• Learn the planning process and skills in the broadcast
• Know the nature of broadcast station (radio and
• Understand the common attributes of broadcast and it’s
• Identify the various broadcast appeals to target the
• Identify and assess the broadcast program formats
- a universal human activity involving the
consideration of outcomes before choosing
Primary functions of Planning
- improve efficiency of outcomes
- counterbalance market failures
- widen the range of choice
- civic engagement
PLANNING AS A
Planning in today’s context, is
still a formidable part of
what is expected in a great
leader; at the same time, it
requires much more if it has
to be translated into success
– such as intuition,
towards change, fast
decision-making and a
willing to take chances.
Planning is a skill set
and requires consistent
practice and focus to
master. It tends to
become better with time
The urban regime theory (1977)
Community leadership has a certain framework, or regime.
For examining issues, individuals or interest groups that
argue from outside; that regime will find it very difficult or
even impossible to win decisions. This results in an effective
disenfranchisement of the outsiders. Implications for
planners are both descriptive and normative: If
planners want to influence decisions, power lies in
speaking the language of the dominant regime(s). They
will have to make arguments in a manner that the
dominant regime(s) will understand and be responsive to.
Social Learning Theory contributions emphasized planners’ roles in
bringing stakeholders together, gathering and sharing information and
helping social structures to learn from their experiences.
( Argyris and Schon 1974; Friedmann 1987).
Theory (1989- John Forester)
Through communicative strategies complementing
their technical work, planners can alert citizens to the issues of the day,
arm them with technical and political information, and otherwise
encourage community-based planning actions (Hemmens and
Stifte11980; Sager 1994).
They emphasize the complexity and effectiveness of social networks
and community leadership in moving a community toward an operable
response to new challenges (Briggs 1997; Putnam 1995).
Feminist Planning Theory
Calls planners to task for valuing economic production while
undervaluing or ignoring familial and community re-production, as well
as ignoring the different ways men and women use space
(Moore Milroy 1991; Ritzdorf 1995).
Mainstream Planning Theory
Increasingly focused on the procedural side of planning, external
developments on the substantive side are increasingly pushing the
profession in new directions and demanding responses.
1. Background Information
2. Statement of objectives
3. Target Audience Definition
5. Overall scheduling considerations
A good way to begin the plan is with the background
information that serve as benchmark data reading to
some assumptions and knowledge of the broadcast
plan. The plan should then review broadcast
objectives the station wishes to accomplish. The target
audience/public must be defined so that the most
appropriate program formats or vehicles can be
selected.. Finally the broadcast plan must include an
explanation of how the activities will be scheduled and
carried out within a given timetable.
Statement of the
task one wishes
of the strategy
Roles of a Manager
Broadcast entails a careful planning approach which is
hinged on the identification and formulation of
objectives, strategies, tactics. To begin a process, one
must have a clear understanding of the nature of
broadcast station, specifically the attributes of the media
such as radio and television. Also important is to know
the strategy of broadcasting in creating the greatest
program appeal possible, to attract a wide range of
audience. These audiences can have a variety of
broadcast program formats to choose from.
Management Authority Peter Drucker’s 5
steps which can be followed by a soon-to-
be established station
1.Establishment of objectives
4.Executing action programs
• Television is said to be the child of the three parents- theater, film and radio.
• Television as an audio-visual medium called entertainment.
• It has tended to carry over old, non-functional traditions and structures of
it’s parent art forms.
• Many types of program materials have gone through a process of mutation,
and a highly modified species has emerged.
• These types have adapted well, some have been improved as TV programs.
• Early radio dramas were simply one-act plays performed before the
• It was only when men began to write for the microphone.
• Similarly, early TV news programs were little more than radio news casts
covered by a camera.
