SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 35
Dr.S.Alexandar,M.Pharm,Ph.D,Dr.S.Alexandar,M.Pharm,Ph.D,
Associate ProfessorAssociate Professor
Vinayaka Missions College of Pharmacy,Vinayaka Missions College of Pharmacy,
Yercaud main road,Yercaud main road,
Kondappanaickanpatty,Kondappanaickanpatty,
Salem, Tamilnadu,Salem, Tamilnadu,
Pin:636008Pin:636008
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Definition:Definition: the term “alkaloid” (alkali-like) isthe term “alkaloid” (alkali-like) is
commonly used to designate basiccommonly used to designate basic
heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds of plantheterocyclic nitrogenous compounds of plant
origin that are physiologically activeorigin that are physiologically active..
Distribution and occurrence:Distribution and occurrence:
 Rare in lower plants.Rare in lower plants.
 Dicots are more rich in alkaloids thanDicots are more rich in alkaloids than
Monocots.Monocots.
 Families rich in Alkaloids: Apocynaceae,Families rich in Alkaloids: Apocynaceae,
Rubiaceae, Solanaceae andRubiaceae, Solanaceae and
Papaveracea.Papaveracea.
 Families free from Alkaloids: Rosaceae,Families free from Alkaloids: Rosaceae,
LabiataeLabiatae
Distribution in Plant:Distribution in Plant:
 All Parts e.g. Datura.All Parts e.g. Datura.
 Barks e.g. CinchonaBarks e.g. Cinchona
 Seeds e.g. Nux vomicaSeeds e.g. Nux vomica
 Roots e.g. AconiteRoots e.g. Aconite
 Fruits e.g. Black pepperFruits e.g. Black pepper
 Leaves e.g. TobaccoLeaves e.g. Tobacco
 Latex e.g. OpiumLatex e.g. Opium
Forms of Alkaloids:Forms of Alkaloids:
 Free basesFree bases
 Salts with Organic acids e.g.Salts with Organic acids e.g. Oxalic,Oxalic,
acetic acidsacetic acids
 Salts with inorganic acids e.g.Salts with inorganic acids e.g. HCl, HHCl, H22SOSO44..
 Salts with special acids:Salts with special acids:
e.g.e.g. Meconic acidMeconic acid in Opiumin Opium
Quinic acidQuinic acid inin CinchonaCinchona
 Glycosidal form e.g. Solanine inGlycosidal form e.g. Solanine in SolanumSolanum..
Function in PlantsFunction in Plants
 They may act asThey may act as protectiveprotective against insectsagainst insects
and herbivores due to their bitterness andand herbivores due to their bitterness and
toxicity.toxicity.
 Source of nitrogenSource of nitrogen in case of nitrogenin case of nitrogen
deficiency.deficiency.
 They, sometimes, act asThey, sometimes, act as growth regulatorsgrowth regulators inin
certain metabolic systems.certain metabolic systems.
 They may be utilized as aThey may be utilized as a source of energysource of energy inin
case of deficiency in carbon dioxidecase of deficiency in carbon dioxide
assimilation.assimilation.
Nomenclature:Nomenclature:
Trivial namesTrivial names should end byshould end by "ine""ine". These names. These names
may refer to:may refer to:
 TheThe genusgenus of the plant, such as Atropine fromof the plant, such as Atropine from
Atropa belladonaAtropa belladona..
 The plantThe plant speciesspecies, such as Cocaine from, such as Cocaine from
Erythroxylon cocaErythroxylon coca..
 TheThe common namecommon name of the drug, such asof the drug, such as
Ergotamine from ergot.Ergotamine from ergot.
 The name of theThe name of the discovererdiscoverer, such as Pelletierine, such as Pelletierine
that was discovered by Pelletier.that was discovered by Pelletier.
 TheThe physiological actionphysiological action, such as Emetine that, such as Emetine that
acts as emetic, Morphine means God of dreamsacts as emetic, Morphine means God of dreams
acts as narcotic.acts as narcotic.
 A prominentA prominent physical characterphysical character, such as Hygrine, such as Hygrine
that is hygroscopic.that is hygroscopic.
Prefixes and suffixes:Prefixes and suffixes:
Prefixes:Prefixes:
 "Nor-""Nor-" designates N-demethylation or N-demethoxylation,designates N-demethylation or N-demethoxylation,
e.g. norpseudoephedrine and nornicotine.e.g. norpseudoephedrine and nornicotine.
 "Apo-""Apo-" designates dehydration e.g. apomorphine.designates dehydration e.g. apomorphine.
 "Iso-, pseudo-, neo-,"Iso-, pseudo-, neo-, andand epi-"epi-" indicate different types ofindicate different types of
isomers.isomers.
Suffixes:Suffixes:
 "-dine""-dine" designates isomerism as quinidine anddesignates isomerism as quinidine and
cinchonidine.cinchonidine.
 "-ine""-ine" indicates, in case of ergot alkaloids, a lowerindicates, in case of ergot alkaloids, a lower
pharmacological activity e.g. ergotaminine is less potentpharmacological activity e.g. ergotaminine is less potent
than ergotamine.than ergotamine.
Physical Properties:Physical Properties:
I- Condition:I- Condition:
 MostMost alkaloids are crystallinealkaloids are crystalline solidssolids..
 Few alkaloids are amorphous solids e.g. emetine.Few alkaloids are amorphous solids e.g. emetine.
 SomeSome areare liquidsliquids that are either:that are either:
VolatileVolatile e.g. nicotine and coniine, ore.g. nicotine and coniine, or
Non-volatileNon-volatile e.g. pilocarpine ande.g. pilocarpine and
hyoscine.hyoscine.
II- Color:II- Color:
TheThe majoritymajority of alkaloids areof alkaloids are colorlesscolorless butbut somesome areare
coloredcolored e.g.:e.g.:
 Colchicine and berberine are yellow.Colchicine and berberine are yellow.
 Canadine is orange.Canadine is orange.
Physical Properties:Physical Properties:
III- Solubility:III- Solubility:
 BothBoth alkaloidal basesalkaloidal bases and theirand their saltssalts areare soluble in alcoholsoluble in alcohol..
