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Teori Tingkah Laku Kognitif
dalam Kaunseling
TAJUK 7
TERAPI TINGKAH LAKU
Behavior Theory
B.F. Skinner
• Skinner championed radical behaviorism, which places
primary emphasis on the effects of environment on beha...
4 Areas of Development
• Classical Conditioning
• Operant Conditioning
• Social Learning Theory
• Cognitive Behavior Thera...
• Classical Conditioning- (respondent conditioning)- refers to
what happens prior to learning that creates a responds
thou...
• Social learning theory is interact ional, interdisciplinary and multimodal. It
involves a triadic reciprocal interaction...
View of Human Nature
• The person is the producer and the product of his or her
environment
• Developing producers that ac...
Basic Characteristics and Assumptions:
• Behavior therapy are based on the principles and procedures of the scientific
met...
Cont..
• The Behavioral approach emphasizes teaching clients skills of self-management
with the expectation that they will...
Cont..
• Behavioral treatment interventions are individually tailored to specific problems
experience by clients. “What tr...
Therapeutic Goals
• The general goals of behavior therapy are to increase personal choice and to
create new conditions for...
Therapeutic techniques and procedure
• Client keeps record of intensity or occurrences to devise if the therapy is
working...
Operant conditioning Techniques
• Some key principles of operant conditioning are: positive reinforcement,
negative reinfo...
Functional Assessment Model
• The first step is to conduct a functional assessment using both indirect and
direct observat...
Relaxation Training
• Clients are given a set of instructions that ask them to
relax in a quite environment and taking dee...
Systematic Desensitization
• Clients are to imagine successively more anxiety arousing situations at the same time that
th...
Exposure Therapies
• Exposure therapies are designed to treat fears and other negative emotional
responses by introducing ...
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
EMDR
• EMDR is a form of exposure therapy that involves imaginable flooding,...
Assertion Training
• Useful for people who can’t express anger or irritation, difficult to say no,
people who are overly p...
Self Management & Self Direct Behavior
• Involves psychologists being willing to share their knowledge so that
consumers c...
Multimodal Therapy: Clinical Behavior Therapy
• Multimodal therapy is a comprehensive, systematic, holistic approach to
be...
Technical Eclecticism
• Therapist borrow techniques from many other therapy systems
• Therapist recognize that many client...
The Basic I.D.
• B=Behavior
• A=Affective responses
• S=Sensations
• I=Images
• C=Cognitions
• I=Interpersonal relationshi...
Role of Therapist
• Therapist are very active during therapy sessions, educators,
consultants, and role models
• Therapist...
RELATIONAEMOTIVE BEHAVIOR
THERAPY (REBT)
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy
(REBT)
• Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, and
doing
• Assumes that cog...
View of Human Nature
• We are born with a potential for both rational and
irrational thinking
• We are self-talking, self-...
View of Emotional Disturbance
• We learn irrational belief from significant other during
childhood
• Teach clients to feel...
The A-B-C theory of personality
Case discussion 1
• Tom, a college sophomore, want to overcomes his
shyness around women. He doe not date and even
des his...
Case discussion 2
• Mary would like to take a course in creative
writing, but she fears that she has no talent.
She is afr...
Case discussion 3
• Each week John comes to his sessions with a new excuse for
why he has not succeeded in following throu...
Case discussion 4
• Brent feels that he must win everyone’s approval. He
has become a “super nice guy” who goes out of his...
Irrational Ideas
• Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior
• Some examples:
– “I must have love or approval from ...
The Therapeutic Process
• Therapy is seen as an educational process
• Clients learn
– To identify and dispute irrational b...
Therapeutic Goals
• A basic goal is to teach clients how to change their
dysfunctional emotions and behaviors into health
...
Therapist’s function and Role
• 1. Encouraging clients to discover their irrational
beliefs and ideas
• 2. Making connecti...
Client’s Experience in Therapy
• A learner---learn how to apply logical thoughts,
experiential exercises, and behavioral h...
Relationship Between Therapist and Client
• Intensive therapeutic relationship is not required. But,
REBT unconditionally ...
Therapeutic techniques and procedures
• Cognitive methods
– Disputing irrational beliefs
• If I don’t get what I want, it ...
Therapeutic techniques and procedures
• Emotional Techniques
– Rational-emotional imagery
• Imagine the worst things that ...
Therapeutic techniques and procedures
• Behavioral Techniques
– Use most of the standard behavioral therapy
approaches.
• ...
Applications of REBT
• REBT has been widely applied to several
areas: anxiety, depression, psychotic
disorders, problems o...
