Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Chapter 12
Emotions, Heal...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotion
Emotion
Though em...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Crucial Importance of...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Module 12.1
The Nature of...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Measuring Emotions
Like m...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Excitement and Physiologi...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Autonomic Nervous Sys...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Autonomic Nervous Sys...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Autonomic Nervous Sys...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Autonomic Nervous Sys...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
If you rid...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotion and Perceived Aro...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotion and Perceived Aro...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotion and Perceived Aro...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
You arrive...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Autonomic Nervous Sys...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotion and Perceived Aro...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotion and Perceived Aro...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Figure 12.4 According to ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
According ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Range of Emotions
Psy...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Range of Emotions
A b...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Range of Emotions
Pro...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Range of Emotions
Pro...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Range of Emotions
Und...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Range of Emotions
Und...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
The Range of Emotions
Und...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
What six s...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
What is th...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotions and Moral Decisi...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotion, Decision-Making,...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotions and Decision-Mak...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
A patient ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotional Intelligence
Em...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotional Intelligence
Th...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotions and Decision-Mak...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotions
The debates desc...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Emotions
Just as the firs...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Module 12.2
A Survey of E...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Happiness
It is challengi...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Happiness
Martin Seligman...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Happiness
American resear...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Happiness
When surveyed r...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Happiness
Other influence...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Happiness
How to be a hap...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Happiness
Wealth
Research...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sadness
Sadness is almost...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sadness
The possible func...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sadness
“Depressive reali...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Fear and Anxiety
Some res...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Figure 12.19 Certain stru...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Fear and Anxiety
Damage t...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Anxiety, Arousal and Lie ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Figure 12.20 The polygrap...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Anxiety, Arousal and Lie ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Anxiety, Arousal and Lie ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Anxiety, Arousal and Lie ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Figure 12.21 Polygraph ex...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Other Methods of Lie Dete...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Other Methods of Lie Dete...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
List the v...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept check:
List some ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Anger and Violence
“The s...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Situations with Violence
...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Situations with Violence
...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Situations with Violence
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Situations with Violence
...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
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Characteristics of Violen...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Characteristics of Violen...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Characteristics of Violen...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Characteristics of Violen...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Characteristics of Violen...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Characteristics of Violen...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
When all t...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
Name some ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sexual Violence
Violence ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sexual Violence
But when ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sexual Violence
Rape
Rape...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sexual Violence
Rape
“Pre...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Sexual Violence
Rape
What...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Controlling Violence
We l...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Controlling Violence
Hars...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Other Emotions
Surprise i...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Module 12.3
Stress, Copin...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Health Psychology
Health ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Health Psychology
Stress
...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Health Psychology
Selye’s...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
According ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
According ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Posttraumatic Stress Diso...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
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Measuring Stress
Life is ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
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Measuring Stress
A given ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Measuring Stress
Accordin...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Figure 12.24 Lazarus stat...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Measuring Stress
To summa...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Measuring Stress
The most...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
16-year-ol...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Concept Check:
Although i...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Coping Styles and Strateg...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Are Coping Techniques Eff...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Are Coping Techniques Eff...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Stress and Psychosomatic ...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Healing: The Psychologica...
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat
Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress
Healing: The Psychologica...
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ASAS PSIKOLOGI emotions, health and stress

  1. 1. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Chapter 12 Emotions, Health, and Stress
  2. 2. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotion Emotion Though emotions comprise a significant and crucial part of our individual and social experience, emotion is an elusive concept, difficult to define and measure. Through scientific research psychologists have learned much about nature of emotions, but some interesting and important questions remain unanswered.
  3. 3. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Crucial Importance of Emotion It is by no means true that we would make better decisions if we could keep our emotions in check, despite the pop culture lore that promotes this idea. Brain damaged people with impaired emotions are generally inferior decision-makers. Emotions are a powerful informer of our decisions, closely related to motivation, as almost any motivation has an emotion tied to it.
  4. 4. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Module 12.1 The Nature of Emotions
  5. 5. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Measuring Emotions Like many other constructs in psychology, measuring emotion poses challenges to psychological scientists. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Self-reports are fast and easy but may have questionable accuracy. Behavioral observations; especially of facial expressions are useful. Although facial emotions can be suppressed, micro-expressions can be very revealing. Physiological measures use autonomic nervous activity. These are harder to control or suppress, although their meaning is subject to interpretation.