 Generally, theGenerally, the basesbases areare soluble in organic solventssoluble in organic solvents andand
insoluble in waterinsoluble in water
ExceptionsExceptions::
 BasesBases soluble in watersoluble in water: caffeine, ephedrine, codeine,: caffeine, ephedrine, codeine,
colchicine, pilocarpine and quaternary ammonium bases.colchicine, pilocarpine and quaternary ammonium bases.
 BasesBases insoluble or sparingly soluble in certain organicinsoluble or sparingly soluble in certain organic
solventssolvents: morphine in ether, theobromine and theophylline in: morphine in ether, theobromine and theophylline in
benzene.benzene.
 SaltsSalts are usuallyare usually soluble in watersoluble in water and,and, insoluble orinsoluble or
sparingly soluble in organic solvents.sparingly soluble in organic solvents.
Exceptions:Exceptions:
 SaltsSalts insoluble in waterinsoluble in water: quinine monosulphate.: quinine monosulphate.
 SaltsSalts soluble in organic solventssoluble in organic solvents: lobeline and apoatropine: lobeline and apoatropine
hydrochlorides are soluble in chloroform.hydrochlorides are soluble in chloroform.
Extraction, Purification and Isolation ofExtraction, Purification and Isolation of
Alkaloids from Powdered plantsAlkaloids from Powdered plants
 Extraction and purificationExtraction and purification
Method I:Method I:
The powder is treated with alkalis to liberates the free basesThe powder is treated with alkalis to liberates the free bases
that can then be extracted with water immiscible organicthat can then be extracted with water immiscible organic
solvents.solvents.
Method II:Method II:
The powdered material is extracted withThe powdered material is extracted with water or aqueouswater or aqueous
alcoholalcohol containingcontaining dilute aciddilute acid.. AlkaloidsAlkaloids are extracted asare extracted as
theirtheir saltssalts together with accompanyingtogether with accompanying soluble impuritiessoluble impurities..
Method III:Method III:
The powder is extracted with water soluble organic solventsThe powder is extracted with water soluble organic solvents
such as MeOH or EtOH which are good solvents for bothsuch as MeOH or EtOH which are good solvents for both
salts and free bases.salts and free bases.
Classification of AlkaloidsClassification of Alkaloids
 Biogenetic.Biogenetic.
Based on the biogenetic pathway that form the alkaloids.Based on the biogenetic pathway that form the alkaloids.
 Botanical Source.Botanical Source.
According to the plant source of alkaloids.According to the plant source of alkaloids.
 Type of Amines.Type of Amines.
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary alkaloids.Primary, Secondary, Tertiary alkaloids.
 Basic Chemical SkeletonBasic Chemical Skeleton
 Phenylalkylamines:Phenylalkylamines:
e.g. Ephedrinee.g. Ephedrine
 Pyridine and piperidinePyridine and piperidine
e.g. lobeline, nicotinee.g. lobeline, nicotine
 TropaneTropane
e.g. Atropine.e.g. Atropine.
CH2 CH CH3
NH2
N N
H
NCH3 OH
 QuinolineQuinoline
e.g.quinine and quinidinee.g.quinine and quinidine
 IsoquinolineIsoquinoline
e.g.Papaverinee.g.Papaverine,Emetine,Emetine
 PhenantherenPhenantheren
e.g. Morphinee.g. Morphine
N
N
 IndoleIndole
e.g.ergometrinee.g.ergometrine
 ImidazoleImidazole
e.g. pilocarpinee.g. pilocarpine
 PurinePurine
e.g. caffeinee.g. caffeine
N
H
N
N
N
N N
N
H
Purine
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
9
 SteroidalSteroidal
e.g. Solanum ande.g. Solanum and VeratrumVeratrum
alkaloidsalkaloids
 TerpenoidTerpenoid
e.g. Taxole.g. Taxol
PHYSICAL-PROPERTY
I) They are colorless, crystalline solid. Exception - Berberin (Yellow),
Nicotine Coniine (liquid).
II) They are insoluble in water (exception liquid alkaloids soluble in water),
soluble in organic solvent ( CHCl3, Ethyl alcohol ether)
III) Taste: They are bitter in taste.
IV) Optically active, Most of levo ratatory but few are -Dextro rotatory e.g.
Coniine, some inactive- e.g.- papaverine.
CHEMICAL TEST OF ALKALOIDS
1.Mayer's Test:
Specimen with Mayer's reagent give Cream or pale yellow ppt.
2. Dragendroff Reagent Test:
Specimen with Dragendroff Reagent give orange ppt.
3. Wagners Test:
Specimen with Wagner's Reagent give brown or reddish brown ppt.
4. Hager's Test:
pecimen with Hager's reagent give yellow ppt. (Special Type)
5. Amonium Rinker Test:
Specimen with Ammonium Rinket solutions with HCL give flocculent pink
ppt.
1.Molecular formula1.Molecular formula::
The molecular formula of an alkaloid determined from
elemental analysis and molecular weight determination
2. Number of Double bond:Number of Double bond:
Number of Rings present in an alkaloids can be determineNumber of Rings present in an alkaloids can be determine
by following formula- Cby following formula- Caa HHbb NNcc OOdd
Then number of double bond present in Ring= a-b/2 + C/2 + 1Then number of double bond present in Ring= a-b/2 + C/2 + 1
GENERAL METHODS FOR STRUCTURE
DETERMINATION OF ALKALOIDS
 For example, the difference between hexene(C6H12) from hexane(C6H14) is two
hydrogen's and this difference is called a double bond equivalent.
Similarly, the difference between benzene(C6H6) and hexane(C6H14) is eight
hydrogen’s which will correspond to 8/2 or 4 double bond equivalents
(accommodated by the three double bonds and one ring).
The above procedure is valid for simpler compounds only. However, for
complex formulae, where elements other than hydrogen and carbon are present,
the simpler method is that for any formula CaHbNcOd the number of double
bond equivalents is given by the following expression:
a –1/2b + 1/2c + 1
