Current scientific research on causes, treatments, and prevention


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A summary of current issues in cancer and how you can get the best and most affective diagnostic, dietary, and treatment options.
If you or someone you know has cancer, then this presentation is essential to get the best results from your treatment.

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Current scientific research on causes, treatments, and prevention

  1. 1. Understanding Cancer: Current Scientific Research on Causes, Treatments, and Prevention
  2. 2. Our mission is to educate you and provide you with the most current research on the prevention and treatment of cancer so that you can make the most informed choice possible and ensure that you are doing all you can to have a life that is cancer free.
  3. 3. This presentation will cover key aspects of cancer development and treatment based on current scientific knowledge.
  4. 4. <ul><li>It is our gift to you because we know that the more education and understanding you have, the better able you will be to make sure you are receiving the most effective treatment possible. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Little About Us <ul><li>CTOAM provides personalized research and support for all aspects of cancer treatment. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Little About Us <ul><li>We explore the underlying genetics involved in your cancer and incorporate cutting edge, scientifically proven, treatment options with a personalized, genetically based, nutritional approach. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Little About Us <ul><li>The combination of personalized research, cutting edge proven treatments, and nutraceutical treatment provides our patients with the greatest chance for complete recovery. </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Little About Us <ul><li>This presentation will help you to understand why personalized cancer research and nutraceuticals are fundamental to your treatment, recovery, and longevity, and how you can most simply and effectively implement this information. </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Little About Us <ul><li>At CTOAM we use only the most current, peer reviewed scientific data to conduct personalized cancer research for you. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that you can trust that the material in this presentation and in our Personalized Options Reports is based on solid science (with references supplied). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Feel Free to Share <ul><li>We know you’ll learn a lot from this presentation and we welcome hearing your questions and thoughts. Please feel free to share it with your friends, family, support groups and medical support team. </li></ul><ul><li>Alex Rolland, CEO </li></ul>
  11. 11. In This Presentation We’ll Cover: <ul><li>How cancer develops and the role of genes and stem cells in its development. </li></ul><ul><li>Current treatments, their effectiveness and limitations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. In This Presentation We’ll Cover: <ul><li>Diagnostic and imaging options that have been proven to enhance treatment effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits and misconceptions of clinical trials. </li></ul>
  13. 13. In This Presentation We’ll Cover: <ul><li>The importance of using nutraceuticals as part of your cancer treatment and prevention protocol. </li></ul>
  14. 14. This presentation consists of two key sections: <ul><li>1. Cancer 101 (Understanding current issues in cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ensuring That You Are Making Informed Choices </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cancer 101 <ul><li>It is now widely accepted that all cancers </li></ul><ul><li>are caused by adult stem cells (or cells with </li></ul><ul><li>stem-cell like properties). </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is an adult stem cell? <ul><li>Adult stem cells occur in roughly 1 out of 6 million body cells. </li></ul><ul><li>These cells are used to repair and replace body cells. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cancer 101 <ul><li>Adult stem cells are different from </li></ul><ul><li>embryonic stem cells in a few ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Adult stem cells are contained in regions referred to as stem cell niches, where they remain in a dormant state (quiescence) until activated. </li></ul><ul><li>Each type of tissue contains it’s own stem cell niche. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cancer 101 <ul><li>Adult stem cells are different from </li></ul><ul><li>embryonic stem cells in a few ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells are restricted to producing cells of a specific tissue type. </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is an adult stem cell? <ul><li>All stem cells have unique features that allow them to avoid destruction during treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is their ability to exist in a dormant state (quiescence) until activated, that is currently inhibiting standard treatments. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The 2 stages of stem cell activation <ul><li>There are two key stages of stem cell </li></ul><ul><li>activation: </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation & </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The 2 stages of stem cell activation <ul><li>In The Proliferation Stage: </li></ul><ul><li>The stem cell makes multiple copies of itself. </li></ul><ul><li>In The Differentiation Stage: </li></ul><ul><li>The multiple copies are converted into the </li></ul><ul><li>required cell type and given a Hayflick </li></ul><ul><li>number. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The 2 stages of stem cell activation <ul><li>The Hayflick number is the number of times a normal cell will divide before it stops and dies. </li></ul><ul><li>The important point here is that once a cell has differentiated, it has a finite lifespan . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Stem cell life cycle Progenitor cell ( proliferation ) Mature cell ( differentiation ) Stem cell ( dormant ) Self renewal (Activation)
