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Chapter 9: Development
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Developmental Psychology
 Th...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Nature and Nurture: The Endur...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Strategies for Studying Devel...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Specific Research Approaches
...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Prenatal Development: The Bas...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
The Earliest Development
 Ge...
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The Earliest Development
 Fe...
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Genetic Influences on the Fet...
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Prenatal Environmental Influe...
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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
The Extraordinary Newborn
 N...
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Development of the Senses: Ta...
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Physical Development
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Development of Social Behavio...
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Measuring Attachment
 Ainswo...
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Social Relationships with Pee...
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Temperament
 A basic, innate...
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Erikson’s Theory of Psychosoc...
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Psychosocial Stages
 Trust v...
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Cognitive Development
 The p...
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Information Processing Theory...
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Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive
...
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Adolescence: Becoming an Adul...
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Moral Development
 Carol Gil...
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Erikson’s Theory of Psychosoc...
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Erikson’s Theory of Psychosoc...
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Stormy Adolescence: Myth or R...
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Early and Middle Adulthood
 ...
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Social Development
 Midlife ...
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Marriage, Children, and Divor...
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The Later Years of Life: Phys...
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The Later Years of Life: Cogn...
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The Later Years of Life: Memo...
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The Social World of Late Adul...
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The Social World of Late Adul...
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Adjusting to Death
 Denial
...
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ASAS PSIKOLOGI development

  1. 1. Chapter 9: Development Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Developmental Psychology  The branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change occurring throughout life
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nature and Nurture: The Enduring Developmental Issue  Environment – The influence of parents, siblings, family, friends, schooling, nutrition, and all other experiences in which a child is exposed  Hereditary – Influences based on the genetic makeup of an individual that influence growth and development throughout life
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Strategies for Studying Development  Determining the relative influence of nature and nurture – Study of identical twins (those who are genetically identical)
  6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Specific Research Approaches  Cross-sectional research – People of different ages are compared at the same point in time  Longitudinal research – Behavior of one or more participants is traced as the participants age  Cross-sequential research – Combines above by taking a number of different age groups and examining them over several points in time
  7. 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Prenatal Development: The Basics of Genetics  Chromosomes – Rod-shaped structures that contain the basic hereditary information  Genes – Smaller units through which genetic information is transmitted  DNA – Biological equivalent of “software” that programs the future development of all parts of the body’s hardware
  8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Earliest Development  Germinal period – First two weeks – Zygote • The new cell that is formed by fertilization  Embryonic period – 2 to 8 weeks – Embryo • Rapid growth of the zygote that has developed a heart, brain, intestinal tract, and other organs
  10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Earliest Development  Fetal period – 8 weeks until birth – Fetus  Age of viability – Point at which it can survive if born prematurely (about 24 weeks)  Critical period – Times during development when specific events have their greatest impact
  11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Genetic Influences on the Fetus  Phenylketonuria (PKU) – Cannot produce enzyme required for normal development  Sickle-cell anemia – Abnormal red blood cells  Tay-Sachs disease – Body unable to break down fat  Down syndrome – Extra chromosome
  12. 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Prenatal Environmental Influences  Teratogens – Environmental agents that produce a birth defect  Mother’s nutrition and emotional state  Mother’s illness  Mother’s drug use  Alcohol and nicotine – Fetal alcohol syndrome
  13. 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Extraordinary Newborn  Neonate  Reflexes – Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli • Rooting reflex • Sucking reflex • Gag reflex • Startle reflex • Babinski reflex
  15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Development of the Senses: Taking in the World  Habituation – The decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimuli
  16. 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Physical Development
  17. 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Development of Social Behavior  Attachment – The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual  Lorenz and imprinting  Harlow and infant monkeys  Father’s role
  18. 18. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Measuring Attachment  Ainsworth “strange situation” – Securely attached – Avoidant – Ambivalent – Disorganized-disoriented
  19. 19. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Social Relationships with Peers  Play  Day care
  20. 20. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  21. 21. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Temperament  A basic, innate disposition
  22. 22. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development  Psychosocial development – Involves changes in our interactions and understanding of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society
  23. 23. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Psychosocial Stages  Trust versus mistrust – Birth to 1 ½ years  Autonomy versus shame and doubt – 1 ½ to 3 years  Initiative versus guilt – 3 to 6 years  Industry versus inferiority – 6 to 12 years
  24. 24. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cognitive Development  The process by which a child’s understanding of the world changes as a function of experience
  25. 25. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  26. 26. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Information Processing Theory  Information processing – The way in which people take in, use, and store information  Metacognition – An awareness and understanding of one’s own cognitive processes
  27. 27. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development  Zone of proximal development (ZPD) – The level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own – Scaffolding
  28. 28. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Adolescence: Becoming an Adult  Adolescence – The developmental stage between childhood and adulthood  Puberty – The period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, begins at about age 11 or 12 for girls and 13 or 14 for boys
  29. 29. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  30. 30. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Moral Development  Carol Gilligan – Women’s morality is centered on individual well- being and social relationships – a morality of caring
  31. 31. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development  Identity versus role confusion – Time of major testing, as adolescents try to determine what is unique and special about themselves  Intimacy versus isolation – Developing close relationships
  32. 32. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development  Generativity versus stagnation – Contributions to one’s family, community, work, and society, assisting the development of the younger generation  Ego-integrity versus despair – Reviewing life’s successes and failures
  33. 33. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Stormy Adolescence: Myth or Reality  Adolescent egocentrism – A state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed from one’s own point of view  Personal fables – The view that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else
  34. 34. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Early and Middle Adulthood  The peak of health (18 – 25)  Body begins to become slightly less efficient and more susceptible to disease at age 25  Menopause – The point at which they stop menstruating and are no longer fertile
  35. 35. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Social Development  Midlife transition – People may begin to question their lives during their early forties as the idea that their life will end becomes prominent  Midlife crisis – Feeling of dissatisfaction with your life in the face of physical aging
  36. 36. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Marriage, Children, and Divorce  Two-fifths of children will experience the breakup of the parents’ marriage before they are 18 years old  More than one quarter of all family households are now headed by one parent
  37. 37. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Later Years of Life: Physical Changes  Genetic preprogramming theories of aging – Suggest that there is a built-in time limit to the reproduction of human cells, and that after a certain time cells stop dividing or become harmful to the body  Wear-and-tear theories of aging – Suggest that the mechanical functions of the body simply stop working efficiently as people age – Waste by-products of energy production eventually accumulate, and mistakes are made when cells divide
  38. 38. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Later Years of Life: Cognitive Changes  Fluid intelligence declines over time  Crystallized intelligence remain steady and in some cases improve
  39. 39. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Later Years of Life: Memory Changes  Episodic memory versus semantic and implicit memory  Senility – Broad, imprecise term typically applied to older adults who experience progressive deterioration of mental abilities  Alzheimer’s disease
  40. 40. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Social World of Late Adulthood  Disengagement theory of aging – Aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels
  41. 41. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Social World of Late Adulthood  Activity theory of aging – Suggests that the people who age most successfully are those who maintain their interests, activities, and level of social interaction they experienced during middle adulthood
  42. 42. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Adjusting to Death  Denial  Anger  Bargaining  Depression  Acceptance

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