2. Functional group Analysis:
a)Functional Nature of Oxygen: - Oxygen presents in alkaloids as: - OH
(Phenolic/ Alcoholic), - OCH3 Methoxy, - OCOCH3 (Acetoxy), -
OCOC6H5 ( Benzoxyl), -COOH (Carboxylic),- COOK (carboxylate),>C=O
(Carbonyl) = C-O-O (Lactones Ring)
(1) Hydroxyl group: -
Its presence in an alkaloid can be ascertained by the formation of acetate, on treatment
with acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride or by the formation of benzoate on treatment with
benzoyl chloride in the presence of sodium hydroxide.
R- OH + (CH3CO)2 O → ROOCCH3 + CH3COOH
R- OH + CH3COCl → ROOCCH3 + HCl
R- OH + C6H5COCl → ROOCC6H5 + HCl
If Primary amines are present in an alkaloids also give this test.
(2) Carboxylic group: -
Solubility of an alkaloid in aqueous sodium carbonate or ammonia
reveals the presence of carboxylic group. The formation of ester on
treatment with an alcohol also reveals the presence of carboxylic
group.
The number of carboxylic groups may be determined by
volumetrically by titration against a standard bariumhydroxide
solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator or gravimetrically by
silver salt method.
(3) Oxo-group: -
The presence of this group is ascertained by the reaction of an
alkaloid with hydroxylamine, semicarbazide or phenylhydrazine
when the corresponding oxime, semicarbazone or phenylhydrazone
are formed.
>C=O + H2NOH → >C=N-OH
>C=O +H2NNHCONH2 → >C=NNHCONH2
The distinction between aldehyde and ketone is done by oxidation or
reduction, also by NMR, IR, and UV techniques.
(4) Methoxy group: - BY Zeisel determination method. When
methoxy group present in a alkaloids treated with HI at 1260
C
perform methyl iodide which can treated further with silver nitrites
to perform silver iodide precipitate. From the weight of silver
iodide, the number of methoxyl groups calculated.
C15H9N (OCH3)4 + 4HI → C15H9N (OH) 4 + 4CH3I
4CH3I + 4AgNO3 → 4Agi↓+ 4CH3NO3
For example, papaverine, C20H21O4N, when treated with hydrogen
iodide, consumes 4 moles of hydrogen iodide, producing 4 moles
of silver iodide and thus confirming the presence of four –
OCH3groups.
Ester Amide Lacton & Lactum group: These groups are
detected and estimated observing the products of their alkali or
acid hydrolysis.
>CONH2 + NaOH Heat
→ -COONa + NH3
>COOR + NaOH Heat
→ -COONa + ROH
Methylene dioxy group: - On heated with concentrated with HCL or H2SO4 to form
acetic acid formed being distilled off and distillate titrated against standard base.
>OCH2O- + NaOH Heat/ H2SO4
→ -COOH
(Estimated gravimetrically
Nature of Nitrogen:
All alkaloids contain nitrogen . But in the majority of alkaloids it is
present as a part of a heterocyclic system. Therefore, it must be
either a secondary (=NH) or tertiary(=N–CH3or =N–).
The general reactions of the alkaloid with acetic anhydride, methyl
iodide and nitrous acid often show the nature of the nitrogen.
If the alkaloid reacts with one mole of methyl iodide to
form an N methyl derivative, it means that a secondary‐
nitrogen atom is present.
(C8
H16O4) NH+CH3
I → C8
H16O4) NCH3+HI
If react with one molecule of methyl-iodide to form crystalline
quaternary salt this indicates that nitrogen is tertiary e.g.
N≡(C10
H24) =N+ 2CH3
I → IH3CN= (C10
H24) =NCH3I
Degradation Of Alkaloids:
The reactions used in degradation of alkaloids are as follows:
(a) Hofmann exhaustive methylation method
(b) Emde’s degradation
(c) Reductive degradation and zinc dust distillation
(d) Alkali fusion
(e) Oxidation
(f) Dehydrogenation
CH3CH2CH2NMe2
Ag2O
→ CH3CH2CH2N+
Me2
-
OH HEAT
→ CH3CH=CH2 + Me3N +H20
Hofmann’s Exhaustive Methylation Method:
The principle of this method is that compounds, which contain the
structural unit =CH=C–N+R3OH , eliminate a trialkylamine on‐
pyrolysis at 200°C or above to yield an olefin.
Emde Degradation
If the alkaloid does notcontain a β hydrogen atom, the Hofmann’s‐
exhaustive methylation method fails. In such cases, Emde’s method
may be employed.
In this method, the final step involves reductive cleavage of
quaternary ammonium salts either with sodium amalgam or sodium
in liquid ammonia or by catalytic hydrogenation.
Alkaloids which do not respond to Hoffmann's method can also be
studied by Emde Degradation.
Zinc dust distillation produces simple fragments from which one can draw the
conclusion about the carbon framework of the alkaloid molecule.
Zinc dust also brings about dehydrogenation or removal of oxygen if present. For
example
As conyrineis formed by loss of six hydrogen atoms, it means that coniine must
contain a piperidine ring
Alkali fusion
This is very drastic method which involves of an alkaloid with solid KOH to
yield simple fragments. Ex: Papaverine on fusion with alkali yields
iso Quinoline derivative indicating that papaverine must contain
isoquinoline nucleus
C20
H21
NO4
KOH
→
N
Oxidation:
This method gives useful information about the structure of alkaloid.
By varying the strength of the oxidising agents, it is possible to obtain
a variety of oxidation products. For example,
(i)In order to carry out mild oxidation, hydrogen peroxide, iodinein
ethanolic solution, or alkaline potassium ferricyanide are usually
used.
(ii) In order to carry out moderate oxidation, acid or alkaline
potassium permanganate or chromium trioxide in acetic acid are
generally used.
Dehydrogenation:
When an alkaloid is distilled with a catalyst such as sulphur,
selenium or palladium, dehydrogenation takes place to form
relatively simple and easy recognizable products which provide a
clue to the gross skeleton of the alkaloid