  24. 24. Stem cell life cycle <ul><li>There are two imports points here: </li></ul><ul><li>A stem cell makes an exact copy of itself, which remains dormant in the stem cell niche. </li></ul><ul><li>A stem cell also produces a large amount of progenitor cells, which then differentiate into the required type of cells. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stem cells and cancer <ul><li>The problem with stem cells is that sometimes, due to mutations, a stem cell is not provided with the cues for differentiation and it gets stuck in a never ending cycle of proliferation , making many copies of itself. </li></ul><ul><li>This is what we call cancer. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Genes and cancer <ul><li>Knowing what genes are involved in your cancer is fundamental to effective treatment because it is your genes that directly control the proliferation and differentiation of your stem cells. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Genes and cancer <ul><li>Mutations in the genes that control stem cell activation, proliferation and differentiation are responsible for your cancer. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Genes and cancer <ul><li>There are two key types of genes involved </li></ul><ul><li>in cancer: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Oncogenes. </li></ul><ul><li> & </li></ul><ul><li>2. Tumor suppressors. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Genes and cancer <ul><li>Oncogenes (tumor causing genes): </li></ul><ul><li>Cause proliferation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are turned on (expressed) or over-expressed in cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are mutated in such a way that causes them to stay on. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Genes and cancer <ul><li>Tumor suppressors (cancer preventing genes): </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Are inhibited or under-expressed in cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>There are common mutations and deletions of tumor suppressors that occur in specific forms of cancer. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Genes and cancer <ul><li>The following image shows the healthy development of a stem cell into a mature, differentiated cell that has a finite life span. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the way things are supposed to go. (Notice the location of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes – in red). </li></ul>
  32. 32. Normal stem cell life cycle Progenitor cell ( proliferation ) Mature cell ( differentiation ) Stem cell ( dormant ) Self renewal (Activation) (Oncogenes) (Tumor supressor genes)
  33. 33. Stem cells and cancer <ul><li>Recall that when a stem cell is not provided with the cues for d ifferentiation, it gets stuck in a never ending cycle of proliferation , making many copies of itself and causing cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The following slide shows what happens when this is the case. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Cancer stem cell life cycle (Oncogenes) (Tumor suppressor genes) Self renewal (Activation) Stem cell ( dormant) Progenitor cell ( proliferation ) Mature cell ( differentiation ) Tumor cells
  35. 35. Stem cells and cancer <ul><li>You will notice in the previous image, that the tumor suppressor genes (which we need to prevent oncogenes from flourishing) are either non-existent or diminished or mutated to the point of ineffectiveness, thus giving the oncogenes free reign to trigger stem cells to proliferate and cause cancer. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Why is this important? <ul><li>There are hundreds of documented oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in your body. </li></ul><ul><li>Only four of these genes need to be altered or mutated for cancer to develop. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Why is this important? <ul><li>Therefore, there are many 1000’s of possible combinations of gene alterations that can lead to cancer in each individual case. It is not the same for every person. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why success rates for treatment can vary so greatly from one person to another. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Why is this important? <ul><li>It is also why a one size fits all approach to cancer treatment does not work. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to be engaged in a comprehensive treatment program that is going to attend to the specific genes and mutations involved in the development of your cancer so that you resolve the underlying cause of your cancer and not just treat the symptoms of tumors and proliferating cancer cells. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Why is this important? <ul><li>Standard medical treatments typically attempt to remove tumors or reduce the number of cancer cells in your body but are often unable to eradicate cancers at the level of oncogenes. </li></ul><ul><li>Nor are they able to enhance or repair the function of your tumor suppressor genes. This is why so many cancers return. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Why is this important? <ul><li>Ensuring that you are engaging in treatments that, as much as possible, target the genes specific to the development of your cancer, is key to reducing the side effects of treatment and enhancing life expectancy and cure rates. </li></ul><ul><li>This is our mission and area of expertise. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Development of cancer <ul><li>Now let’s explore how cancer develops once the unregulated proliferation of stem cells has begun. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Development of cancer <ul><li>It is widely assumed that the originator stem cells that produce the bulk of a tumor are also responsible for metastasis. </li></ul><ul><li>When a cancer cell is stuck in proliferation and hasn’t differentiated, it can live almost anywhere in the body (metastasize). </li></ul>
  43. 43. Metastasis <ul><li>But, how is it that cancer cells travel </li></ul><ul><li>throughout the body? </li></ul><ul><li>One way is through the blood vessels. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Angiogenesis and metastasis <ul><li>Cancer cells are constantly growing and therefore, need to consume a lot of resources. In other words, they require their own blood supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Angiogenesis is a process that cancers use to recruit their own blood vessels in order to enable their continued growth. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Angiogenesis and metastasis <ul><li>The process of angiogenesis is controlled by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Oncogenes are responsible for the development of angiogenesis while tumor suppressor genes inhibit it. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Summary <ul><li>Let’s review what we’ve covered so far about the development of cancer and then move on to an exploration of standard and enhanced treatment options. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Summary <ul><li>Stem cells remain dormant until activated. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer is a disease of the stem cells caused by reduced differentiation and increased proliferation. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Summary <ul><li>Proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis are all controlled by genes. </li></ul><ul><li>The recruitment of blood vessels (angiogenesis) allows the tumor to grow and to metastasize. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Standard treatment methods <ul><li>Now let’s explore standard treatments to cancer, their pros and cons, and how you can enhance standard treatment and explore scientifically based adjunct therapies to increase your survival potential, reduce the likelihood of relapse and decrease any treatment side effects. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The standardized approach to cancer treatment </li></ul><ul><li>utilizes the following three techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery: Removes diseased tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Radiation: Creates DNA mutations in rapidly dividing cells. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chemotherapy: Chemical interference of rapidly dividing cells. </li></ul> Standard treatment methods
  51. 51. Limitations of surgery <ul><li>Surgery is localized: </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to treatment of localized disease. </li></ul><ul><li>This means there is the great potential to miss stem cells, cells that are in pre-cancerous stages, or cells that have already metastasized. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Limitations of radiation <ul><li>Radiation is localized: </li></ul><ul><li>Since it is non-selective and affects all rapidly dividing cells, radiation is very toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation only affects active cells during course of treatment (not dormant cancer causing stem cells). </li></ul>
  53. 53. Limitations of radiation <ul><li>Radiation is localized: </li></ul><ul><li>Angiogenesis (cancer cell recruitment of blood vessels) occurs directly after treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation can create new DNA mutations that may lead to new cancers. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Limitations of chemotherapy <ul><li>Chemotherapy (generalized): </li></ul><ul><li>Since it is non-selective and affects all rapidly dividing cells, it is very toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy only affects active cells during course of treatment (not dormant cancer causing stem cells). </li></ul>