RADIO STRENGTHS RADIO WEAKNESSES
• can reach both literate and
• relatively inexpensive and
available to many people
• can use batteries useful in
areas without electricity
• broadcast can be repeated
many times during the
• production is relatively
• not useful for teaching
people how to perform
• listeners who do not hear
or understand message
clearly cannot interact
• some people do not have
access to radio
TELEVISION STRENGTHS TELEVISION WEAKNESSES
• no need for formal
• allows show and tell
• people can see and hear
role models on TV
• not available in all areas
of the country
• expensive for some
• production cost is
expensive than radio
• listeners who do not hear
and see cannot interact
In broadcast, there are (2) very distinct activities
involved as co-equal parts of broadcast
origination. The first maybe characterized as
creative origination which includes the work
of artists, writers, directors, producers and all
the other creative people in the station. The
second part is called sponsorship origination
which involves the people and agencies who
pay for the materials that are aired.
5 of these shared qualities are as follows:
1. Ease of delivery of radio and TV materials to audiences
2. The continuous day-and-night availability of broadcast
3. The ease of audience access
4. The capacity of broadcast for realism
5. Broadcast potentials for social effects
• The continuous availability also means radio and television consume
program relentlessly, compelling conservation of resources.
• Chief among conservation mechanism are networking and syndication, the
primary means of reducing programming costs to manageable
proportions by sharing them among many users.
In broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to
broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio
stations and television stations, without going through a broadcast
network, though the process of syndication may conjure up structures
like those of a network itself, by its very nature. It is common in countries
where broadcast programming is scheduled by television networks with
local independent affiliates, particularly in the United States. Ex:
5 strategies employed in Broadcast media
2. Habit information
3. Control of audience flow
4. Conservation of program resources
5. Mass appeal
• Compatibility strategies affect not only scheduling but also the
choice of program types and subject matters.
• To apply it, the programmer studies the lifestyles of listeners and
viewers. These strategies are spoken of in terms of day-parting,
the scheduling of different types of programs to match parts of the
day known by such terms as drive time, fringe time and
• In this aspect, BROADCAST PROGRAMMING entails. In which it
is the practice of organizing television shows or radio programs in
a daily, weekly, or season-long schedule.
• With the beginning of scheduled television in 1936, television
programming was initially only concerned with filling a few
hours each evening – the hours now known as prime time.
Over time, though, television began to be seen during the
day time and late at night, as well on the weekends. As air
time increased so did the demand for new material. With
the exception of sports television, variety programs became
much more important in primetime.
- occurs when the television network schedules similar programs back-to-
back. The concept is to provide similar programming to retain
involves the interconnection of two shows. This is achieved by dragging a
storyline over two episodes of two different programs.
is used when a time period is filled with a program whose appeal is
different from the opponent program because it is a different genre or
appeals to a different demographic.
the practice of dividing the day into several parts, during each of which a
different type of radio programming or television programming appropriate
for that time is aired. Daytime television programs are most often geared
toward a particular demographic, and what the target audience typically
engages in at that time. Ex: Sign-on-Daytime Television-Prime Time-Late
Night News-Late Night Television-Graveyard Slot-Sign-off(closedown)
is running a syndicated television series every day of the week. It is
commonly restricted to describing the airing of shows which were weekly in
their first run. Habit formation calls for this strategy.
This includes programming immediately before the evening's prime-
time schedule, called "early fringe", and the time following the local
evening news or the network's late-night talk shows, called "late fringe"
In tent pole programming the programmers bank on a well-known series
having so much audience appeal that they can place two unknown series on
either side, and it is the strength of the central program that will bring the
others along to victory.
Having special theming days (such as for a holiday), or theme weeks such
as Discovery Channel's Shark Week.
a technique used to develop audience flow by grouping together
programs with similar appeals to "Sweep" the viewer along from one
program to the next.
the programmers eliminate any sort of commercial break when one program
ends and another begins; this immediately hooks the audience into watching
the next program without a chance to change the television channel between
a technique used by broadcasters whereby an unpopular program is
scheduled between two popular programs in the hope that viewers will watch
it. Public television use this as a way of promoting serious but valuable
Broadcast programmers must grasp the notion of program appeals if they
are they are to serve particular demographic group of audiences.