More Related Content

What's hot

Flavonoids classification, isolation and identification
Flavonoids classification, isolation and identificationFlavonoids classification, isolation and identification
Flavonoids classification, isolation and identificationMona Ismail
 
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyAlkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyUnnati Garg
 
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSYINTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSYDr K SUDHEER KUMAR KANDIBANDA
 
Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...
Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...
Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore
 
Resolution of racemic mixture
Resolution of  racemic mixtureResolution of  racemic mixture
Resolution of racemic mixtureIqrar Ansari
 
Occurrence and classification and function of alkaloids
Occurrence and classification and function of alkaloidsOccurrence and classification and function of alkaloids
Occurrence and classification and function of alkaloidsJasmineJuliet
 
Classification of Glycosides
Classification of GlycosidesClassification of Glycosides
Classification of GlycosidesAsra Hameed
 

What's hot (20)

CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS & SEROTAXONOMY
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS & SEROTAXONOMY CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS & SEROTAXONOMY
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS & SEROTAXONOMY
 
Flavonoids classification, isolation and identification
Flavonoids classification, isolation and identificationFlavonoids classification, isolation and identification
Flavonoids classification, isolation and identification
 
Tannins
TanninsTannins
Tannins
 
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids PharmacognosyAlkaloids Pharmacognosy
Alkaloids Pharmacognosy
 
Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugs Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugs
 
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSYINTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY
 
EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS
EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGSEVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS
EVALUATION OF CRUDE DRUGS
 
Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...
Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...
Introduction, Properties, Classification etc., of Resin and Resin combination...
 
CURCUMIN (Curcuma longa)
CURCUMIN (Curcuma longa) CURCUMIN (Curcuma longa)
CURCUMIN (Curcuma longa)
 
Resolution of racemic mixture
Resolution of  racemic mixtureResolution of  racemic mixture
Resolution of racemic mixture
 
Occurrence and classification and function of alkaloids
Occurrence and classification and function of alkaloidsOccurrence and classification and function of alkaloids
Occurrence and classification and function of alkaloids
 
Lignans
LignansLignans
Lignans
 
Evaluation of drugs
Evaluation of drugsEvaluation of drugs
Evaluation of drugs
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Resins
ResinsResins
Resins
 
Saponin glycosides
Saponin glycosidesSaponin glycosides
Saponin glycosides
 
Classification of Glycosides
Classification of GlycosidesClassification of Glycosides
Classification of Glycosides
 
Shikimik acid pathway
Shikimik acid pathwayShikimik acid pathway
Shikimik acid pathway
 
Opium
OpiumOpium
Opium
 
Terpenoids
TerpenoidsTerpenoids
Terpenoids
 

Similar to Alkaloids

Alkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introductionAlkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introductionRamesh Reddy
 
Alkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introductionAlkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introductionMichael Che
 
Alkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overviewAlkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overviewOP VERMA
 
1 alkaloids.pdf
1 alkaloids.pdf1 alkaloids.pdf
1 alkaloids.pdfkusumAkki1
 
3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx
3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx
3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptxwasimraza65
 
Alkaloids-An Introduction.pdf
Alkaloids-An Introduction.pdfAlkaloids-An Introduction.pdf
Alkaloids-An Introduction.pdfJassujattJassu
 
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIKAlkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIKImran Nur Manik
 
Secondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanpara
Secondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanparaSecondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanpara
Secondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanparaPOOJA KHANPARA
 
