Sin título 1 (copia)


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Trabajo de tecnologia de 3º E.S.O. grupo A.
materiales para la construccion y las fases.

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Sin título 1 (copia)

  1. 1. Index ● History of construction. ● Stone. ● Cement. ● Mortar. ● Concrete. ● Plaster. ● Ceramics. ● Building constuction phases. (1-32)
  2. 2. History of construction ● The history of construction is a complex subject encompassing the history of building materials, the history of engineering, the history of building techniques, economic and social history of builders and workmen, the history of construction machinery and temporary works etc etc.
  3. 3. History of construction Each of these has a complex literature devoted to it, but it perhaps worth providing the briefest of summaries here in the hope that others will start new more detailed pages.
  4. 4. Stone ● Stone is a natural material we extract from quarries. ● Stone walls are a kind of masonry construction which have been made for thousands of years. First they were constructed by farmers and primitive people by piling loose field stones in what is called a dry stone wall, then later with the use of mortar and plaster especially in the construction of city walls, castles, and other fortifications prior to and during the Middle Ages.
  5. 5. Cement ● In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together.
  6. 6. Cement ● Cement is a construction material , a mix of pulverized natural soil with small amount of portland cement and water, usually processed in a tumble, compacted to high density. Hard, semi-rigid durable material is formed by hydration of the cement particles. ● Soil cement is frequently used as a construction material for pipe bedding, slope protection, and road construction as a subbase layer reinforcing and protecting the subgrade. It has good compressive and shear strength, but is brittle and has low tensile strength, so it is prone to forming cracks.
  7. 7. Concrete ● Concrete is a composite construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravels or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures.
  8. 8. Concrete ● Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating a robust stone-like material. Concrete is used to make pavements, pipe, architectural structures, foundations, motorways/roads, bridges/overpasses, parking structures, brick/block walls and footings for gates, fences and poles.
  9. 9. Plaster ● Plaster is a soft solid , that we normally use for aesthetic purposes, to cover brick walls wich have a rough surface ● Plaster comes from gypsum. We extract gypsum from the quarry , and then grind it. When ground gypsum is mixed with water, it becomes a paste and we can spread it on interior walls .
  10. 10. Plaster ● Advantages : ● Gives a smooth surface and has a nice finish. ● It's easy to work with. ● It's a good sound and thermal insulator. ● It's resitant to fire. ● Disadvantages: ● It's weak. ● It absorbs water.
  11. 11. Ceramics ● Itś the oldest artificial material. ● Firstly it was used for pottery, but now we use it in construction, for example, for making bricks to make walls. ● Bricks have the advantadge of beign cheap and durable, and they require very little maintenance.
  12. 12. Ceramics A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous . Because most common ceramics are crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the non- crystalline glasses.
  13. 13. Types of construction ● In general, there are three types of construction: ● 1. Building construction ● 2. Heavy / civil construction ● 3. Industrial construction ● Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct, and maintain the project.
  14. 14. Building construction phases In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.
  15. 15. Building construction phases For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays, and bidding, etc.
  16. 16. Phase 1 ● 1 Choose Your New House Building Site ● When prospecting for a building site to build your new house choose the site with the assistance of a general contractor, real estate agent, architect, or engineer.
  17. 17. Phase 2 ● 2 Have Your Design ● Design your house building plans for your house. ● The architectural team will draw up your home plans to meet state and local regulations.
  18. 18. Phases 3 and 4 ● 3 Review the House Plans ● The architect reviews the home building plans and schedules with the clients. ● ● 4 Obtain Permits ● The architect or home builder applies for the necessary building permits
  19. 19. Phases 5 and 6 ● 5 Land Clearing ● The excavator uses heavy equipment to clear the land of trees, shrubbery, and brush and a driveway access is created to your home building site. ● ● 6 House Layout (trazado) ● A general contractor or engineer layouts out the home location.
  20. 20. Phases 7 and 8 ● 7 Installation of Septic, Well and other Utilities Begins ● Utility installation often begins now although your project coordinator may leave these items toward the end of the home construction. ● ● 8 Excavation ● Excavators and heavy equipment begin the excavation preparing the land for the footings.