- A radio programmer is someone who schedules the content which
is broadcast on a radio station. Program directors actually shape
the nature of the content, determining what kind of content they
want to broadcast, while other types of radio programmers are
responsible for ensuring that broadcasts run smoothly and that
no dead air occurs during broadcast periods.
- Is charged with the overall direction and
coordination of programming
• Conflict – every drama, game show, and comedy and
most news stories contain elements of conflict. It is
characterized in terms of conflict.
• Ego-involvement- refers to any kind of personal
identification the listener /viewer makes with what
goes on in the program.
• Sex- sex and sex-related emotions constitute powerful
appeals that radio and television exploit in many
ways, but mainly through featuring sexy stars or
personalities with oozing sex appeal.
Broadcast Program Appeals
• Self-preservation- programs devoted to self-improvement
and therapy are obvious example of the self-preservation
appeal, which hinges on concerns for safety, health, and
• Recognition- there is a certain appeal in recognizing
important figures on radio and television.
• Curiosity- wondering what’s next , how things are going to
turn out, what other people and places are like.
• Escape- programs also consider the audience’ need to escape
“The word “FORMAT” may also be used to refer to the detailed
blueprint of a broadcast program which follows the same outline
week after week.. In effect, it is an outline of the order in which
different elements in the program will be presented; although
specific content of each element changes from week to week, the
general pattern remains much the same in each broadcast.”
A TV format describes the overall concept, premise and
branding of a copyrighted television program.
The format is licensed by TV networks, so that they may
produce a version of the show tailored to their nationality
and audience. Formats are a major part of the
international television market. Format purchasing is
popular with broadcasters, due principally to:
• the lower risk and extra revenue potential associated with
an already-proven idea;
•the preference of national audiences to watch national
programming (as opposed to broadcasting the original,
foreign version of the show);
• the ability to tailor a show for a particular market.
• The most common type of format are those in
the television genre of game shows, many of which are
remade in multiple markets with local contestants.
Recent examples include Survivor, Who Wants to Be a
Millionaire?, Pop Idol and Big Brother that have all
proved successful worldwide.
• TV formats are viewed as a form of intellectual
property (IP), and are regularly bought and sold by TV
producers, distribution company and broadcasters.
• A radio format or programming format (not to be confused
with broadcast programming) describes the overall content
broadcast on a radio station. Radio formats are frequently
employed as a marketing tool, and are subject to often change.
Music radio, old time radio, all-news radio, sports radio, talk
radio and weather radio describe the operation of different genres
of radio format and each format can often be sub-divided into
many specialty formats.
• Active rock- plays More Modern and Current Rock Artists with a mix of
songs common in the Mainstream Rock radio format
•Blues- melancholy and sadness
•Country music- a genre of American popular music
• Jazz- more on instruments played
• Mainstream rock- play primarily rock music
• Oldies- oldies tunes are typically from R&B, pop and rock
• Variety- loosely defined as a format that plays music across
• Classical- like the jazz music but differs in some aspect
• Dance- music composed specifically to facilitate or
90.7 Love Radio
Format : Hot Adult Contemporary, Pop, OPM
Barangay LS 97.1
Format: Adult Top 40, Pop, OPM
Format : Hot Adult Contemporary, Pop, OPM
Format : Alternative music, rock ,Indie Pop, Indie Rock
Monster Radio RX 93.1
Format : Urban Contemporary, Pop
- these programs are usually in the form of contests, games, events or
- many of the non-dramatic programs were previously developed for
radio and have merely been adapted, dressed-up, or made visual for the
- broadcasting has applied what has been called the “pie formula”
system of programming, which means the format of the program is
likened to a “pie crust” which is the same from week to week, but the
“pie filling changes”.
