7 3. classification of Living Organism

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Chapter 3 Part 1 Grade 7 Semester Odd
Kingdom of Monera, Kingdom of Protista, Kingdoom of Fungus, Kingdom of Plantae

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7 3. classification of Living Organism

  1. 1. Classification of Living Organisms
  2. 2. • To simplify our study, biologists have created a system used to classify living organisms.• Living organisms are classified based on their similarities and differences.• Living organisms with more similarities are classified into one category. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  3. 3. A. Diversity of Living Organisms• Living organisms have different characteristics, some are large in size and some are small.• Living organisms may also have different shapes and colors.• Their habitats may be in the water, or on/in the land• These show that there is a diversity of living organisms on Earth.• The diversity of living organisms is called the biodiversity. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  4. 4. 1. Similarities and differences between livingorganismsTable The differences between a corn plant and apeanut plant Organ Corn (Monocot) Peanut (Dicot)Root Fibrous root Tap rootStem Clear and visible No segmentation segmentationLeaf Long and ribbon-like Almost round with with parallel veins pinnately netted veins Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  8. 8. 2. Species Diversity• Are cats able to breed with dogs and produce offspring?• The answer is definitely “NO”, because they are classified into different species.• However, if a cat breeds with another cat which are similar in species, then they are able to produce fertile offspring.• It can be concluded that living organisms which are classified into the same species, are able to breed with each other and produce fertile offspring. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  9. 9. 3. Diversity of a species (variety)• If we observe two living organisms from the same species, we will find several differences.• For example, in cats we find differences in the color of their fur, body heights or sizes.• Differences in diversity of living organisms within the same species is called variety.• Another example of variety is in roses, rose flowers can be red, yellow, or white.• Can you mention the variety in humans? Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  11. 11. B. The Classification of Living Organisms• The purpose in classifying living organisms is to make it easier for us in knowing and studying living organisms.• we will learn 3 kinds of classification ; 1. simple classification 2. classification according to Carolus Linnaeus 3. classification according to Robert H. Whittaker Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  12. 12. 1. Simple Classification• Simple classification is done based on similarities of habitat, food types, or function.• The classification of living organisms based on their habitat, for example ; a. xerophytes are plants which are able to survive in an environment with little availability of water or moisture. b. hydrophytes are plants which have adapted to living in or on an aquatic environment. c. hygrophytes are plants which grow in a moist habitat. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  14. 14. • The classification of living organisms based on their food types, for example ; a. Herbivores ; feed on plants only b. Carnivores ; feed on animals only c. Omnivores ; feed on both animals and plants Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  15. 15. • Plants classification based on their function, for example ;a. Plants use for clothingb. Plants for foodc. Plants for medicined. Plants for furniture Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  16. 16. 2. Classification according to Carolus Linnaeus• A subdivision of biology which is related to the science of classifying living organisms is called taxonomy.• The person who first developed the basics of taxonomy was Carolus Linnaeus. That is why he is called the father of taxonomy.• Carolus Linnaeus classified living organisms based on the similarities and the differences of the body structures of living organisms. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  17. 17. Carolus Linnaeus, the father of taxonomyCreated by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  18. 18. • According to Carolus Linnaeus, living organisms can be divided into two main groups ; the kingdom of plants and the kingdom of animals.• Carolus Linnaeus created a classification system which is internationally acknowledged and continuously used until now.• The international classification system has been sequenced into a hierarchical method, starting from the highest level to the lowest.• Every level in this classification system is called a taxon. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  19. 19. • A taxon is composed starting from the group with the most common characteristics (the highest taxon) to the group with the most specific characteristics (the lowest taxon).• The taxonomic rank for plants and animals from the highest to the lowest level can be seen in diagram below Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  20. 