COGNITIVE THERAPY
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Aaron Beck
• Childhood fears were handled with reasoning
• Likely motiv...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Aaron Beck
Beck contended that various mental
disorders have particular...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Beliefs
• People are not passive victims of their
inborn tendencies
• P...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Four levels of cognition
• automatic thoughts,
• intermediate beliefs,
...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Cognitive distortions
• Distortions convert incoming information to kee...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Three assumptions
1. Cognitive activity impacts behavior.
2. Cognitive ...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Cognitive distortions
associated with distress and
maladaptive behavior...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Cognitive distortions
associated with distress and
maladaptive behavior...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Counselor
Both a guide to help the client understand
how beliefs and at...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Case formation
• Dynamic process
• Requires the counselor to generate a...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Fundamental concepts
Collaborative empiricism - the cooperative
working...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Session outline
• Build an agenda that has meaning for the client
• Asc...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Counseling Session Four Steps
1
Review progress bringing counselor and ...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Stress inoculation
CBT technique that includes
• Self talk
• Practice t...
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage
Learning
Stress inoculation
Michenbaum’s 4 categories of self-talk
• Preparation...
Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive
Behavior Modification (CBM)• Focus:
– Changing client’s self-verbalizations or self-stateme...
Meichenbaum’s CBM
• Self-instructional therapy focus:
– Trains clients to modify the instructions they give to
themselves ...
How Behavior Changes?
• 3 Phases of Behavior Change
– 1. Self-observation
• Listen to themselves, realize they contribute ...
Coping Skills Programs
• Coping skills programs – Stress inoculation
training (3 phase model)
– 1. The conceptual phase
• ...
From a multicultural perspective
• Contributions
– Diverse populationsappreciate the emphasis on
cognition and actions
– ...
From a multicultural perspective
• Limitations
– Exploring core beliefs is important in CBT-needs to
sensitive to cultura...
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
Transactional analysisTransactional analysis
We do not grow absolutely, chronologically. We
grow sometimes in one dimensio...
Chapter ObjectivesChapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:      
•Outline the development of ...
Eric Berne(stein)Eric Berne(stein)
• Born May 10, 1910 in Montreal, Canada
• Graduated from McGill University 1935 with me...
TA DevelopmentTA Development
• Core of transactional analysis (TA) in 1954
• Berne was involved in the psychoanalysis when...
TA DevelopmentTA Development
• Three years after its publication, Games People Play (1964)
had been on the nonfiction best...
The Nature of People andThe Nature of People and
The Theory of CounselingThe Theory of Counseling
• TA theory is a stateme...
Structural AnalysisStructural Analysis
• Each person has three ego states
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of
Cengage Learni...
The PictureThe Picture
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of
Cengage Learning
PNP CP
C ACFC
A
Critical Parent
“You shouldn’t”
...
Transactional AnalysisTransactional Analysis
• A transaction is a unit of human communication
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Divisi...
Transaction TypesTransaction Types
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of
Cengage Learning
P
A
P P
P P
P
C
A A
A
A
A
C
C
C
C
C
...
Script AnalysisScript Analysis
• Your life script – usually learned from your
parents child
o Examples: martyr, procrastin...
Game AnalysisGame Analysis
• There are three basic roles
o Persecutor
o Rescuer
o Victim
• People turn their life scripts ...
Life PositionsLife Positions
OK NOT OK
OK Mature independence Battered child, criminal
NOT OK
Normal child,
dependent
As a...
Games Clients PlayGames Clients Play
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of
Cengage Learning
Why don’t you; yes but Most common...
The Pursuit of StrokesThe Pursuit of Strokes
• Structuring time in pursuit of strokes
o Withdrawing: avoid any strokes
o R...
Counseling methodCounseling method
• The counselor as teacher
o Teach the concepts of TA and guide the client in how
to ap...
Cross Cultural ApplicationsCross Cultural Applications
• Eric Berne believed everyone worked in
these three ego states
• A...
PSIKOLOGI KAUNSELING teori tingkah laku kognitif dalam kaunseling
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PSIKOLOGI KAUNSELING teori tingkah laku kognitif dalam kaunseling

  1. 1. Teori Tingkah Laku Kognitif dalam Kaunseling TAJUK 7
  2. 2. TERAPI TINGKAH LAKU
  3. 3. Behavior Theory
  4. 4. B.F. Skinner • Skinner championed radical behaviorism, which places primary emphasis on the effects of environment on behavior. Skinner was also a determinist; he did not believe that humans had free choice. He acknowledged that feelings and thoughts exist, but he denied that they CAUSED our actions. Instead he stresses the cause and effect links between objective, observable environmental conditions and behavior. Environmental factors can be directly observed and changed. In 197 Skinner wrote a book “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”.