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification OP VERMA
 
Alkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functions
Alkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functionsAlkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functions
Alkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functionsCherry
 

Similar to Alkaloids (20)

Alkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introductionAlkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introduction
 
Alkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introductionAlkaloids introduction
Alkaloids introduction
 
Alkaloids.pptx
Alkaloids.pptxAlkaloids.pptx
Alkaloids.pptx
 
Alkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overviewAlkaloids: An overview
Alkaloids: An overview
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
1 alkaloids.pdf
1 alkaloids.pdf1 alkaloids.pdf
1 alkaloids.pdf
 
3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx
3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx
3.3 C-Alkaloids-Atropine-Quinine-Reserpine-Caffeine.pptx
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
ALKALOIDS (1).pptx
ALKALOIDS (1).pptxALKALOIDS (1).pptx
ALKALOIDS (1).pptx
 
Alkaloids ars
Alkaloids arsAlkaloids ars
Alkaloids ars
 
Alkaloids (full)
Alkaloids (full)Alkaloids (full)
Alkaloids (full)
 
Alkaloids-An Introduction.pdf
Alkaloids-An Introduction.pdfAlkaloids-An Introduction.pdf
Alkaloids-An Introduction.pdf
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIKAlkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
Alkaloids (Pharmacognosy) MANIK
 
Alkaloids
AlkaloidsAlkaloids
Alkaloids
 
Secondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanpara
Secondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanparaSecondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanpara
Secondary metabolite part 1 by pooja khanpara
 
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
Alkaloids: Introduction, Property and classification
 
Secondary metabolites
Secondary metabolitesSecondary metabolites
Secondary metabolites
 
Alkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functions
Alkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functionsAlkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functions
Alkaloids: types, biosynthesis and functions
 

More from Vinayaka Missions college of pharmacy (9)

Alex stereo chemistry
Alex   stereo chemistryAlex   stereo chemistry
Alex stereo chemistry
 
Alex hetereo cyclic chemistry
Alex   hetereo cyclic chemistryAlex   hetereo cyclic chemistry
Alex hetereo cyclic chemistry
 
flavonoids
flavonoidsflavonoids
flavonoids
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Redox titration
Redox titrationRedox titration
Redox titration
 
Non Aqueous Titration
Non Aqueous TitrationNon Aqueous Titration
Non Aqueous Titration
 
Kinetic for Pharmaceutical analysis and Physical Pharmacy
Kinetic for Pharmaceutical analysis and Physical PharmacyKinetic for Pharmaceutical analysis and Physical Pharmacy
Kinetic for Pharmaceutical analysis and Physical Pharmacy
 
Adsorption pharmaceutical analysis
Adsorption pharmaceutical analysisAdsorption pharmaceutical analysis
Adsorption pharmaceutical analysis
 
Adsorption
AdsorptionAdsorption
Adsorption
 

Recently uploaded

ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSean M. Fox
 
Scopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS Publications
Scopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS PublicationsScopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS Publications
Scopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS PublicationsISCOPE Publication
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptxPoojaSen20
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesPooky Knightsmith
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxAdelaideRefugio
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...Gary Wood
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code ExamplesPeter Brusilovsky
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsSandeep D Chaudhary
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppCeline George
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesAmanpreetKaur157993
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....Ritu480198
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMELOISARIVERA8
 

Recently uploaded (20)

ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
Scopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS Publications
Scopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS PublicationsScopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS Publications
Scopus Indexed Journals 2024 - ISCOPUS Publications
 
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptxdemyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
demyelinated disorder: multiple sclerosis.pptx
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 