  6. 6. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Excitement and Physiological Arousal The role of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the division that controls the functioning of the internal organs. The ANS has two subdivisions, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
  7. 7. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Autonomic Nervous System The sympathetic nervous system The sympathetic nervous system is comprised of two chains of neuron clusters just to the left and right of the spinal cord. It increases the heart rate, breathing rate, production of sweat, and flow of adrenaline. It prepares the body for intense activity, “fight or flight” and other stress-related behaviors. It is the “crisis management” center.
  8. 8. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Autonomic Nervous System The parasympathetic nervous system The parasympathetic nervous system consists of neurons with axons extending out from the medulla and the lower spinal cord. These axons connect to neuron clusters near the internal organs. The parasympathetic nervous system is the long-term survival center, promoting rest by decreasing heart rate, digestion, and other functions that keep an organism alive in the long-term.
  9. 9. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Autonomic Nervous System The two divisions of the ANS Both systems are active, and the shifting between the two systems helps to keep the body in a balanced condition called homeostasis. Emergencies mainly activate the sympathetic nervous system, but also may involve some parasympathetic activity (i.e., being frightened causes an individual to lose bowel or bladder control).
  10. 10. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Autonomic Nervous System The two divisions of the ANS We generally cannot directly control autonomic responses, but we can influence them by voluntary cognition and behavior, for example, athletes learn to control breathing and focus their concentration for improved aim.
  11. 11. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: If you ride on the back of your friend’s brand-new high- powered motorcycle, does your heart rate increase or decrease? During the ride, your heart rate will increase. What happens when the ride is over? When you get off the motorcycle, it will slow down.
  12. 12. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotion and Perceived Arousal Which comes first, the psychological experience of emotion or the physiological arousal? Common sense dictates that one feels sad and therefore one cries, one feels happy and so one laughs.
  13. 13. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotion and Perceived Arousal The James-Lange theory of emotions Two nineteenth century psychologists, working independently, came up with a different interpretation of how emotion and physiological reactions are related. The James-Lange theory reverses this process. The theory states that a person’s interpretation of a stimulus evokes the autonomic changes directly. The psychological experience of emotion is the individual’s perception of those physiological changes.
  14. 14. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotion and Perceived Arousal The James-Lange theory of emotions You decide that you are happy because you are smiling, sad because you are frowning and tears are forming in your eyes. According to the James-Lange theory, the reactions are not enough to produce the emotions, but you will not have the full experience of the emotions without them.
  15. 15. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: You arrive at your psychology class and realize that there is a test today and you completely forgot about it. You feel nervous and start to sweat. According to the James-Lange theory, which comes first, the feeling of fear or the sweating? The sweating
  16. 16. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Autonomic Nervous System Effects of decreased perceived arousal Some medical conditions cause people to feel little physiological arousal. In the condition called pure autonomic failure the ANS stops regulating the internal organs. People who suffer from pure autonomic failure recognize situations that call for strong emotions (fear, elation) but they report that their emotions are much less intense. This is what the James-Lange theory predicts.
  17. 17. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotion and Perceived Arousal Schachter and Singer’s theory of emotions Another theory proposes that the physiological state is not the same thing as the emotion. According to the Schachter and Singer theory of emotions, the intensity of the physiological reaction determines only the intensity of the emotion, not the type of emotion.
  18. 18. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotion and Perceived Arousal Schachter and Singer’s theory of emotions It is a person’s cognitive appraisal of the situation that determines the emotion that we experience. Research studies based on the Schachter and Singer theory leave some unanswered questions about the role of physiological arousal in contributing to the intensity of the emotional states.
  19. 19. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Figure 12.4 According to the James-Lange theory, physiological arousal determines the nature of the emotion. According to Schachter and Singer’s theory, physiological arousal determines the intensity of an emotion, but not which emotion is experienced.
  20. 20. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: According to the Schachter-Singer theory, which comes first, the realization that you forgot about the test, or the feeling of fear? The realization (cognitive appraisal)
  21. 21. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Range of Emotions Psychologists have yet to agree on a single list of basic emotions but they have agreed on a list of criteria for establishing what a basic emotion should be.
  22. 22. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Range of Emotions A basic emotion should emerge early in life without requiring a great deal of experience. The basic emotions should be found across cultures. Each basic emotion should have a unique biological basis and distinct facial expression.