  5. 5. 4 Areas of Development • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Social Learning Theory • Cognitive Behavior Therapy
  6. 6. • Classical Conditioning- (respondent conditioning)- refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a responds thought, pairing. Example- knee jerks, salivation • Operant Conditioning-most of the significant responses we make in everyday life. Examples are reading, writing, driving a car and eating with utensils. Positive and negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction techniques, illustrates how operant conditioning in applied settings can be instrumental in developing prosocial and adaptive behaviors.
  7. 7. • Social learning theory is interact ional, interdisciplinary and multimodal. It involves a triadic reciprocal interaction among the environment, personal factors (beliefs, preferences, expectations, self-perception and so forth), and individual behavior. A basic assumption is that people are capable of self-directed behavior change. • Cognitive behavior Therapy-this approach offers various action-oriented methods to help people change what they are doing and thinking.
  8. 8. View of Human Nature • The person is the producer and the product of his or her environment • Developing producers that actually give control to acts and thus increases their range of freedom • It aims to increase peoples skills so that they have more options for responding • Given the techniques and skills of self change, people have the capacity to improve their lives by altering one or more of the various factors influencing their behavior
  9. 9. Basic Characteristics and Assumptions: • Behavior therapy are based on the principles and procedures of the scientific method. Experimentally derived principles of learning are systematically applied to help people change their maladaptive behavior • Behavior therapy deals with the clients current problems and the factors influencing them as opposed to an analysis of possible historical determinants. At times understanding of the past may offer useful info. About the environmental events related to present behavior • Clients involved in behavior therapy are expected to assume an active role by engaging in specific actions to deal with their problems. Rather than simply talking about their condition they are required to DO something to bring about change. Behavior therapy is an action-oriented approach, & learning is viewed as being at the core of therapy. Although referred to as “therapy” this is an education approach in which clients participate in a teaching-learning process.
  10. 10. Cont.. • The Behavioral approach emphasizes teaching clients skills of self-management with the expectation that they will be responsible for transferring what they learn in the therapist’s office to their everyday lives. Behavior therapy is generally carried in the clients natural environment as much as possible. • The focuses is on assessing overt and covert behavior directly, identifying the problem, and evaluating change. Therapists also assess their clients culture as part of their social environments, including social support networks relating to target behavior. • Behavior therapy emphasizes a self-control approach in which clients learn self- management strategies. Therapists frequently train clients to initiate, conduct, and evaluate their own therapy. Clients are empowered through this process of being responsible for their changes.
  11. 11. Cont.. • Behavioral treatment interventions are individually tailored to specific problems experience by clients. “What treatment, by whom, is the most effective for this individual with that specific problem and under which set of circumstances? • The practice of behavior therapy is based on a collaborative partnership between therapist and clients and every attempt as made to inform clients about the nature and course of treatment • The emphasis is on practical applications. Interventions are applied to all facets of daily life in which maladaptive behaviors are to be increased • Therapists strive to develop culture specific procedures and obtain their clients adherence and cooperation
  12. 12. Therapeutic Goals • The general goals of behavior therapy are to increase personal choice and to create new conditions for learning • The clients with the help of the therapists defines specific goals at the outset of the therapeutic process • The counselor provides rationale for goals, explain role of goals, purpose of goals, and the clients participation in the goal-setting process • Client identifies the outcomes specifying the positive changes that he and she wants from counseling • Client is the person seeking help, and he or she can only make the changes in their life • The benefit effect of all identified goals are explored and counselor and client discuss the possible advantages and disadvantages of these goals • Client and counselor then decide to continue pursuing the selected goals, to reconsider the clients initial goals, or to seek the services of another practitioner
  13. 13. Therapeutic techniques and procedure • Client keeps record of intensity or occurrences to devise if the therapy is working • Some assessment instruments including; self-report inventories, behavior rating scales, monitoring self form, and simple observation techniques • Treatment outcomes are multifaceted, changes are all or nothing • Behavior therapy is used for a specific person not some random therapy • Behavioral therapy can be incorporated into other approaches • Some approaches of the behavioral therapy ranges from behavioral analysis, functional assessment model, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, exposure therapies, eye movement, assertion training, self-management programs, self-direct behavior, and multimodal therapy