Alkaloids

  • 1. Dr.S.Alexandar,M.Pharm,Ph.D,Dr.S.Alexandar,M.Pharm,Ph.D, Associate ProfessorAssociate Professor Vinayaka Missions College of Pharmacy,Vinayaka Missions College of Pharmacy, Yercaud main road,Yercaud main road, Kondappanaickanpatty,Kondappanaickanpatty, Salem, Tamilnadu,Salem, Tamilnadu, Pin:636008Pin:636008 AlkaloidsAlkaloids
  • 2. AlkaloidsAlkaloids Definition:Definition: the term “alkaloid” (alkali-like) isthe term “alkaloid” (alkali-like) is commonly used to designate basiccommonly used to designate basic heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds of plantheterocyclic nitrogenous compounds of plant origin that are physiologically activeorigin that are physiologically active..
  • 3. Distribution and occurrence:Distribution and occurrence:  Rare in lower plants.Rare in lower plants.  Dicots are more rich in alkaloids thanDicots are more rich in alkaloids than Monocots.Monocots.  Families rich in Alkaloids: Apocynaceae,Families rich in Alkaloids: Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae andRubiaceae, Solanaceae and Papaveracea.Papaveracea.  Families free from Alkaloids: Rosaceae,Families free from Alkaloids: Rosaceae, LabiataeLabiatae
  • 4. Distribution in Plant:Distribution in Plant:  All Parts e.g. Datura.All Parts e.g. Datura.  Barks e.g. CinchonaBarks e.g. Cinchona  Seeds e.g. Nux vomicaSeeds e.g. Nux vomica  Roots e.g. AconiteRoots e.g. Aconite  Fruits e.g. Black pepperFruits e.g. Black pepper  Leaves e.g. TobaccoLeaves e.g. Tobacco  Latex e.g. OpiumLatex e.g. Opium
  • 5. Forms of Alkaloids:Forms of Alkaloids:  Free basesFree bases  Salts with Organic acids e.g.Salts with Organic acids e.g. Oxalic,Oxalic, acetic acidsacetic acids  Salts with inorganic acids e.g.Salts with inorganic acids e.g. HCl, HHCl, H22SOSO44..  Salts with special acids:Salts with special acids: e.g.e.g. Meconic acidMeconic acid in Opiumin Opium Quinic acidQuinic acid inin CinchonaCinchona  Glycosidal form e.g. Solanine inGlycosidal form e.g. Solanine in SolanumSolanum..
  • 6. Function in PlantsFunction in Plants  They may act asThey may act as protectiveprotective against insectsagainst insects and herbivores due to their bitterness andand herbivores due to their bitterness and toxicity.toxicity.  Source of nitrogenSource of nitrogen in case of nitrogenin case of nitrogen deficiency.deficiency.  They, sometimes, act asThey, sometimes, act as growth regulatorsgrowth regulators inin certain metabolic systems.certain metabolic systems.  They may be utilized as aThey may be utilized as a source of energysource of energy inin case of deficiency in carbon dioxidecase of deficiency in carbon dioxide assimilation.assimilation.
  • 7. Nomenclature:Nomenclature: Trivial namesTrivial names should end byshould end by "ine""ine". These names. These names may refer to:may refer to:  TheThe genusgenus of the plant, such as Atropine fromof the plant, such as Atropine from Atropa belladonaAtropa belladona..  The plantThe plant speciesspecies, such as Cocaine from, such as Cocaine from Erythroxylon cocaErythroxylon coca..  TheThe common namecommon name of the drug, such asof the drug, such as Ergotamine from ergot.Ergotamine from ergot.  The name of theThe name of the discovererdiscoverer, such as Pelletierine, such as Pelletierine that was discovered by Pelletier.that was discovered by Pelletier.  TheThe physiological actionphysiological action, such as Emetine that, such as Emetine that acts as emetic, Morphine means God of dreamsacts as emetic, Morphine means God of dreams acts as narcotic.acts as narcotic.  A prominentA prominent physical characterphysical character, such as Hygrine, such as Hygrine that is hygroscopic.that is hygroscopic.
  • 8. Prefixes and suffixes:Prefixes and suffixes: Prefixes:Prefixes:  "Nor-""Nor-" designates N-demethylation or N-demethoxylation,designates N-demethylation or N-demethoxylation, e.g. norpseudoephedrine and nornicotine.e.g. norpseudoephedrine and nornicotine.  "Apo-""Apo-" designates dehydration e.g. apomorphine.designates dehydration e.g. apomorphine.  "Iso-, pseudo-, neo-,"Iso-, pseudo-, neo-, andand epi-"epi-" indicate different types ofindicate different types of isomers.isomers. Suffixes:Suffixes:  "-dine""-dine" designates isomerism as quinidine anddesignates isomerism as quinidine and cinchonidine.cinchonidine.  "-ine""-ine" indicates, in case of ergot alkaloids, a lowerindicates, in case of ergot alkaloids, a lower pharmacological activity e.g. ergotaminine is less potentpharmacological activity e.g. ergotaminine is less potent than ergotamine.than ergotamine.
  • 9. Physical Properties:Physical Properties: I- Condition:I- Condition:  MostMost alkaloids are crystallinealkaloids are crystalline solidssolids..  Few alkaloids are amorphous solids e.g. emetine.Few alkaloids are amorphous solids e.g. emetine.  SomeSome areare liquidsliquids that are either:that are either: VolatileVolatile e.g. nicotine and coniine, ore.g. nicotine and coniine, or Non-volatileNon-volatile e.g. pilocarpine ande.g. pilocarpine and hyoscine.hyoscine. II- Color:II- Color: TheThe majoritymajority of alkaloids areof alkaloids are colorlesscolorless butbut somesome areare coloredcolored e.g.:e.g.:  Colchicine and berberine are yellow.Colchicine and berberine are yellow.  Canadine is orange.Canadine is orange.