  21. 21. Phases 9 (1 and 2) ● 9 House Footings ● The general contractor or the mason contractor pours the footings. In heavy populated areas your footing contractor may be a subcontractor for the foundation wall contractor. ● ● 9 Foundation Walls ● Two common foundation wall types are block foundation and poured concrete foundation walls. Your concrete floor is commonly poured after the forms are stripped for the foundation walls.
  22. 22. Phases 10 and 11 ● 10 Back-fill ● The excavator back-fills after the foundation walls are poured. Some contractors prefer to have the floor joists set prior to this back-fill to tie the walls together. ● ● 11 House Floor Framing ● Carpenters or a framing crew frame the floor joists and apply decking material to the floor joists.
  23. 23. Phases 12 and 13 12 Wall Framing Carpenters or framers build exterior walls. Interior walls are often constructed at this stage although the interior partition walls may also be built after the roof is framed. 13 Roof Framing The carpenter now frames the roof complete with sheathing. The walls may also be sheathed at this point if they were not sheathed during the wall framing stage. Decorative rakes and fascia boards may be added at this stage if adding a little extra style to your home is desired.
  24. 24. Phases 14 and 15 ● 14 Framing Inspection ● Your building inspector inspects all phrases of construction at this point. Be sure to review the inspection schedule with your local building inspector as there may be many additional inspections required prior to this. ● 15 Roofing ● When the home is ready for the roofing, the general contractor or the roofing contractor apply the shingles. Asphalt, fiberglass, cedar, and slate shingles are options with metal shingles and metal panels becoming increasingly popular.
  25. 25. Phase 16 ● 16 Window and Exterior Door Installation ● Carpenters now install your windows and exterior doors. If you choose to go with an exterior (rigid) insulation to increase the R-value of your home this will be installed after the window and exterior door installation.
  26. 26. Phase 17 ● 17 Siding Installation ● The builder or siding contractor now applies the siding for your new home. Popular options include vinyl, aluminum, and cedar siding. When incorporating vinyl and cedar siding adding a decorative shake style siding for the gables is becoming increasingly popular.
  27. 27. Phases 18 and 19 ● 18 HVAC Work ● HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) is now installed. In some areas the HVAC contractor may be the same as the plumbing contractor. ● ● 19 Plumbing Installation ● At this point in the construction process the plumber installs the rough plumbing.
  28. 28. Phases 20 and 21 ● 20 Electrical ● The electrical contractor now installs the rough electrical work including the breaker panel, wiring and boxes. ● ● 21 Insulation ● The insulation contractor or the general contractor insulates the walls. The ceiling is also insulated in vaulted areas if there is no attic access to this area. The ceiling is more commonly insulated after the drywall stage with blown in insulation.
  29. 29. Phase 22 ● 22 Drywall Installation ● A drywall contractor which may be your general contractor now installs your drywall. Drywall is also commonly referred to as Sheetrock or gypsum wall board.
  30. 30. Phase 23 ● 23 Drywall Finishing ● The drywallers tape the joints with drywall compound after the drywall is installed. They then apply up to 2 additional coats of drywall compound over the tape and corner beads.
  31. 31. Phases 24 and 25 ● 24 Painting ● Wall painting may be accomplished at this stage, or be completed after the finish trim installation. ● ● 25 Cabinet and Finish Trim Installation ● The finish carpenter now installs the cabinets and trim boards including the baseboard and window casing. Decorative crown moldings remain popular in kitchen and dining rooms.
  32. 32. Phase 26 ● 26 Flooring Installation ● There are many popular flooring styles to choose from. Having a variety of finished floor styles is very common with the flooring styles including laminate, vinyl, hardwood, and tile flooring.
  33. 33. Phases 27 and 28 ● 27 Finish Plumbing ● The finish plumbing includes setting the sink, bath fixtures, showers, tubs, and toilets. ● 28 Finish Electrical ● The electrician completes the finish electrical work at this time including installing the outlets, switches, and light fixtures.
  34. 34. Phases 29 and 30 ● 29 Finish HVAC ● The cover plates are now installed over the registers and air returns for the HVAC system. If a fireplace is desired in your home your HVAC contractor often installs fireplaces with the quote for the HVAC work. ● 30 Final Concrete Work ● The driveway and final concrete work include the sidewalks, optional concrete front porch, garage floor, and pads for hot tubs.
  35. 35. Phase 31 ● 31 Deck ● Deck construction now takes place by the general contractor. Hot tubs are often incorporated into deck designs. Be sure to discuss the potential placement of a hot tub onto your deck with your contractor as the immense weight requires additional framing stipulations.
  36. 36. Phase 32 ● 32 Landscaping ● The landscapers plant shrubs and trees with the grass or sod for your new lawn to add a finishing touch.