  23. 23. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Range of Emotions Producing facial expressions The function of facial expressions in all primates is communication, especially communication of emotions. Facial expression of emotion is much more likely to occur in the presence of other people. Facial expressions of emotion are more likely to indicate a person’s true internal state than simple statements and other indicators.
  24. 24. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Range of Emotions Producing facial expression For example, a voluntary smile, such as the one you put on for a photographer, only utilizes the mouth muscles. A full, spontaneous smile, or Duchenne smile, also involves the eye muscles along with the mouth. Most people cannot voluntarily produce a Duchenne smile.
  25. 25. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Range of Emotions Understanding facial expressions Researchers have found a large amount of evidence that there is indeed a set of basic emotions. Many facial expressions including smiling, frowning, laughing, and crying occur throughout the world and are even found in children who were born deaf and blind.
  26. 26. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Range of Emotions Understanding facial expressions Some of our facial expressions develop in the absence of opportunities to observe and imitate others. There is evidence that the basic emotions consist of happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, anger and surprise. Interpretation of these emotions by facial expression is done easily and fairly accurately across cultures.
  27. 27. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress The Range of Emotions Understanding facial expressions But people also rely on gestures, changes in expression, and social situation to make more accurate judgments of others’ emotions. People of different world cultures do not necessarily agree about which internal states are in fact emotions. Also, a state that is associated with a recognizable facial expression is not necessarily an emotion.
  28. 28. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: What six states are currently believed to comprise the six basic emotions? Happiness Sadness Anger Fear Disgust Surprise
  29. 29. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: What is the evidence that these six may be the basic emotions? Most people in all cultures recognize the facial expressions associated with these states.
  30. 30. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotions and Moral Decisions If emotions were not informative in some way, we probably would not have evolved them. Emotions may influence our moral decisions. Research studies using the Trolley Dilemma and Footbridge Dilemma, problems that involve making decisions about letting a small number of people die to save a larger number of people, have provided evidence that emotions play a powerful role in deciding the most moral course of action.
  31. 31. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotion, Decision-Making, and Emotional Intelligence It makes intuitive sense that good decision-making would require some great degree of emotional control, hence the familiar advice to remain calm and rational when contemplating big decisions. This in fact is not entirely true. Only extreme emotions interfere with decision-making. Some degree of emotionality appears to be necessary for good decision-making.
  32. 32. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotions and Decision-Making In fact, a number of case studies of patients with brain damage suggest that the ability to experience and express emotions plays a key role in important life and moral decisions. The case of Phineas Gage and more recently, Antonio Damasio’s case study of “Elliot” both provide evidence that feeling distinctly good or bad is crucial in making decisions of major importance in our lives so that the best outcome is achieved.
  33. 33. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: A patient experiences a closed head injury, with damage to the prefrontal cortex. What behavioral and emotional problems might result from this injury? Problems with making decisions, expressing and modulating emotions, tendency to impulsive behavior, reduced ability to accurately interpret the emotions of other people.
  34. 34. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to perceive, imagine and understand emotions and to use that information in decision-making. The idea of emotional intelligence has gained a great deal of popularity over the past few decades, in psychology and related fields.
  35. 35. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotional Intelligence The evidence for the existence of a special kind of intelligence related to emotions is still not too strong though. Measuring this construct poses challenges in assessment that have yet to be well managed. For example, in constructing items for a test of emotional intelligence, too often the best answer to a question might be “it depends.” Emotional intelligence is an interesting idea, but researchers still have a long way to go.
  36. 36. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotions and Decision-Making The ability to imagine the feeling that we would have pursuing each option presented to us is a big part of good decision-making capability. “Emotions are inseparable from the idea of good and evil.” -- Antonio Damasio
  37. 37. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotions The debates described in this module may not strike you as terribly important, but they are part of larger issue of great importance to the science of psychology. Human behavior seems to be in large part influenced by emotions.
  38. 38. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Emotions Just as the first chemists had to struggle to identify the number and nature of basic elements in order to understand the way the universe works, so we need to keep striving to identify the basic emotions and the relationship of these to human experience and action.
  39. 39. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Module 12.2 A Survey of Emotions
  40. 40. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Happiness It is challenging to measure happiness scientifically, because unlike the negative emotions, it doesn’t really cause any obvious behavioral changes (like running away or attacking). Most researchers simply ask subjects how happy they think that they are.