20. Kingdom of Plantae Kingdom of Animalia taxon taxon Division Phylum Class Class Order Order Family Family Genus Genus Species Species Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  22. 22. • So, the higher group means more different in characteristics and it has more members.• The lower group means more similar in characteristics and it has less member. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  23. 23. Naming Organisms1. The name of a species consist of a two-part name in Latin.2. The first part is the genus and must be written with uppercase, the second part is an indication of species and must be written with lowercase.3. The species name is written in italics or non- italics but underlined. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  24. 24. 4. If the name more than 2 words, so between the second and the third word must give a connection.• For example ;a. Mangifera indica Uppercase Lowercaseb. Zae maysc. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  25. 25. 3. Classification according to Robert H. whittaker• Living organisms may be grouped into five kingdoms, they are ;1. Kingdom of Monera The word monera comes from the Greek, moneres, which means one and only. The members of the kingdom of Monera are organisms which have only one cell. Its members are Bacteria and Cyanobacteria. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  26. 26. General characteristics of the kingdom of Monera are as follows ; 1. unicelluler 2. they do not possess a nuclear envelope, therefore it is called a procaryoteBacteria are ubiquitous (live in all habitats) on Earth.Some bacteria are advantegous, for example, to help dissolve digestive waste in the colon.They are also harmful bacteria, for example, bacteria which cause typhoid, tuberculosis, and dysentery. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  27. 27. • There are 3 forms of bacteria ; coccus (spherical-shape), bacillus (straight and rod- shape), spirillum (long and helical-shape). Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  29. 29. • Cyanobacteria live in the water as poducers, and as food for fish and shrimp.• Cyanobacteria can be utilized to fertilize farm soil.• For example, Anabaena azollae, Nostoc commune, Oscillatoria sp. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  30. 30. 2. Kingdom of Protista Protista has the following characteristics ;1. Unicellular, usually found in an aquatic environment, however some of them also live in the ground or as parasites inside other organisms.2. The nucleus is covered with a nuclear envelope, it is called eucaryote3. Protista can reproduce by binary fission, some of them also undergo conjugation. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  31. 31.  A protista is divided into several simple groups ;1. Protozoa (animal-like protist)2. Algae (plant-like protist)3. Myxomycota and Oomycota (fungus-like protist) Protozoa is classified into 4 groups ;1. Rhizopoda ; moves using pseudopodia, ex. Amoeba sp.2. Flagellata ; moves with flagella, ex. Trypanosoma gambiensi3. Ciliata ; moves using cilia, ex. Paramaecium caudatum4. Sporozoa ; doesn’t have any specific moving mechanism, ex. Plasmodium sp. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  37. 37.  Algae live in freshwater, seawater, and moist environment. Algae is classified according to their pigmen color ;1. Green algae (Chlorophyta) ex. Spirogyra, Chlorella.2. Golden algae (Chrysophyta) ex. Dinobryon,Vaucheria.3. Brown algae (Phaeophyta) ex. Sargassum, Fucus.4. Red algae (Rhodophyta) ex. Eucheuma, Gelidium. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  38. 38. Chlorophyta Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  39. 39. Chrysophyta Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  40. 40. Phaeophyta Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  41. 41. Rhodophyta Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  42. 42.  Myxomycota have a similar reproduction method to fungi through the production of spores, in the vegetative phase of a plasmodial slime mold they are able to move like an Amoeba. ex. Plasmodial slime moldsOomycota produce spore which are called oospora. Oospora are thick-walled spores which are highly resilient to extreme environments and continue growing to be new hypha. ex. Water molds Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  43. 43. Plasmodial slime molds Water molds Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  44. 44. 3. Kingdom of FungusThe characteristics of fungus are ;1. Most are multicellular in form and some are single- celled2. Multicellular fungus consists of filaments called hyphae which are long, a mass of connected hyphae is called a mycelium.3. Posses a nuclear envelope (eukaryote)4. Live in moist environments and reproduce with spores5. They do not have chlorophyll, therefore live as saprophyte or as parasites on animals, plants and humans. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  45. 45. Based on their sexual reproduction mechanisms,fungi divided into 4 divisions, they are ;1. Zygomycota, which sexual reproduction is characterized by zygospores. Ex. Rhizopus2. Basidiomycota, which sexual reproduction is characterized by basidiospores. Ex. Volvariella volvacea3. Ascomycota, which sexual reproduction is characterized by ascospores. Ex. Penicillium notatum4. Deuteromycota, its sexual reproduction has never been observed. Ex. Monilia sitophyla Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  46. 46. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  47. 47. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  48. 48. 4. Kingdom of PlantaeThe characteristics of kingdom plantae are ;1. Multicellular2. The plant cells have cell wall and a nuclear envelope (eukaryote)3. They have chlorophyllBased on the have of vascular tissue, kingdom plantae has been classified into 2 groups ;1. non-vascular plants ; Bryophyta2. Vascular plants ; Pterydophytes and Spermatophyta Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  49. 49. a. Bryophyta (Moss)• They live in moist environments• Consist of parts which look like roots, stems, and leaves.• The root-like structures are called rhizoid, and its function is to adhere bryophyta to the substrate and to absorb water.• Moss go through certain life cycles, consisting of the sporophyte phase and the gametophyte phase.• Moss classified into 3 division ; 1.Liverworts (Hepaticophyta), 2.Hornworts (Anthocerotophyta), 3.Moss (Bryophyta) Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  50. 50. Liverworts Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  51. 51. Hornworts Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  52. 52. Moss Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  53. 53. b. Pterydophyta (Fern)• Ferns have vascular tissues, that consist of 2 types xylem and phloem.• Ferns have roots, stems, and true leaves with chlorophyll.• Ferns do not produce flowers.• New leaves usually curl, on the underside of mature fertile leaves there are many blackish brown masses, each of these masses is called sorus.• Ferns go through certain life cycles ; the sporophyte phase and the gametophyte phase. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  54. 54. Fern new leafCreated by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  55. 55. Mature leaf with sorusCreated by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  56. 56. • Ferns are divided into 4 division ;1. Psylophyta, which do not have true roots and leaves. Ex. Psilotum sp.2. Lycophyta, which have true roots and leaves. Ex. Lycopodium sp., Selaginella sp.3. Sphenophyta, ex. Equisetum sp.4. Pterydophyta, often referred as true ferns. Ex. Asplenium nidus (bird’s nest ferns), Cyathea australis (tree ferns), Adiantum cuneatum (maidenhair ferns) Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  57. 57. Lycopodium sp. Selaginella sp.Psilotum sp. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  58. 58. Equisetum sp. Asplenium nidus Cyathea australis Adiantum cuneatum Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  59. 59. c. Spermatophytes (seed plants)• Spermae means “seed” and phytes means “plants”• Another name is anthophytes ; antho means flower and phytes means plants• Spermatophytes are included in vascular plants• They have roots, stems, and true leaves• Reproduce with seeds• Based on the position of yhe seeds, they are classified into 2 groups ; 1. The naked-seeded plants (Gymnospermae) 2. Enclosed-seeded plants (Angiospermae) Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  60. 60. 1. Gymnospermae (naked-seeded plants)• Gymnos = naked, spermae = seed• The ovules are exposed and are not enclosed by ovary wall during pollination• they have cone-shaped ovules as their reproductive cells• They do not lose their leaves in the dry season• Example ;  Gnetum gnemon (melinjo),  Cycas rumphii (pakis haji),  Agathis alba (pine),  Abies balsamea (balsam),  Ginkgo biloba (ginko) Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  61. 61. Male melinjo flowers Female melinjo flowersGnetum gnemon (melinjo) Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  62. 62. Male Pakis Haji flowers Female Pakis Haji flowersCycas rumphii (pakis haji) Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  63. 63. Agathis alba (pine) Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  64. 64. Abies balsamea (balsam)Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  65. 65. Ginkgo biloba (ginko)Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
  66. 66. 2. Angiospermae enclosed-seeded plant• Angio = enclose, spermae = seed• Also called flowering plants• They have flower as their reproductive organs• Based on the number of cotyledon (embryonic seed leaf), they are classified into dicot and monocot Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  68. 68. Dicots• Have 2 cotyledons• The 2 cotyledons are clearly visible when the seeds are germinating• Dicots have a taproot• The stems are able to thicken because they have cambium• The xylem and phloem are well-arranged in the vascular system• The leaf venation of dicots are usually pinnately (like fins) or palmately (like fingers)• The flowers are usually in multiples of 4 or 5 Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  71. 71. Monocots• Have one cotyledon• Have fibrous root• The stem has internodes but are lacking branches and cambiums• The xylem and phloem in the vascular system are scattered• The leaves have a ribbon-like appearance with parallel veins• The flowers are usually in multiples of 3 Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH
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  73. 73. Created by Alfi Msk_a biology teacher of GIS JH

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