History of Basketball Dr. James Naismith is known world-wide as the inventor of basketball. He was born in 1861 in Ramsay township, near Almonte, Ontario, Canada. The concept of basketball was born from Naismith's school days in the area where he played a simple child's game known as duck-on-a-rock outside his one-room schoolhouse. James Naismith moved on to the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA in 1891, where the sport of basketball was born.
James Naismith devised rules of basketball <ul><li>The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands. </li></ul><ul><li>A player cannot run with the ball. </li></ul><ul><li>The ball must be held in or between the hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal shall be made when the ball is thrown from the ground into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. </li></ul><ul><li>When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. </li></ul><ul><li>The thrower-in is allowed 5 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>The time shall be two 15-minute halves with 5 minutes rest between. </li></ul><ul><li>The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winners. </li></ul>
Positions and structures <ul><li>point guard : usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the team's offense. </li></ul><ul><li>shooting guard : creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponent's best perimeter player on defense. </li></ul><ul><li>small forward : often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetration. </li></ul><ul><li>power forward : plays offensively often with his back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) </li></ul><ul><li>center : uses size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound. </li></ul>
Equipment <ul><li>The only essential equipment in basketball is the basketball and the court: a flat, rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends. Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, scoresheets, scoreboard(s), alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems. </li></ul>
Fouls <ul><li>Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was successful. One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 15 feet (4.5 m) from the basket. </li></ul><ul><li>A player or coach who shows poor sportsmanship, for instance, by arguing with a referee or by fighting with another player, can be charged with a more serious foul called a technical foul . The penalty involves free throws (which unlike a personal foul, the other team can choose any player to shoot the free throws) and varies between leagues. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated incidents can result in disqualification . </li></ul>
Height <ul><li>At the professional level, most male players are above 6 ft 3 in (1.90 m) and most women above 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m). Guards, for whom physical coordination and ball-handling skills are crucial, tend to be the smallest players. Most centers are over 6 ft 10 in (2.1 m) tall. According to a survey given to all NBA teams, the average height of all NBA players is just under 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m), with the average weight being close to 222 lb (101 kg). The tallest players ever in the NBA were Manute Bol and Gheorghe Mureşan , who were both 7 ft 7 in (2.31 m) tall. The tallest current NBA player is Yao Ming , who stands at 7 ft 6 in (2.29 m). </li></ul>