  41. 41. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Happiness Martin Seligman and other psychologists have been developing a perspective called positive psychology. Positive psychology is the study of features that enrich life, such as hope, creativity, courage, spirituality and responsibility. These features vary cross-culturally.
  42. 42. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Happiness American researchers have focused on the perception of subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is the individual’s assessment of the degree to which his or her life is pleasant, interesting and satisfying.
  43. 43. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Happiness When surveyed regarding what conditions would cause an increase in happiness, most people answered: Money A good job More leisure time A boyfriend or girlfriend (or a new one)
  44. 44. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Happiness Other influences on happiness Some factors do correlate well with happiness including: Inborn temperament or disposition. Marital status (being married seems relate to being happy). Striving towards goals and working for causes. Having a religious faith. Being healthy. Remember that a correlation does not necessarily indicate a causal relationship. There may be more than one explanation or direction for the relationships listed above.
  45. 45. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Happiness How to be a happy person: Have happy parents. Think about the long term when you make decisions. Have strong connections with other people. Be involved in activities that are important to you.
  46. 46. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Happiness Wealth Researchers (and almost everyone else) are curious about the degree to which income level influences happiness. This is challenging because it is difficult to measure happiness, and there are cross-cultural influences and problems of subjective interpretation – a number used for a rating by one person may signify a different level to another person. The general conclusion drawn from research so far is that wealth does not have a large effect on happiness.
  47. 47. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sadness Sadness is almost always reported to be a reaction to loss. Crying is a typical reaction to severe sadness, but as with all other emotions cultures vary in their attitudes and norms about crying. Crying is usually accompanied by an increase in SNS activity and a feeling of relief or relaxation afterwards.
  48. 48. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sadness The possible functions of crying However, research suggests that crying may not actually relieve tension and that those who cry are more likely to report feelings of depression than those who don’t. Crying may function mainly to draw attention and sympathy. The shedding of tears occurs exclusively in humans.
  49. 49. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sadness “Depressive realism” Despite the good press given to a cheerful outlook, it appears as if those who are sad or mildly depressed make better decisions than those who are happy and optimistic. They assess their performance, popularity and success more accurately than happy people. They appear to weigh the evidence more carefully and are more likely to be persuaded by a factual, rational argument than an emotional one.
  50. 50. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Fear and Anxiety Some researchers are investigating the relationship between emotions and brain activity. There is evidence linking the emotions of fear or anxiety to the amygdala. When the amygdala is damaged, a person’s ability to experience these feelings may be impaired.
  51. 51. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Figure 12.19 Certain structures in the pons and medulla control unlearned fear reactions, such as a startle response to a sudden unexpected loud sound. Another structure, the amygdala, sends information to the pons and medulla. Damage to the amygdala eliminates learned fears but does not affect the automatic startle response to a loud sound. This drawing is of a human brain, although the relevant experiments were conducted with rats.
  52. 52. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Fear and Anxiety Damage to the amygdala also diminishes the ability to recognize the signs of these feelings in other people. There is also impairment in the ability to recognize anger, disgust and surprise. The amygdala may be specialized to process information relative to several kinds of emotions
  53. 53. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Anxiety, Arousal and Lie Detection The sympathetic nervous system and lie detection Throughout history, humans have been determined to find a reliable test to determine whether a person is telling the truth or is lying. One of the most frequently used methods involves the use of a polygraph or “lie detector.” A polygraph measures SNS arousal such as blood pressure, heart rate, respiration and electrical conduction of the skin in reaction to a series of questions.
  54. 54. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Figure 12.20 The polygraph, a method for detecting nervous arousal, is the basis for the so- called “lie detector” test. The polygraph operator (a) asks a series of non-threatening questions to establish base-line readings of the subject’s autonomic responses, (b) then asks questions relevant to an investigation. The underlying assumption is that an increase in arousal indicates nervousness, which in turn indicates lying. Unfortunately, a large percentage of innocent people become nervous and therefore appear to be lying.
  55. 55. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Anxiety, Arousal and Lie Detection The sympathetic nervous system and lie detection A polygraph is a machine that records several indications of sympathetic nervous system arousal: blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and electrical conduction of the skin. Although the some people will confess simply because they believe that the polygraph will catch them if they do not tell the truth. Some people are quite capable of regulating reactions well enough to fool the machine.