  14. 14. Operant conditioning Techniques • Some key principles of operant conditioning are: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, positive punishment and negative punishment • Positive reinforcement involves the addition of something of value to the individual as a consequence of a certain behavior • Negative reinforcement involves escape or avoidance of unpleasant stimuli. Individual motivated to exhibit a desired behavior to avoid the unpleasant condition • Extinction can be used for behaviors that have been maintained by positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Doing so can eliminate certain behaviors. • Positive punishment aversive stimulus is added after the behavior to decrease the frequency of a behavior • Negative punishment id reinforcing stimulus is removed following the behavior to decrease the frequency of a target behavior • Both kinds of punishment, the behavior is less likely to happen again
  15. 15. Functional Assessment Model • The first step is to conduct a functional assessment using both indirect and direct observation, and information about antecedent events, including the time and place of the behavior and the people present when the behavior occurs • The therapist develops hypotheses about the nature of the problem behavior and the condition contributing to this behavior • Hypothesized to be maintaining the problem behaviors • Negative punishment procedures may be used to decrease problem • After treatment methods have been used it’s very important to develop strategies to maintain behaviors
  16. 16. Relaxation Training • Clients are given a set of instructions that ask them to relax in a quite environment and taking deep and regular breathing patterns • Clients are suppose to “let go” • Clients are encouraged to actually feel and experience the tension building up, to notice their muscles getting tighter and study the tension, to hold and fully experience the tension • A normal relaxation practice lasts for 20 to 25 minutes • It helps relieve stress and anxiety
  17. 17. Systematic Desensitization • Clients are to imagine successively more anxiety arousing situations at the same time that they engage in a behavior that competes with anxiety • Gradually clients become less sensitive to the anxiety arousing situations • The therapist conducts an initial interview to identify specific information about the anxiety and to gather relevant background information about the client • Background information gives the therapist a good understanding of the client • Find out under what circumstances does the clients have anxiety • Therapist conducts a relaxation training before going to therapy, • Conducts anxiety hierarchy which stimuli that elicit anxiety in a particular situation such as rejection, jealousy, criticism, disapproval, or any phobia • Desensitization begins after several sessions, client reaches complete relaxation with eyes closed, then imagine the least anxiety arousing scene, therapist moves progressivly up the hierarchy until the client signals anxiety, relaxation is introduced again until little anxiety is experienced
  18. 18. Exposure Therapies • Exposure therapies are designed to treat fears and other negative emotional responses by introducing client to the situation that contributed to such problems • In Vivo desensitization involves the client exposure to the actual feared situation in the hierarchy in real life rather than simply imagining situations • Flooding which refers to either in vivo or imaginal exposure to anxiety-evoking stimuli for a prolonged period of time • Allows the anxiety to decrease on it’s own • Flooding can be used for many fearful anxieties such as flying, riding in subways, riding in elevators and phobia of certain animals • Because of the discomfort in this treatment with intense exposure some clients may not elect these exposures
  19. 19. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing EMDR • EMDR is a form of exposure therapy that involves imaginable flooding, cognitive restructuring, and the use of rapid, rhythmic eye movement and other bilateral stimulation to treat clients who have experienced traumatic stress • EMDR is applied to many populations that deal with posttraumatic stress disorders, sexual abuse victims, combat veterans, victims of crime, rape survivors, accident victims, children, couples • It also deals with individuals that have anxiety, panic, depression, grief, addictions and phobias • The client is instructed to visually track the therapist’s index finger as they move it back and forth 12 to 24 times • Client is instructed to block out negative experience momentarily and breathe deep and to report what he/she is imagining, feeling and thinking • Client is asked the positive cognition and identify and body tension • Do reevaluation in next session
  20. 20. Assertion Training • Useful for people who can’t express anger or irritation, difficult to say no, people who are overly polite and allows others to take advantage of them, people who find it difficult to express affection and other positive responses, people who feel they have no right to express their thought beliefs, and feelings and people who have social phobias • The assumption underlying assertion training is so clients can have the right to express themselves • A goal in assertion training is to teach clients to express themselves in ways that reflect sensitivity to the feelings and rights of others • Clients have the CHOICE of whether to behave assertively in certain situations • Assertion does not mean aggression, assertive clients don’t stand up for their rights at all cost, ignoring the feelings of others
  21. 21. Self Management & Self Direct Behavior • Involves psychologists being willing to share their knowledge so that consumers can increasingly lead self-directed lives and not be dependent on experts • Therapist teach clients skills that they will need to manage their own lives effectively • Clients have a direct role of their own treatment, techniques aimed at self- change tend to increase involvement and commitment to their own treatment • Self management strategies include but limited to, self monitoring, self reward, self contracting, stimulus control and self as model • Five characteristics are combination of self management, engage regularly over period of time, client make self evaluation, use self reinforcement and a degree of environmental support