  • 10. Physical Properties:Physical Properties: III- Solubility:III- Solubility:  BothBoth alkaloidal basesalkaloidal bases and theirand their saltssalts areare soluble in alcoholsoluble in alcohol..  Generally, theGenerally, the basesbases areare soluble in organic solventssoluble in organic solvents andand insoluble in waterinsoluble in water ExceptionsExceptions::  BasesBases soluble in watersoluble in water: caffeine, ephedrine, codeine,: caffeine, ephedrine, codeine, colchicine, pilocarpine and quaternary ammonium bases.colchicine, pilocarpine and quaternary ammonium bases.  BasesBases insoluble or sparingly soluble in certain organicinsoluble or sparingly soluble in certain organic solventssolvents: morphine in ether, theobromine and theophylline in: morphine in ether, theobromine and theophylline in benzene.benzene.  SaltsSalts are usuallyare usually soluble in watersoluble in water and,and, insoluble orinsoluble or sparingly soluble in organic solvents.sparingly soluble in organic solvents. Exceptions:Exceptions:  SaltsSalts insoluble in waterinsoluble in water: quinine monosulphate.: quinine monosulphate.  SaltsSalts soluble in organic solventssoluble in organic solvents: lobeline and apoatropine: lobeline and apoatropine hydrochlorides are soluble in chloroform.hydrochlorides are soluble in chloroform.
  • 11. Extraction, Purification and Isolation ofExtraction, Purification and Isolation of Alkaloids from Powdered plantsAlkaloids from Powdered plants  Extraction and purificationExtraction and purification Method I:Method I: The powder is treated with alkalis to liberates the free basesThe powder is treated with alkalis to liberates the free bases that can then be extracted with water immiscible organicthat can then be extracted with water immiscible organic solvents.solvents. Method II:Method II: The powdered material is extracted withThe powdered material is extracted with water or aqueouswater or aqueous alcoholalcohol containingcontaining dilute aciddilute acid.. AlkaloidsAlkaloids are extracted asare extracted as theirtheir saltssalts together with accompanyingtogether with accompanying soluble impuritiessoluble impurities.. Method III:Method III: The powder is extracted with water soluble organic solventsThe powder is extracted with water soluble organic solvents such as MeOH or EtOH which are good solvents for bothsuch as MeOH or EtOH which are good solvents for both salts and free bases.salts and free bases.
  • 12. Classification of AlkaloidsClassification of Alkaloids  Biogenetic.Biogenetic. Based on the biogenetic pathway that form the alkaloids.Based on the biogenetic pathway that form the alkaloids.  Botanical Source.Botanical Source. According to the plant source of alkaloids.According to the plant source of alkaloids.  Type of Amines.Type of Amines. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary alkaloids.Primary, Secondary, Tertiary alkaloids.  Basic Chemical SkeletonBasic Chemical Skeleton
  • 13.  Phenylalkylamines:Phenylalkylamines: e.g. Ephedrinee.g. Ephedrine  Pyridine and piperidinePyridine and piperidine e.g. lobeline, nicotinee.g. lobeline, nicotine  TropaneTropane e.g. Atropine.e.g. Atropine. CH2 CH CH3 NH2 N N H NCH3 OH
  • 14.  QuinolineQuinoline e.g.quinine and quinidinee.g.quinine and quinidine  IsoquinolineIsoquinoline e.g.Papaverinee.g.Papaverine,Emetine,Emetine  PhenantherenPhenantheren e.g. Morphinee.g. Morphine N N
  • 15.  IndoleIndole e.g.ergometrinee.g.ergometrine  ImidazoleImidazole e.g. pilocarpinee.g. pilocarpine  PurinePurine e.g. caffeinee.g. caffeine N H N N N N N N H Purine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  • 16.  SteroidalSteroidal e.g. Solanum ande.g. Solanum and VeratrumVeratrum alkaloidsalkaloids  TerpenoidTerpenoid e.g. Taxole.g. Taxol
  • 17. PHYSICAL-PROPERTY I) They are colorless, crystalline solid. Exception - Berberin (Yellow), Nicotine Coniine (liquid). II) They are insoluble in water (exception liquid alkaloids soluble in water), soluble in organic solvent ( CHCl3, Ethyl alcohol ether) III) Taste: They are bitter in taste. IV) Optically active, Most of levo ratatory but few are -Dextro rotatory e.g. Coniine, some inactive- e.g.- papaverine.
  • 18. CHEMICAL TEST OF ALKALOIDS 1.Mayer's Test: Specimen with Mayer's reagent give Cream or pale yellow ppt. 2. Dragendroff Reagent Test: Specimen with Dragendroff Reagent give orange ppt. 3. Wagners Test: Specimen with Wagner's Reagent give brown or reddish brown ppt. 4. Hager's Test: pecimen with Hager's reagent give yellow ppt. (Special Type) 5. Amonium Rinker Test: Specimen with Ammonium Rinket solutions with HCL give flocculent pink ppt.
  • 19. 1.Molecular formula1.Molecular formula:: The molecular formula of an alkaloid determined from elemental analysis and molecular weight determination 2. Number of Double bond:Number of Double bond: Number of Rings present in an alkaloids can be determineNumber of Rings present in an alkaloids can be determine by following formula- Cby following formula- Caa HHbb NNcc OOdd Then number of double bond present in Ring= a-b/2 + C/2 + 1Then number of double bond present in Ring= a-b/2 + C/2 + 1 GENERAL METHODS FOR STRUCTURE DETERMINATION OF ALKALOIDS
  • 20.  For example, the difference between hexene(C6H12) from hexane(C6H14) is two hydrogen's and this difference is called a double bond equivalent. Similarly, the difference between benzene(C6H6) and hexane(C6H14) is eight hydrogen’s which will correspond to 8/2 or 4 double bond equivalents (accommodated by the three double bonds and one ring). The above procedure is valid for simpler compounds only. However, for complex formulae, where elements other than hydrogen and carbon are present, the simpler method is that for any formula CaHbNcOd the number of double bond equivalents is given by the following expression: a –1/2b + 1/2c + 1