  56. 56. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Anxiety, Arousal and Lie Detection The sympathetic nervous system and lie detection Although a typical polygraph test procedure does identify a large number of guilty people, it also misses a substantial minority and falsely identifies some innocent people (37% in one study) as guilty. The guilty-knowledge test is a variant of the standard test that produces more accurate results.
  57. 57. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Anxiety, Arousal and Lie Detection The sympathetic nervous system and lie detection The interrogator asks about information that would only be known to someone who had been involved in the crime. The suspect is expected to show heightened arousal in response to the correct details. Although the guilty knowledge test improves the accuracy of polygraph use, it is by no means flawless and can only be used when law enforcement has a great deal of information about the crime that would not be known to the general public.
  58. 58. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Figure 12.21 Polygraph examiners correctly identified 76% of guilty suspects as lying. However, they also identified 37% of innocent suspects as lying. (Based on data of Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)
  59. 59. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Other Methods of Lie Detection It has been shown that when people lie, they experience increased blood flow to the face. A thermal camera can detect this blood flow, without making contact with the person’s body. The method appears to work about as well as a polygraph (which unfortunately is not saying much to recommend it).
  60. 60. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Other Methods of Lie Detection Psychologist Paul Ekman has developed a fairly good method based on observation of facial expressions. His research suggests that people who are trying to keep a happy or “straight” face still make very subtle, quick facial expressions of negative emotion when trying to lie. He calls these movements “microexpressions.” With good training, this method can be more effectively used than polygraphs but it still may fail when one is dealing with confident or experienced liars.
  61. 61. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: List the various methods of lie detection. Standard polygraph Guilty knowledge Thermal camera Microexpressions
  62. 62. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept check: List some of the objections to standard methods of lie detection. Not perfectly reliable or valid People can learn to “fake truthfulness” or “fake good” Guilty knowledge requires police to have much inside knowledge of crime
  63. 63. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Anger and Violence “The struggle to understand violence is among the most important goals facing humanity in general, and psychology in particular.” -- James W. Kalat
  64. 64. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Situations with Violence Frustration and aggression The frustration-aggression hypothesis is the idea long held by psychologists that a failure to obtain a desired or expected goal leads to aggressive behavior. This hypothesis has some limitations in explaining aggressive behavior.
  65. 65. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Situations with Violence Frustration and aggression The experience of anger and potential for aggression depends on an attribution of intention on the part of the person causing the frustration. The fact that frustration leads to anger does not necessitate that the anger will lead to aggression. Frustration appears to play a role only in emotional aggression, not in the more calm aggressive behaviors that people learn as strategies for getting what they want.
  66. 66. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Situations with Violence Frustration and aggression More recently, researchers have proposed that any unpleasant event provokes a fight or flight reaction. Whether aggression results from the event depends on a variety of factors. The likelihood of violence resulting from frustration is particularly high in a sexual context. One of the most common causes of murder is sexual jealousy.
  67. 67. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Situations with Violence After violence: reconciliation Reconciliation after outbursts of anger and aggression are vital in species that live in social groups. After reconciliation, the individuals who fought are less likely to fight again. Conciliatory behaviors have been observed in wolves, monkeys, chimpanzees and humans.
  68. 68. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Characteristics of Violent People For a long time, psychologists assumed that violence was a result of the perpetrator’s low self-esteem. More recent research shows little or no relationship between violence and low self-esteem.
  69. 69. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Characteristics of Violent People In many professional contexts, psychologists are asked to predict who will be violent, and how violent they might be. So what factors are good predictors of violent behavior?
  70. 70. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Characteristics of Violent People One challenge in this effort is the fact that violent acts, even in a person with a history, are sporadic and situation- dependent. The best predictor of future violent behavior, in general, is past violent behavior. A person with a long history of violence, dating back to childhood, is more likely to re-offend than a person who has committed a single or isolated violent act.