  22. 22. Multimodal Therapy: Clinical Behavior Therapy • Multimodal therapy is a comprehensive, systematic, holistic approach to behavior therapy develop • This model implies that we are social beings who move, feel, sense, imagine and think • Multimodal is an open system, that encourages technical eclecticism • New techniques are being introduced constantly and existing techniques are refined • Therapist take great plain to determine what relationship and what treatment strategies will work best with each individual in a particular situation • Assumption of this approach is that because individuals are troubled by a variety of specific problems it is appropriate that multitude of treatment strategies be used in bringing about change
  23. 23. Technical Eclecticism • Therapist borrow techniques from many other therapy systems • Therapist recognize that many clients come to therapy to learn skills, and therapist are willing to teach, coach, train, model and direct their clients • Main function is provide information, instructions and reactions • Therapist challenge self defeating beliefs, offer constructive feedback, provide positive reinforcement and are appropriately self disclosing • Failure to apprehend the clients situation can easily leave the client feeling alienated and misunderstood
  24. 24. The Basic I.D. • B=Behavior • A=Affective responses • S=Sensations • I=Images • C=Cognitions • I=Interpersonal relationships • D=Drugs, biological functions, nutrition and exercise
  25. 25. Role of Therapist • Therapist are very active during therapy sessions, educators, consultants, and role models • Therapist provide information, instructions and feedback as well as modeling assertive behaviors, challenging self defeating beliefs, offering constructive criticism and suggestions, offering positive reinforcement and being appropriately self-disclosing • Therapists need to make choices regarding different styles of relating to clients • Over the years has been learning to blend appropriate and effective techniques with the most suitable relationship style
  26. 26. RELATIONAEMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY (REBT)
  27. 27. Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) • Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing • Assumes that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship • Is highly didactic, very directive, and concerned as much with thinking as with feeling • Teaches that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations
  28. 28. View of Human Nature • We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking • We are self-talking, self-evaluating, and self- sustaining. • We have an inborn tendency toward growth and actualization • We learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talk • We have the capacity to change our cognitive, emotive, and behavioral processes
  29. 29. View of Emotional Disturbance • We learn irrational belief from significant other during childhood • Teach clients to feel undepressed even when they are unaccepted and unloved by significant others. • Blame is at the core of most emotional disturbances • Irrational idea (e.g., I must be loved by everyone) internalize  self-defeating • We have a tendency to make ourselves emotionally disturbed by internalizing self-defeating beliefs
  30. 30. The A-B-C theory of personality
  31. 31. Case discussion 1 • Tom, a college sophomore, want to overcomes his shyness around women. He doe not date and even des his best to keep away from women because he is afraid they will reject him. But he want to change this pattern. – Using A-B-C-D-E-F to analyze and help Tom
  32. 32. Case discussion 2 • Mary would like to take a course in creative writing, but she fears that she has no talent. She is afraid of failing, afraid of being told that she is dumb, and afraid of follow through with taking the course. – Using A-B-C-D-E-F to analyze and help Mary
  33. 33. Case discussion 3 • Each week John comes to his sessions with a new excuse for why he has not succeeded in following through with his homework assignments. Either he forgets, gets too busy, gets scared. Or puts it off—anything but actually doing something to change what he says he wants to change. Instead of really doing much of anything, he whines each week about how rotten he feels and how he so much would like to change but just doesn’t know how. – What are the possible irrational beliefs, which keep John from taking actions – What homework assignment might you suggest?
  34. 34. Case discussion 4 • Brent feels that he must win everyone’s approval. He has become a “super nice guy” who goes out of his way to please everyone. Rarely does he assert himself, for fear that he might displease someone who then would not like him. – What are the possible irrational beliefs? – How do you help Brent? – If Brent is Asian American, what cultural components you might take into account?
  35. 35. Irrational Ideas • Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior • Some examples: – “I must have love or approval from all the significant people in my life.” – “I must perform important tasks competently and perfectly.” – “If I don’t get what I want, it’s terrible, and I can’t stand it.”
  36. 36. The Therapeutic Process • Therapy is seen as an educational process • Clients learn – To identify and dispute irrational beliefs – To replace ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitions – To stop absolutistic thinking, blaming, and repeating false beliefs
  37. 37. Therapeutic Goals • A basic goal is to teach clients how to change their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors into health ones. • Two main goals of REBT are to assist clients to achieving unconditional self-acceptance and unconditional other acceptance. – As clients become more able to accept themselves, they are more likely to unconditionally accept others.