  • 21. 2. Functional group Analysis: a)Functional Nature of Oxygen: - Oxygen presents in alkaloids as: - OH (Phenolic/ Alcoholic), - OCH3 Methoxy, - OCOCH3 (Acetoxy), - OCOC6H5 ( Benzoxyl), -COOH (Carboxylic),- COOK (carboxylate),>C=O (Carbonyl) = C-O-O (Lactones Ring) (1) Hydroxyl group: - Its presence in an alkaloid can be ascertained by the formation of acetate, on treatment with acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride or by the formation of benzoate on treatment with benzoyl chloride in the presence of sodium hydroxide. R- OH + (CH3CO)2 O → ROOCCH3 + CH3COOH R- OH + CH3COCl → ROOCCH3 + HCl R- OH + C6H5COCl → ROOCC6H5 + HCl If Primary amines are present in an alkaloids also give this test.
  • 22. (2) Carboxylic group: - Solubility of an alkaloid in aqueous sodium carbonate or ammonia reveals the presence of carboxylic group. The formation of ester on treatment with an alcohol also reveals the presence of carboxylic group. The number of carboxylic groups may be determined by volumetrically by titration against a standard bariumhydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator or gravimetrically by silver salt method.
  • 23. (3) Oxo-group: - The presence of this group is ascertained by the reaction of an alkaloid with hydroxylamine, semicarbazide or phenylhydrazine when the corresponding oxime, semicarbazone or phenylhydrazone are formed. >C=O + H2NOH → >C=N-OH >C=O +H2NNHCONH2 → >C=NNHCONH2 The distinction between aldehyde and ketone is done by oxidation or reduction, also by NMR, IR, and UV techniques.
  • 24. (4) Methoxy group: - BY Zeisel determination method. When methoxy group present in a alkaloids treated with HI at 1260 C perform methyl iodide which can treated further with silver nitrites to perform silver iodide precipitate. From the weight of silver iodide, the number of methoxyl groups calculated. C15H9N (OCH3)4 + 4HI → C15H9N (OH) 4 + 4CH3I 4CH3I + 4AgNO3 → 4Agi↓+ 4CH3NO3 For example, papaverine, C20H21O4N, when treated with hydrogen iodide, consumes 4 moles of hydrogen iodide, producing 4 moles of silver iodide and thus confirming the presence of four – OCH3groups.
  • 25. Ester Amide Lacton & Lactum group: These groups are detected and estimated observing the products of their alkali or acid hydrolysis. >CONH2 + NaOH Heat → -COONa + NH3 >COOR + NaOH Heat → -COONa + ROH Methylene dioxy group: - On heated with concentrated with HCL or H2SO4 to form acetic acid formed being distilled off and distillate titrated against standard base. >OCH2O- + NaOH Heat/ H2SO4 → -COOH (Estimated gravimetrically
  • 26. Nature of Nitrogen: All alkaloids contain nitrogen . But in the majority of alkaloids it is present as a part of a heterocyclic system. Therefore, it must be either a secondary (=NH) or tertiary(=N–CH3or =N–). The general reactions of the alkaloid with acetic anhydride, methyl iodide and nitrous acid often show the nature of the nitrogen.
  • 27. If the alkaloid reacts with one mole of methyl iodide to form an N methyl derivative, it means that a secondary‐ nitrogen atom is present. (C8 H16O4) NH+CH3 I → C8 H16O4) NCH3+HI If react with one molecule of methyl-iodide to form crystalline quaternary salt this indicates that nitrogen is tertiary e.g. N≡(C10 H24) =N+ 2CH3 I → IH3CN= (C10 H24) =NCH3I
  • 28. Degradation Of Alkaloids: The reactions used in degradation of alkaloids are as follows: (a) Hofmann exhaustive methylation method (b) Emde’s degradation (c) Reductive degradation and zinc dust distillation (d) Alkali fusion (e) Oxidation (f) Dehydrogenation
  • 29. CH3CH2CH2NMe2 Ag2O → CH3CH2CH2N+ Me2 - OH HEAT → CH3CH=CH2 + Me3N +H20 Hofmann’s Exhaustive Methylation Method: The principle of this method is that compounds, which contain the structural unit =CH=C–N+R3OH , eliminate a trialkylamine on‐ pyrolysis at 200°C or above to yield an olefin.
  • 30. Emde Degradation If the alkaloid does notcontain a β hydrogen atom, the Hofmann’s‐ exhaustive methylation method fails. In such cases, Emde’s method may be employed. In this method, the final step involves reductive cleavage of quaternary ammonium salts either with sodium amalgam or sodium in liquid ammonia or by catalytic hydrogenation. Alkaloids which do not respond to Hoffmann's method can also be studied by Emde Degradation.
  • 31.
  • 32. Zinc dust distillation produces simple fragments from which one can draw the conclusion about the carbon framework of the alkaloid molecule. Zinc dust also brings about dehydrogenation or removal of oxygen if present. For example As conyrineis formed by loss of six hydrogen atoms, it means that coniine must contain a piperidine ring
  • 33. Alkali fusion This is very drastic method which involves of an alkaloid with solid KOH to yield simple fragments. Ex: Papaverine on fusion with alkali yields iso Quinoline derivative indicating that papaverine must contain isoquinoline nucleus C20 H21 NO4 KOH → N
  • 34. Oxidation: This method gives useful information about the structure of alkaloid. By varying the strength of the oxidising agents, it is possible to obtain a variety of oxidation products. For example, (i)In order to carry out mild oxidation, hydrogen peroxide, iodinein ethanolic solution, or alkaline potassium ferricyanide are usually used. (ii) In order to carry out moderate oxidation, acid or alkaline potassium permanganate or chromium trioxide in acetic acid are generally used.
  • 35. Dehydrogenation: When an alkaloid is distilled with a catalyst such as sulphur, selenium or palladium, dehydrogenation takes place to form relatively simple and easy recognizable products which provide a clue to the gross skeleton of the alkaloid