- they usually require far less rehearsal, and can be prepared for short
• News Programs- A news program, news programme, news show,
or newscast is a regularly scheduled radio or television program that
reports current events. News is typically reported in a series of
individual stories that are presented by one or more anchors. A news
program can include live or recorded interviews by
field reporters, expert opinions, opinion poll results, and
occasional editorial content.
• Discussion Programs- expand beyond the bounds
of a pattern of questions and answers, and become
discussion. The group format is popular in radio.
ex. AM discussion programs and some FM discussion
• Games, Quizzes, and Contents- these programs tend to be built
upon either a “ panel experts” or “audience contestant”.
• Women’s Programs- feature news and interviews of interest to
women, and such homemaking features as cooking, decorating,
and fashion hints.
• Children’s Programs- usually animated cartoon programs for
children with such elements as live animals, children’s songs and
brief educational features.
• Teen-age Programs- viewers from 12-20 watch shows appealing to
adolescents. Sometimes, a personable emcee interviews young
people who have achieved some measure of prominence in
sports, hobbies, or the arts.
• Educational Programs- produced by or in cooperation with
educational institution such as university, library or
• Variety and Musical Programs- shows a good talent through
good songs and dances, can even be made to look/sound better
through a winning emcee and skillful presentation.
ex. Eat Bulaga & Showtime
• Informational Programs- understood to be informal
explorations of public affairs, current events and problems
to the world around us. Two types most commonly used
are the :
- illustrated lectures
ex. I witness & Brigada
• Religious Programs- presented by stations as a public
service or denomination or churches which buy the
time to broadcast such programs as brief meditations,
modified services from the church, discussions or
conversations based on spiritual or ethical problem,
and syndicated religious programs.
ex. Fishbowl & 700 Club Asia
Dramatic programming in the UK, or television
drama and television drama series in the United States,
or teledrama in Sri Lanka, is television program content that is
scripted and (normally) fictional along the lines of a
• Serials- descendants of radio soap operas most
commonly presented on video tape.
• Situation Comedies- dramatic writing to get the audience into
laughable predicaments, with funny antics and humor on a half-hour
run. A situation comedy, often shortened to sitcom, is
a genre of comedy that features characters sharing the same common
environment, such as a home or workplace, accompanied with jokes
as part of the dialogue. Such programs originated in radio, but today,
sitcoms are found mostly on television as one of its
dominant narrative forms.
A situation comedy television programme may be recorded in front of
a studio audience. The effect of a live studio audience can be imitated
by the use of a laugh track. Ex. Pepito Manaloto
• Anthology Series- An anthology series is
a radio or television series that presents a different
story and a different set of characters in each episode.
These usually have a different cast each week. Best
example of it is MAGPAKAILANMAN in Kapuso and
MMK in Kapamilya.
• Dramatic Specials- special drama programs produced on a
monthly or irregular basis by such a sponsor. Full-length
dramas or musical dramas, running from 90 minutes to two
hours can be seen under these circumstances.
• Detective Dramas- also called police story or mystery
Detective Drama is a type of Mystery Fiction that follows
the cases of a central detective character as he investigates a
crime, usually from initial investigation to arrest. The
character is usually a police detective or Private Detective,
but can also be an Amateur Sleuth or even a Kid Detective
with acute sleuthing skills.
Broadcast Management (A course Module for College Students) by Robert F. Soriano;
published by Booklore Publishing Corporation (2000)
Newly Revised Webster’s Dictionary (Newly Revised edition especially designed for school, home
and office use)
The National AICP Examination Preparation Course Guidebook 2000, Ed. Roshi
Petaseyed (Am. Inst. Cert. Planners) Washington DC, 2000
http://www.knowledgewoods.in/pmp/skills good project manager needs.html
To God be the Glory!
Prepared by: Alfie Lyn G. Feliciano BAMC BC 2A
Submitted to: Mr. Florentino Pineda