  38. 38. Therapist’s function and Role • 1. Encouraging clients to discover their irrational beliefs and ideas • 2. Making connection of how these irrational beliefs lead to emotional disturbances • 3. Challenging clients to modify or abandon their irrational beliefs. • 4. Dispute the irrational beliefs and substitute rational beliefs and behaviors.
  39. 39. Client’s Experience in Therapy • A learner---learn how to apply logical thoughts, experiential exercises, and behavioral homework to problem solving and emotional change. • Focus on here-and-now experiences • Not spend much time to exploring clients’ early history and connecting present and past • Expect to actively work outside the therapy sessions.
  40. 40. Relationship Between Therapist and Client • Intensive therapeutic relationship is not required. But, REBT unconditionally accept all clients and teach them to unconditionally accept others and themselves. (accept them as persons but confront their faulty thinking and self- destructive behaviors) • Ellis believes that too much warmth and understanding can be counter-productive, fostering dependence for approval. • Therapists shows great faith in their clients’ ability to change themselves. • Open and direct in disclosing their own beliefs and values • Transference is not encouraged, when it occur, the therapist is likely to confront it (e.g., clients believe that they must be liked and loved by their therapists.)
  41. 41. Therapeutic techniques and procedures • Cognitive methods – Disputing irrational beliefs • If I don’t get what I want, it is not at the end of the world – Doing cognitive homework • Applying ABC theory in daily life’s problems • Put themselves in risk-taking situations to challenge their self- limiting beliefs. • Replace negative self-statement to positive message – Changing one’s language • It would be absolutely awful..It would be inconvenient – Using humor • Humorous songs
  42. 42. Therapeutic techniques and procedures • Emotional Techniques – Rational-emotional imagery • Imagine the worst things that could happen to them – Role playing – Shame-attacking exercises • Take a risk to do something that they are afraid to do because of what others might think…until they realize that their feelings of shame are self-created. – Use of force and vigor • From intellectual to emotional insight • Reverse role playing
  43. 43. Therapeutic techniques and procedures • Behavioral Techniques – Use most of the standard behavioral therapy approaches. • Research Efforts – Most studies focus only on cognitive methods and do not consider emotive and behavioral methods.
  44. 44. Applications of REBT • REBT has been widely applied to several areas: anxiety, depression, psychotic disorders, problems of sex, love, and marriage, crisis, couple and family therapy…
  45. 45. COGNITIVE THERAPY
  46. 46. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Aaron Beck • Childhood fears were handled with reasoning • Likely motivated his work with cognitive therapy focusing on anxiety and depression • Graduated from Brown University and Yale Medical School • Studied psychiatry and was trained as a psychoanalyst • eventually his research led him to formulate cognitive therapy, the focus of his career at the University of Pennsylvania where the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research is housed
  47. 47. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Aaron Beck Beck contended that various mental disorders have particular cognitive patterns and that the most effective and lasting therapy involves intervention into those patterns.
  48. 48. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Beliefs • People are not passive victims of their inborn tendencies • People are actively creating and moving toward goals that are vital to them • Distress occurs when people experience a threat to their interests • The more crucial a person considers the goal to be, the greater the response.
  49. 49. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Four levels of cognition • automatic thoughts, • intermediate beliefs, • core beliefs, and • schemas.
  50. 50. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Cognitive distortions • Distortions convert incoming information to keep cognitive schema intact. • They use the assimilation process to maintain homeostasis. • The information contrary to core belief is cancelled out by the distortion process, and the person cannot identify any disconfirming evidence from his environment.
  51. 51. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Three assumptions 1. Cognitive activity impacts behavior. 2. Cognitive activity can be monitored and changed. 3. A desired change in behavior can be accomplished through changing cognitions.
  52. 52. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Cognitive distortions associated with distress and maladaptive behaviors • Catastrophizing: expecting disastrous event • Mental filtering: seeing an entire situation based on one detail with all else ignored • Blame or assigning internal responsibility entirely to external events
  53. 53. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Cognitive distortions associated with distress and maladaptive behaviors • All-or-nothing thinking: the person thinks in terms of two opposite categories • Discounting the positive: person says positives do not count • Overgeneralization: a sweeping negative conclusion that goes beyond facts
  54. 54. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Counselor Both a guide to help the client understand how beliefs and attitudes interact with emotions and behavior, and a catalyst promoting corrective experiences, leading to cognitive change, and building skills.