  55. 55. Limitations of chemotherapy <ul><li>Chemotherapy (generalized): </li></ul><ul><li>Angiogenesis occurs directly after treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy can create new DNA mutations that may lead to new cancers. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Radiation and chemotherapy <ul><li>The main difference between radiation and chemotherapy is that radiation is used locally and limited to specific regions of the body, while chemotherapy affects all of the cells in the body. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Additional concerns: Surgery & Radiation <ul><li>In order for surgery and radiation to be effective, the following concerns need to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors need to target the stem cell niche as well as the malignant tissue (tumor). </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors need to ensure they have accurate imaging prior to surgery and treatment to differentiate between normal and tumor tissues. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>In the following sections, we will indicate how these concerns can be addressed using specific types of cancer to illustrate these concepts. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Making informed choices: Surgery <ul><li>Example 1: Ovarian cancer </li></ul><ul><li>The stem cell niche is located in the fallopian tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of both fallopian tubes and ovaries leads to a 50% reduction in mortality due to ovarian cancer. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Making informed choices: Surgery <ul><li>However, despite the significant increase in survival rates with this procedure, a significant amount of surgeries for ovarian cancer remove only one ovary (and sometimes none) due to misconceptions and reasons of surgical convenience. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to avoid this outcome, patients actually need to request the full procedure. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Making informed choices: Radiation <ul><li>Example 2: Glioblastoma multiform </li></ul><ul><li>Glioblastoma multiform is a deadly type of brain cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Even with standard radiation/chemotherapy, most patients relapse after 6 -7 months. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Making informed choices: Radiation <ul><li>Example 2: Glioblastoma multiform </li></ul><ul><li>However, recent clinical trials have shown significant improvements when the radiation is targeted to the stem cell (bilateral subventricular zone). </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with advanced disease remained tumor free for an average of 15.0 months versus 7.2 months for standard treatment . </li></ul>
  63. 63. Making informed choices: Radiation <ul><li>In order to utilize radiation therapy effectively, the maximum dosage needs to be applied to tumor tissue while minimizing doses received to normal surrounding tissue. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Making informed choices: Radiation <ul><li>Example 3: Brachytherapy for prostate and breast cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion of radioactive pins near tumor site. </li></ul><ul><li>The low dosage of this treatment minimalizes damage to normal tissue and typically decreases the experience of harmful side effects. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Making informed choices: Radiation <ul><li>Example 3: Brachytherapy for prostate and breast cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Due to low dose, further external beam treatment can still be done at a later date if necessary. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Making informed choices: Radiation <ul><li>Example 3: Brachytherapy for prostate and breast cancer </li></ul><ul><li>However, since brachytherapy is a form of surgery, it requires a surgeon as well as a radiation oncologist (costly) and, while available, is therefore, not typically encouraged by doctors. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Making informed choices: Imaging <ul><li>PET/CT </li></ul><ul><li>Combines CT imaging with positron emission tomography. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows biological activity within organs and detects cancer in the earliest stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a cancer-specific glucose solution and a radioactive tracer agent that shows lights up cancerous hot spots. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Imaging: PET-CT According to the BC Cancer Agency; In 87 % of cases in which a patient has had a PET-CT scan, the results of the test lead to changes in the initial decisions made by oncologists for planned cancer treatment. Making informed choices: Imaging
  69. 69. Imaging: PET-CT In other words, without a PET-CT scan, current detection methods are only accurate 13% of the time! PET-CT not only ensures proper targeting of the tumor during surgery and radiation treatments, it helps avoid over-treatment or under-treatment. Making informed choices: Imaging
  70. 70. Imaging: PET-CT We believe a PET-CT should be conducted before any surgery, radiation or chemotherapy is initiated. You can initiate this process for yourself and ensure your surgeon has this data before or during your treatment protocol. Making informed choices: Imaging
  71. 71. Imaging: PET-CT The following images illustrate the importance of PET-CT in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The next slide is an example of a standard CT scan with the tumors highlighted in red. Making informed choices: Imaging
  72. 72. <ul><li>Imaging: Normal CT scan </li></ul>
  73. 73. Imaging: CT While the CT scan shows changes in growth of a particular mass when scans are done over time, it does not indicate whether these growths are cancerous or not. The next slide of a PET/CT image graphically illustrates the difference in these two techniques. Making informed choices: Imaging