  71. 71. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Characteristics of Violent People Some other factors that have been linked to violent tendencies are: Having been physically abused as a child Having witnessed violence between one’s parents Use of alcohol or drugs History of impulsive acts Growing up in a violent neighborhood
  72. 72. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Characteristics of Violent People Lack of remorse after hurting someone Weaker than average level of physiological response to arousal Smaller than average prefrontal cortex Decreased release of serotonin in the prefrontal cortex History of suicide attempts Preference for violent television programming
  73. 73. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Characteristics of Violent People Men are more violent in general than women. Young men (in their late teens and early twenties) are more likely to commit acts of violence. Correlational research suggests a link between a male’s tendency to violence and his mother’s smoking during his prenatal development, but the nature of this relationship has yet to be determined (again, remember the importance of caution in interpreting correlational data).
  74. 74. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: When all the evidence is examined, the best predictor of future violent behavior is… Past violent behavior
  75. 75. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: Name some other factors that have been associated with tendencies towards violent behavior. Childhood abuse and exposure to domestic violence/violent neighborhood Drug and alcohol use History of impulsive behavior History of suicide attempts Various biological factors Diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder
  76. 76. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sexual Violence Violence is most likely to occur between people who know each other well. Married and dating couples usually know each other well. When violence is defined very broadly, women can be just as violent as men, if not more so, according to some studies.
  77. 77. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sexual Violence But when violence is defined narrowly and only serious and injurious attacks are included, then men commit far more of this type of violence, and are far more likely to seriously injure or kill their partners. Men who commit serious acts of this nature are generally those who are prone to criminal and violent behavior towards other people as well.
  78. 78. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sexual Violence Rape Rape is defined as sexual contact obtained through violence, coercion, or threats. In practice, rape is defined on a continuum that ranges from forcible rape to a refusal to respect ambiguous resistance. Verbal coaxing can sometimes result in a woman having unwanted sex. Men are encouraged to disregard women’s refusals as part of a “script” for negotiating sexual relations.
  79. 79. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sexual Violence Rape “Preventing date rape is partly a matter of persuading men to respect a woman’s refusal and partly a matter of advising women to express their refusal emphatically.” --James W. Kalat
  80. 80. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Sexual Violence Rape What kind of men commit rape? The best available evidence suggests that most perpetrators of sexual violence have a history of hostility and aggression towards women and men. Other factors (history of childhood abuse, expression of anger towards women in particular) have a weaker relationship with acts of sexual violence.
  81. 81. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Controlling Violence We like to believe that people are fundamentally good, and that violence and cruelty result from social problems that can be corrected: poverty, injustice, ignorance, and low self-esteem. But social improvements only remove some of the problem. There have been and are violent individuals who have experienced none of these difficulties.
  82. 82. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Controlling Violence Harsh punishments are probably not the answer. Children do need guidance and supervision, and consequences that are quick, certain, and logical. People can be taught at any age to handle frustration more effectively and to learn non-violent ways to negotiate for the things that they want. Anger management training is sometimes used effectively for this purpose. There are a variety of interventions and techniques available for reducing the amount of violence in our society.
  83. 83. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Other Emotions Surprise is usually listed as a basic emotion by most psychologists but little research has been done related to it. Disgust is an emotional reaction that appears to derive from the reaction one would have if one discovered that contaminated matter was in one’s mouth. Contempt is based upon a reaction to violation of community standards. Embarrassment, guilt, shame and pride are related “self- conscious” emotions based on our view of how people regard us and our actions.
  84. 84. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Module 12.3 Stress, Coping and Health
  85. 85. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Health Psychology Health psychology examines how people’s behavior can improve health and prevent illness, and how human behavior influences the course of recovery from illness.
  86. 86. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Health Psychology Stress Selye’s Concept of Stress An enormous variety of experiences can cause stress. The physician Hans Selye defined stress as “the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it.” Selye’s definition emphasizes the role that changes in one’s life play in causing stress, and so it does not fully consider the effects of more chronic problems such as poverty or discrimination.
  87. 87. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Health Psychology Selye’s concept of stress Selye proposed that the body responds to stress in three distinct stages: Alarm – a brief period of high arousal of the sympathetic nervous system, which readies the body for vigorous activity. Resistance – if the stressor goes on for longer than a few minutes, the body enters a phase of prolonged but moderate arousal. Exhaustion – intense and long-lasting stress causes a depletion of proteins in the immune system. The end result is increased vulnerability to illness, fatigue, and weakness.