  55. 55. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Case formation • Dynamic process • Requires the counselor to generate and test their hypotheses • Five parts: 1. problem list, 2. diagnosis, 3. working hypothesis, 4. strengths and assets, and 5. treatment plan.
  56. 56. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Fundamental concepts Collaborative empiricism - the cooperative working relationship of jointly determining goals and seeking feedback Socratic dialogue - a type of questioning designed to promote new learning Guided discovery - when the counselor coaches the child in a voyage of self-discovery in which the child does his or her own thinking and draws his or her own conclusions
  57. 57. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Session outline • Build an agenda that has meaning for the client • Ascertain and measure the intensity of the person’s mood • Identify and review presenting problems • Ask about the client’s expectation for counseling • Teach the person about cognitive therapy and the client’s role in it • Give information about the person’s difficulties and diagnosis • Establish goals • Recommend homework • Summarize • Obtain the client’s feedback
  58. 58. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Counseling Session Four Steps 1 Review progress bringing counselor and client up to date. Homework assignments checked for completion. Four quadrants for last week 1.List high points 2.Low points 3.How week could have been better 4.Plans for next week 2 Set agenda for current session based on 4 point quadrant 3 Clarify and set specific behavioral goals for next week 4 Have client summarize session as bridge to next week: review new homework, anticipate obstacles, evaluate session
  59. 59. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Stress inoculation CBT technique that includes • Self talk • Practice tests • Visualization • Relaxation training • Deep breathing exercises
  60. 60. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Stress inoculation Michenbaum’s 4 categories of self-talk • Preparation: what do you have to do • Confrontation: you can handle it • Coping: keep stress manageable • Reinforcing: I did it
  61. 61. Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behavior Modification (CBM)• Focus: – Changing client’s self-verbalizations or self-statements • Premise: – As a prerequisite to behavior change, clients must notice how they think, feel, and behave, and what impact they have on others • Basic assumption: – Distressing emotions are typically the result of maladaptive thoughts
  62. 62. Meichenbaum’s CBM • Self-instructional therapy focus: – Trains clients to modify the instructions they give to themselves so that they can cope – Emphasis is on acquiring practical coping skills • Cognitive structure: – The organizing aspect of thinking, which seems to monitor and direct the choice of thoughts – The “executive processor,” which “holds the blueprints of thinking” that determine when to continue, interrupt, or change thinking
  63. 63. How Behavior Changes? • 3 Phases of Behavior Change – 1. Self-observation • Listen to themselves, realize they contribute to their depression through how they think, and develop new cognitive structures – 2. Starting a new internal dialogue • See adaptive behavioral alternatives – 3. Learning new skills • Teaching more effective coping skills •
  64. 64. Coping Skills Programs • Coping skills programs – Stress inoculation training (3 phase model) – 1. The conceptual phase • Creating a working relationship with clients – 2. Skills acquisition and rehearsal phase • Giving coping skills to apply to stressful situations – 3. Application and follow-through phase • Transfer change to real world
  65. 65. From a multicultural perspective • Contributions – Diverse populationsappreciate the emphasis on cognition and actions – Challenge rigid thinking (e.g., “should”) instead of questioning the values – Stress the relationship of individuals to the family, community, and systems
  66. 66. From a multicultural perspective • Limitations – Exploring core beliefs is important in CBT-needs to sensitive to cultural background and context • Value “working hard”feel ashamed for not living up to the expectations; divorcebring shame to her family – Diverse clients may be hesitant to question their basic cultural values – Diverse clients may value interdependence and may feel difficult to be independent
  67. 67. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
  68. 68. Transactional analysisTransactional analysis We do not grow absolutely, chronologically. We grow sometimes in one dimension, and not in another, unevenly. We grow partially. We are relative. We are mature in one realm, childish in another. The past, present, and future mingle and pull us backward, forward, or fix us in the present. We are made up of layers, cells, constellations. Anaïs Nin © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  69. 69. Chapter ObjectivesChapter Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to:       •Outline the development of transactional analysis and Eric Berne •Explain the theory of transactional analysis •Discuss the counseling relationship and goals in transactional analysis •Describe assessment, process, and techniques •Demonstrate some therapeutic techniques •Clarify the effectiveness of transactional analysis © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  70. 70. Eric Berne(stein)Eric Berne(stein) • Born May 10, 1910 in Montreal, Canada • Graduated from McGill University 1935 with medical degree • Became U.S. citizen and served in armed forces • 1964 published Games People Play • He attributed the book’s success to the recognition factor © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  71. 