  74. 74. <ul><li>Imaging: PET/CT </li></ul>
  75. 75. Imaging: PET-CT As you can see, the tumors light up and are easily distinguished from non-cancerous growths. This makes it far more likely that all tumors will be targeted properly in surgery and treatment. Making informed choices: Imaging
  76. 76. Additional concerns: Chemotherapy <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>In order for chemotherapy to be effective, we need to accurately determine the dosage and combination of drugs that provides maximal benefits with minimal side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>This combination will vary from patient to patient depending on the genes involved in your cancer. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Additional concerns: Chemotherapy <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>There are many hundreds of chemotherapy drugs to attend to the great variations in tumor causing gene combinations, and yet, our medical system typically offers the same 2 or 3 chemotherapy drugs for everyone. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Additional concerns: Chemotherapy <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>This means that patients may receive treatment that doesn’t impact (or has limited impact on) their tumor growth and which leads to severe side-effects (typically a symptom of a patient being administered an ineffective/minimally effective form of chemotherapy for their genetic predisposition). </li></ul>
  79. 79. Additional concerns: Chemotherapy <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear that doing all you can to ensure that you are taking the right mix of chemotherapy drugs for your unique cancer is fundamental to effective treatment, limiting side-effects, and a rapid and longstanding recovery. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Additional concerns: Chemotherapy <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>It is also fundamental, as discussed, that in our treatment of cancer we also the target stem cell niche as well as malignant tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>This is an important concern as standard chemotherapy drugs do not affect doemant stem cells. </li></ul>
  81. 81. Making informed choices: Diagnostics <ul><li>Chemotherapy Sensitivity Tests: </li></ul><ul><li>In this test (not typically provided by the medical system) cell sensitivity tests are performed on a patients tumor samples and can identify personalized dose and drug combinations (optimized chemotherapy). </li></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>Chemotherapy Sensitivity Tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized chemotherapy combinations allow for lower doses, less side effects, and faster recovery times. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests such as these Chemotherapy sensitivity tests can ensure that you get the right combination in the right dose for you. </li></ul> Making informed choices: Diagnostics
  83. 83. Imaging and Optimized Chemotherapy: CTOAM can coordinate your tests for optimized chemotherapy and PET-CT on your behalf. Or, if you prefer, we can also consult with you and educate you on how to arrange these tests for yourself prior to, or during your standard treatment. Making informed choices: Diagnostics
  84. 84. Clinical trials: <ul><li>Clinical trials represent leading-edge medical science. However, less than 5% of adults diagnosed with cancer each year are enrolled in clinical trails. </li></ul><ul><li>While there are a number of various treatment approaches being offered through clinical trials, 8 out of 10 patients are not aware that this is a viable option for them. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Clinical trials <ul><li>In fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical trials represent leading-edge medical science. </li></ul><ul><li>Most clinical trials are based on a rational design (they are based on a defined genetic mechanism) and selectively target a genetic signature unique to a particular form of cancer. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Benefits of clinical trials <ul><li>In order to be offered to the human population, each clinical trial must show that the approach being tested is superior to standard treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients are also provided with superior imaging and diagnostics not typically offered in public medical facilities. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Benefits of clinical trials <ul><li>Patients can participate in multi-centre clinical trials offered in over 174 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation can be done through hospitals, outpatient clinics, or locally through your primary physician. </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>They do not replace standard treatment, they are a form of adjunct therapy, and as such are offered as an additional treatment to standard treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>In clinical trials the standard treatment is typically used in place of the placebo (control group). </li></ul>Benefits of clinical trials
  89. 89. <ul><li>Clinical Trials Are Free. </li></ul><ul><li>But best of all, their success depends </li></ul><ul><li>on your survival! </li></ul>Benefits of clinical trials
  90. 90. <ul><li>Because research shows that the genes involved in each cancer can vary greatly from person to person, at CTOAM we believe that involving yourself in treatments and clinical trials that directly target the genes triggering your cancer is fundamental to ensuring effective and complete treatment. </li></ul>Benefits of clinical trials
