during Meiji Era. Now it is still Used in the Japan Army. This flag is Considered offensive in some Asian Countries such as South Korea and China.
  11. 11.  The best way to oppose imperialism was to adopt new ways. Japan sent ambassadors and students to Europe and North America to study foreign ways and adapted it to Japan.    From Germany they liked a strong centralized government and the discipline of the army. From UK they admired their navy. From USA they adopted the american system of public education.
  12. 12. Japan built its first railroad line in 1872 connecting Tokyo with the port of Yokohama (30 km). By 1914 Japan had more than 10,000 km of railroads. Japan developed mode modern industries and shipbuilding and weapons production made the country competitive with the West. Soon, Japanese government wanted a colonial empire too.
  15. 15. JAPANESE IMPERIALISM 1. China. 2. Manchuria (clashing against Russia) 3. Korea
  16. 16. By 1900 Japan is the strongest military power in Asia.
  17. 17. CHINESE-JAPANESE WAR (1895)    In 1885 China and Japan signed an agreement pledging that they would not send their armies into Korea. In 1894 China broke the agreement and sent its troops to Korea. Then Japan declared war and in only a few months they defeated chinese. In 1895 China signed a treaty giving Japan the island of Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands.
  18. 18. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR, 1905. Manchuria (north-east China), the territory Where Japan and Russia clashed their armies.
  19. 19.    In 1903, Japan offered to recognize Russia's rights in Manchuria if the Russians would agree to stay out of Korea. Russians refused. In february 1904 japanese launched a surprise attack and destroyed or captured most of the russian fleet. In 1905 by the Treaty of Portsmouth Russia withdrew from Manchuria and stay out of Korea.
  20. 20. KOREA UNDER JAPANESE   After defeating Russia Japan invaded Korea. In 1910 Japan officially annexed Korea. They ruled Korea for the next 35 years.
  21. 21. Japanese controlled Korean Schools: they replaced the study of korean language and history with that of Japan. They took land away from korean farmers and gave it to japanese settlers. They encouraged japanese businessmen to start industries in Korea.