71. TA DevelopmentTA Development • Core of transactional analysis (TA) in 1954 • Berne was involved in the psychoanalysis when the patient suddenly said, “I’m not a lawyer, I’m just a little boy,” • Sparked the idea that each of us contains a child ego state accompanied by parent and adult ego states. • After listening to his patients relating “games” for some 30 years, Berne decided to gather some of these into a catalog. • Led to Games People Play (1964) © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  72. 72. TA DevelopmentTA Development • Three years after its publication, Games People Play (1964) had been on the nonfiction best seller list for 111 weeks— longer than any other book that decade. • Berne attributed the book’s success to the recognition factor— o some of us recognize ourselves in it, o whereas some of us recognize other people in the descriptions of winners and losers. • The everyday language and categories he used came from his preferences. © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  73. 73. The Nature of People andThe Nature of People and The Theory of CounselingThe Theory of Counseling • TA theory is a statement about human personality • Derives from four types of analysis © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Structural Analysis Analyze a person’s personality Transactional Analysis What people do and say to each other Script Analysis The life dramas people play out Game Analysis Ulterior transactions leading to payoff
  74. 74. Structural AnalysisStructural Analysis • Each person has three ego states © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Parent (nurturing or critical) Mimics our own parents Adult (rational thinking) Reality based Child (natural or adaptive ) Free, spontaneous passive • The well adjusted person can choose which one is active
  75. 75. The PictureThe Picture © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning PNP CP C ACFC A Critical Parent “You shouldn’t” Pointing finger Free Child “I want” Excited Nurturing Parent “Let me help you” Extends hand Adaptive Child “I did my job” Expectant Adult “The facts are” Attentive
  76. 76. Transactional AnalysisTransactional Analysis • A transaction is a unit of human communication © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Complementary Response comes from the ego state to which it was addressed Crossed Response comes from an ego state not addressed Covert More than one ego state of each person involved - dishonest
  77. 77. Transaction TypesTransaction Types © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning P A P P P P P C A A A A A C C C C C Where are the keys? In the drawer. Where are the keys? Why is it always my fault? You should go to college. You’re not smart enough.
  78. 78. Script AnalysisScript Analysis • Your life script – usually learned from your parents child o Examples: martyr, procrastinator, success, failure, blamer, distracter • Three basic types: winner, loser, non-winner • Five Components o Directions from parents o Corresponding personality development o Confirming childhood decision on life o Penchant for success or failure o Pattern of behavior © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  79. 79. Game AnalysisGame Analysis • There are three basic roles o Persecutor o Rescuer o Victim • People turn their life scripts into games • Games are a pattern of ulterior transactions • Their purpose is to maintain homeostasis • Counseling goal is to move to complimentary transactions, not games © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  80. 80. Life PositionsLife Positions OK NOT OK OK Mature independence Battered child, criminal NOT OK Normal child, dependent As a child couldn’t depend on parents © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning I YOU
  81. 81. Games Clients PlayGames Clients Play © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Why don’t you; yes but Most common client game I’m only trying to help Counselor’s response to above Courtroom Counselor roped into being judge of two people Kick me and NIGYYSOB Always the victim Double Bind Gossiping Talking about someone who isn’t there Wooden leg Try to get counselor to give up on you If it weren’t for you Avoids responsibility Red cross Persecutor gets victim in trouble then rescues Make someone sad Get attention by making other jealous
  82. 82. The Pursuit of StrokesThe Pursuit of Strokes • Structuring time in pursuit of strokes o Withdrawing: avoid any strokes o Rituals: socially determined – safe o Pastimes: baseball shopping – minimal o Activities: career – reality – more interaction o Games: stroking is manipulated o Intimacy: unconditional positive – game free • Rackets o Collect bad stamps to be cashed in later for free bad behavior © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Conditional Unconditional Positive I like you when ___ I like you Negative I don’t like you when ___ I don’t like you
  83. 83. Counseling methodCounseling method • The counselor as teacher o Teach the concepts of TA and guide the client in how to apply them • Teach o Definition and explanation of ego states o Analysis of transactions between ego states o Positive and negative stroking (“warm fuzzies” and “cold pricklies”) o I’m OK you’re OK as a goal o Games and rackets o Scripts © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning
  84. 84. Cross Cultural ApplicationsCross Cultural Applications • Eric Berne believed everyone worked in these three ego states • Appeals to groups or cultures that prefer a cognitive approach • The same approach is used regardless of culture or age of client © 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning

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