  91. 91. <ul><li>Upon your request CTOAM can conduct personalized research to identify the genes most likely involved in the development of your cancer and supply you with a list of clinical trials, world wide, that are targeting those genes specifically. </li></ul><ul><li>We will also arrange for your participation should you choose to explore that treatment option. </li></ul>Benefits of clinical trials
  92. 92. Nutraceuticals <ul><li>In this next section, we will show you how you can use nutraceuticals to reduce the ability of your cancer to develop by inhibiting the key genes it is dependent on for its proliferation. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Nutraceuticals <ul><li>A nutraceutical is a naturally occurring component of a food group that has scientifically proven cancer fighting activity. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Nutraceuticals <ul><li>Nutraceuticals can be used to regulate cancer-specific pathways and genes during and between treatment regimes. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Nutraceuticals <ul><li>This means, that unlike standard treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy alone, the cancer does not have the same freedom to proliferate between treatment regimes because you are dosing yourself with non-toxic nutraceuticals on a daily basis to prevent tumor growth and enhance tumor supressor gene function. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Nutraceuticals <ul><li>Nutraceuticals have the ability to continually regulate cancer causing stem cells, unlike toxic drug based approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutraceuticals can also enhance cancer cell sensitivity to standard chemotherapy and radiation therapy which improves treatment outcomes. </li></ul>
  97. 97. Nutraceuticals <ul><li>Nutraceuticals are inexpensive and non-toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutraceutical combinations can be used to create a personalized diet based on the unique genetic signature of your cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>You can start today to enhance the cancer fighting ability of your body. </li></ul>
  98. 98. Using Nutraceuticals <ul><li>The following section is an example of how you can use nutraceuticals to target a specific gene involved in a variety of cancers. </li></ul>
  99. 99. Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: PTEN <ul><li>PTEN is a tumour suppressor gene that normally initiates stem cell differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>PTEN is down-regulated (diminished) or mutated in a variety of cancers. </li></ul>
  100. 100. Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: PTEN <ul><li>Subtle variations in PTEN levels have been proven to determine cancer susceptibility. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, the amount of PTEN in your body can determine your susceptibility to certain cancers. </li></ul>
  101. 101. Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: PTEN <ul><li>Even a slight decrease in PTEN can result in a significantly elevated cancer risk (illustrated on the next page). </li></ul>
  102. 102. 100% - 75% - 50% - 25% - 0% - PTEN Level - This level found in 40% of Breast cancers - This level found in 57% of Breast cancers - This level found in 75% of Breast cancers Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: PTEN Normal PTEN LEVEL CANCER RISK
  103. 103. <ul><li>You can see, from this chart, that a small decrease in PTEN levels can create a greater chance of the development to cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The good news is, that even a small increase in PTEN levels can reduce your susceptibility to certain cancers! </li></ul> Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: PTEN
  104. 104. <ul><li>There are a variety of easily accessible Nutraceuticals that can reactivate PTEN: </li></ul><ul><li>Sulforaphane (broccoli). </li></ul><ul><li>Genestein (soy). </li></ul><ul><li>Resveratrol (red wine). </li></ul><ul><li>EGCG (green tea). </li></ul><ul><li>Curcumin (tumeric). </li></ul> Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: PTEN
  105. 105. <ul><li>However, clinical trials using single </li></ul><ul><li>nutraceuticals have resulted in mixed </li></ul><ul><li>results. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul> Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: PTEN
  106. 106. <ul><li>One of the largest hurdles in the therapeutic use of nutraceuticals is due to their low bioavailability. </li></ul><ul><li>The bioavailability of a nutraceutical refers to its ability to remain in the body at a concentration that has cancer fighting activity. </li></ul> Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: Concerns
  107. 107. <ul><li>For the vast majority of nutraceuticals, this is not possible through oral administration. </li></ul><ul><li>However, recent scientific advancements have revealed synergistic combinations that allow us to achieve cancer fighting amounts through oral administration. </li></ul> Nutraceutical Based Gene Targeting: Concerns
  108. 108. Bioavailability: Absorbance Curcumin (tumeric) is not easily absorbed by the body However, nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin has greatly increased bioavailability. This formulation was shown to inhibit cancer growth and targeted the stem cell fraction of malignant brain tumors.