  88. 88. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: According to Selye’s definition of stress, is going away to college stressful? Yes
  89. 89. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: According to Selye’s definition of stress, would remaining in an unhappy marriage of over 30 years’ duration be stressful? No
  90. 90. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Posttraumatic Stress Disorder A prolonged period of anxiety and depression following the experience of an extremely stressful event is known as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This disorder has been well-documented in war veterans and those who have survived violent crimes and serious accidents. Some people who endure these events do not suffer PTSD, so the causes of this disorder are still not fully understood. People with PTSD suffer from nightmares, emotional outbursts, guilt, and flashbacks that may cause debilitating panic.
  91. 91. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Measuring Stress Life is inherently stressful. How much stress is detrimental to one’s health? In order to answer this question, psychologists need to measure both stress and health. Both of these conditions are difficult to measure. Checklists that have been devised for this purpose have been found to have low reliability and validity.
  92. 92. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Measuring Stress A given event will have different meanings to different people, depending on the circumstances. A lost job is unlikely to be more than a minor annoyance to a 16-year-old fast-food worker who still lives at home. Because of these difficulties in measuring stress according to Selye’s definition, psychologist Arnold Lazarus devised a different perspective on it.
  93. 93. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Measuring Stress According to Lazarus, a stressful situation is one that a person regards as threatening and possibly exceeding his or her resources. Thus, divorce could be a major life stressor for an abandoned spouse with several children, but perhaps an easier (though probably not stress-free) transition for a childless couple in their 20’s who are more or less in agreement about the decision to end the marriage. Lazarus’ view also suggests that people can learn to think differently and deal with events actively instead of feeling threatened by them.
  94. 94. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Figure 12.24 Lazarus stated that evaluation of some kind, conscious or unconscious, always precedes emotion. Thus, a given event can be highly stressful for one person yet only slightly stressful or not at all for someone else.
  95. 95. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Measuring Stress To summarize, in Lazarus’ view the degree of stressfulness of any event depends upon: Our interpretation of the event Our reaction to it The nature of the other events in our lives
  96. 96. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Measuring Stress The most accurate way to measure stress would be through a careful and detailed interview to assess all the possible stressors and positive aspects in an individual’s life. Stress research is difficult to do well, but researchers are able to identify the types of experiences that endanger health.
  97. 97. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: 16-year-old Brenda has broken up with her boyfriend, lost her job as a cashier at Burger Tyrant, and been kicked off the varsity girl’s soccer team. Yet she scores in the mild stress range on the stress checklist that her guidance counselor administered to her yesterday. What are some possible interpretations of these facts?
  98. 98. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Concept Check: Although it is possible the Brenda is showing signs of an emotional problem or drug use (or both), it is also possible that her feelings towards her boyfriend had changed, that she hated her job at restaurant, and that she disliked playing soccer but was doing so to please her parents (for example).
  99. 99. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Psychologists have developed two major categories for classifying how people handle their stress. Monitoring – the style in which people attend carefully to the stressful event and try to take effective action. Blunting – the style adopted by those who try to avoid the stressful event or avoid thinking about it.
  100. 100. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies People tend to prefer one style to the other, but the most effective strategy depends on the nature of the stressor. If you are experiencing stress due to an upcoming psychology test, a monitoring strategy of taking effective action is probably warranted. Form a study group and hit the books! If you are caught in a major traffic tie-up, blunting is probably a better tack, as there is really nothing you can do about your situation. Turn on the radio and chill out.
  101. 101. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Monitoring strategies The importance of predictability and control When we are engaged in an activity voluntarily, we usually know what to expect and how to change what we are doing or quit if necessary. The ability to predict how things will unfold makes the activity or event less stressful.
  102. 102. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Monitoring strategies Nursing home residents and hospital patients who told what to expect and given a chance to state preferences about their care report feeling better while under care and tend to live longer. Rehearsing or visualizing a process can be an effective way to prepare for a demanding or stressful event.
  103. 103. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Monitoring strategies Inoculation is another word for receiving a vaccine. Inoculation places a small amount of weakened or dead germs into a person’s body. The amount of disease bearing material is not enough to make the person sick, but it does produce an immune reaction. In some cases, the protection lasts a lifetime. To inoculate yourself against stress is to expose yourself to small amounts or less serious versions of the event prior to encountering the actual stressor.