  109. 109. Bioavailability: Absorbance A component of pepper named piperine greatly increases the oral bioavailability of curcumin. Piperine increases the absorbance of curcumin by 2000 %. This is clearly a substantial difference in the effectiveness of a key nutraceutical.
  110. 110. Nutraceuticals: Issues <ul><li>At CTOAM, we believe everyone should know about the value of nutraceuticals in fighting cancer and preventing it, but there are currently two main barriers to this being the case: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The scientific research on these substances has not yet made its way to the mainstream medical system or into the hands of alternative practitioners and dieticians. </li></ul>
  111. 111. Nutraceuticals: Issues <ul><li>2. Since nutraceuticals are naturally occurring and can’t be patented, their incredible potential as therapeutic agents has not yet been fully realized because, simply put, there is not much money to be made by pharmaceutical, or medical treatment companies, in encouraging you to eat more broccoli or take some curcumin capsules with pepper. </li></ul>
  112. 112. Nutraceuticals: Issues <ul><li>The low bioavailability of some nutraceuticals and the lack of understanding of some researchers about the ability of certain substances, such as piperine, to enhance bioavailability has further confounded the results of some clinical trials, leading to great misunderstandings about the powerful anti-cancer benefits of nutraceuticals. </li></ul>
  113. 113. Nutraceutical: Issues <ul><li>Some obvious factors that are affecting the outcome of nutraceutical clinical trials: </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in the amount of the nutraceutical used in the different clinical trials. </li></ul><ul><li>The strain and type of plant that the nutraceutical is obtained from is not consistent thus the results will naturally vary. </li></ul>
  114. 114. Nutraceutical: Issues <ul><li>Some obvious factors that are affecting the outcome of nutraceutical clinical trials: </li></ul><ul><li>The diet of the patient is not often being observed for any naturally occuring substances that would enhance or detract from the bioavailability of the substance being tested. </li></ul>
  115. 115. Nutraceutical: Issues <ul><li>As an example of the importance of consistency of potency in nutraceutical studies, the following figure shows the different amounts of a cancer fighting nutraceutical (EGCG), found in various strains of green teas. </li></ul>
  116. 116. EGCG of Various Green Teas EGCG CONTENT (%) TYPE OF GREEN TEA 6% - 5% - 4% - 3% - 2% - 1% - Sencha Uchiyama Gyokuro #1 Sencha #1 Sencha #2, Gyokuro #2 Pilo Chun Emperor, Gyokuro #3, Gyokuro #4 Matcha Yunnan, Yuzan, Paimutan Dong Ding Meng Ding, Lung Chin Pou Chong, Tikuan Yin
  117. 117. Nutraceuticals: Issues <ul><li>You will recall that EGCG has a positive influence on the cancer fighting gene, PTEN. </li></ul><ul><li>It is therefore, significant to note that drinking 6 cups of Sencha-Uchiyama results in an equivalent amount of EGCG as drinking 69 cups of Pou Chong or Tikuan Yin green tea! </li></ul>
  118. 118. Nutraceuticals: Summary <ul><li>Clearly, effective cancer treatment must include the proper nutraceuticals in the right amount and combination for your body. </li></ul><ul><li>You can directly, immediately and inexpensively target oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and enhance the effectiveness of your treatment when you use nutraceuticals. </li></ul>
  119. 119. Nutraceuticals: How we can help. <ul><li>CTOAM will provide you with personalized research that ensures you are eating the right amounts and combinations of nutraceuticals to effectively target the genes involved in your cancer. </li></ul>
  120. 120. What We’ve Learned <ul><li>In this presentation we have explored how cancer develops and the role of genes and stem cells in its development. </li></ul><ul><li>We have also explored current treatments, their effectiveness and limitations. </li></ul>
  121. 121. What We’ve Learned <ul><li>We have reviewed diagnostic and imaging options that have been proven to enhance treatment effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>We have reviewed the benefits and misconceptions of clinical trials. </li></ul>
  122. 122. What We’ve Learned <ul><li>We have also explored the incredible value of using nutraceuticals as part of your standard cancer treatment and prevention protocol. </li></ul>
  123. 123. How we can help you <ul><li>CTOAM exists to ensure you have all the information and support you need to understand the causes of your unique cancer and to access and any and all scientifically supported diagnostic and treatment options that have already been shown to maximize the potential for complete recovery. </li></ul>
  124. 124. How we can help you <ul><li>We will also work with your doctor to ensure that they have the information they need (with scientific, peer reviewed references attached) to proceed with the best form of chemotherapy and with any clinical trials that would be most advantageous for the successful treatment of the underlying cause of your cancer. </li></ul>
  125. 125. How we can help you <ul><li>Based on personalized genetic research, we will also prepare a special nutraceutical- based diet specifically for you that will target tumor suppressor genes to enhance their functionality while also enhancing the effectiveness of any chemotherapy and radiation treatment you engage in. </li></ul>
  126. 126. How we can help you <ul><li>The Personalized options plan (POP): </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular of CTOAM’s personalized research services is our POP, Personalized Options Plan. </li></ul>
  127. 127. How we can help you <ul><li>The Personalized options plan (POP): </li></ul><ul><li>A POP is your personalized cancer research document that identifies the underlying causes of your cancer and then shows you how to target those genes in every aspect of your treatment and diet. </li></ul>
  128. 128. How we can help you <ul><li>Personalized options plan (POP): </li></ul><ul><li>In your POP we use only peer-reviewed clinical data pertaining to enhanced standard treatments, new approaches to treatment, clinical trials, and nutraceuticals, specific to your form of cancer and your unique genetic and environmental contributors. </li></ul>
  129. 129. How we can help you <ul><li>Personalized options plan (POP): </li></ul><ul><li>Each POP also includes 4 hours of direct consultation with one of our personal research scientists to ensure that you have the support and understanding that you need to feel confident exploring the treatments and nutraceuticals that we identified as the most beneficial for you. </li></ul>
  130. 130. How we can help you <ul><li>When you hire CTOAM , you are hiring your own personal team of experienced cancer researchers to advocate for you and assist you in your treatment and recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>We will ensure you are maximizing the potential in every aspect of your treatment. </li></ul>
  131. 131. How we can help you <ul><li>Consulting: </li></ul><ul><li>We provide personalized treatment consultations and can review your medical records to ensure that you and your healthcare team are aware of any recent advancements in diagnosis, treatment, and nutraceuticals relevant to your specific form of cancer. </li></ul>
  132. 132. How we can help you <ul><li>Presentations and Seminars: </li></ul><ul><li>Our goal is to educate and inform cancer patients about advances and options in cancer treatment and management. </li></ul><ul><li>We provide a variety of presentations and seminars that are tailored to address the specific needs and knowledge level of your group or organization. </li></ul>
  133. 133. How we can help you <ul><li>Presentations and Seminars: </li></ul><ul><li>We can provide presentations on the </li></ul><ul><li>following topics: </li></ul><ul><li>Advancements in treatments for a specific form of cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>How to create a gene-based nutraceutical diet. </li></ul><ul><li>How to access and participate in clinical trials. </li></ul>
  134. 134. How we can help you <ul><li>Presentations and Seminars: </li></ul><ul><li>Our presentations can be tailored to meet the </li></ul><ul><li>needs of: </li></ul><ul><li>Medical facilities and doctors. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer support groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Community centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Health shows and events. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational facilities. </li></ul>
  135. 135. Thank you <ul><li>We hope you’ve learned a lot from this presentation and we welcome your questions and suggestions. </li></ul><ul><li>Please share this presentation with anyone you know who may have received a cancer diagnosis. There is so much that can be done to enhance standard treatment. </li></ul>
  136. 136. Thank you <ul><li>For more information on any of our services and how we can help you, please visit our website or contact us to arrange a free question and answer session with one of our patient support staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: (778) 999-5463 Fax: (866) 264-1619 </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: </li></ul>