  104. 104. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Social support Just talking about an experience with someone you trust can be a great relief. Talking with any sympathetic and supportive person can be useful. It is particularly helpful to talk with others who are having or have had similar problems. Giving support can be even more stress-reducing than receiving it. Many well-known social organizations and self-help groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Compassionate Friends (for parents of children who have been murdered) provide these services for the public.
  105. 105. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Beliefs as coping strategies Sometimes it appears that a simple cognitive re-framing or a version of the “personal fable” may have a protective effect on stress. Seeming rationalizations and distortions such as “looking at the bright side” and playing up one’s strengths while disregarding flaws and weaknesses can be useful in reducing the negative effects of stress. In one study, men with HIV who seemed to be in denial about the seriousness of their problem actually survived longer than those who acknowledged it.
  106. 106. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Blunting strategies Blunting strategies are most useful when the stressor cannot be avoided. Blunting strategies attempt to manage the reaction to the stressor rather than take action in response to it. Relaxation, exercise and distraction are common blunting strategies.
  107. 107. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Blunting strategies Relaxation techniques range from simply finding some quiet time to relax physically and mentally to various organized mediation practices. Although exercise arouses the sympathetic nervous system in the short-term, in the long-term seems to have an inoculating effect on those who engage in it regularly. Distraction is similar to hypnosis in that it can reduce concentration on the unpleasant stimulus by replacing it with a different focus of attention.
  108. 108. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Are Coping Techniques Effective? These strategies work well for many people, but there is a trade-off. It takes energy to find ways to endure and cope with stress - energy that might have been available for other, more pleasurable or rewarding pursuits.
  109. 109. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Are Coping Techniques Effective? These techniques do offer a substantial possibility for people who experience stress to find strength and positive aspects in negative life events, and for other people to be inspired and to learn from these experiences.
  110. 110. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Stress and Psychosomatic Illness A psychosomatic illness is not an imagined or feigned illness. It is an illness that is influenced by someone’s experiences – particularly stressful experiences – or by his or her reactions those experiences. Something about the person’s lifestyle or behavior has influenced the onset or progression of the illness. It is probably true that most illnesses are psychosomatic to some extent. “It’s all in your head!”
  111. 111. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Stress and Psychosomatic Illness It is probably not the case that emotions or stress lead directly to illness. Rather, negative emotion and great stress may influence an individual to engage in risky behavior or self-neglect. “Curses” and “hexes” may also work in this way, by influencing a person’s beliefs and emotional state, leading to deterioration of health.
  112. 112. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Stress and Psychosomatic Illness Heart disease In the 1970’s a physician hypothesized a link between an impatient, success-driven personality and heart disease. Type A personality describes a highly competitive, impatient, hurried person who typically has an angry and hostile temperament. Type B personality designates those who are easygoing, less hurried and less hostile.
  113. 113. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Stress and Psychosomatic Illness Heart disease There does seem to be a link between a hostile disposition and heart disease. But genetics, diet, exercise and other factors have a stronger influence than personality factors or emotional tendencies. Culture also dictates pace of life, diet, and other lifestyle factors that would relate to heart disease.
  114. 114. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Stress and Psychosomatic Illness Cancer Behavior influences the onset and spread of cancer indirectly. Fear or anxiety can prevent people from taking preventative steps such as performing self- examinations. Emotional states and stress may lead to impairment of the immune system so that a greater risk of certain types of cancer will occur. The two states that are most likely to do so are depression and stress.
  115. 115. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Stress and Psychosomatic Illness Cancer Still research suggests that emotional factors are far less important in contributing to cancer than exposure to toxins, genetic factors, and lifestyle factors. Psychological factors play a role in how people behave after they learn of their condition. The more support cancer patients receive, the more positive steps they take on their own behalves; the better their quality of life and chance of recovery will be.
  116. 116. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Healing: The Psychological and The Somatic Psychological factors are just one aspect of health. Healthy diet, regular exercise, avoidance of drugs and alcohol, regular doctor examinations will all improve one’s chances of a long and healthy life. Controlling negative emotions on reducing stress will likely decrease the chance of heart disease.
  117. 117. Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, James W. Kalat Chapter 12: Emotions, Health, and Stress Healing: The Psychological and The Somatic But we cannot overestimate the impact of behavioral and psychological factors, either. One should not feel guilty if one eventually develops heart disease or cancer anyway, because many of the physical causes of these diseases (genes, accidental exposure to toxins) are beyond one’s control.

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