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7+1 myths of the new os

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slides from my presentation at operatingsystems.io on 25 november 2014

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7+1 myths of the new os

  1. 1. 7+1 myths of the New OS Alexis Richardson, Weave
  2. 2. Weave Network “SDN for hipsters”
  3. 3. The main points 1. In minutes, Weave solves Docker multi host problem 1. Inconceivably easy to use. And: dynamic, multi-cloud, multi-hop, easy to wire up to rest of world... 1. Application developers don’t have to be experts in networking or distributed systems, the SDN does it for you...
  4. 4. Use cases and examples http://weaveblog.com/ https://github.com/zettio/weave
  5. 5. The interesting part.. Weave Network is 100% decentralised Standard APIs - IP, DNS, DHCP… “Enables, then gets out of your way” -- supports a much wider set of use cases...
  6. 6. Can we solve more problems this way?
  7. 7. 1994 SUN Microsystems invents a lingua franca for the new world of distributed computing → JAVA Promises portable web based applications by providing a runtime container. Is designed by distributed computing people...
  8. 8. 7+1 myths of distributed computing “Fallacies” - according to SUN Microsystems when Java was born 1. The network is reliable. 2. Latency is zero. 3. Bandwidth is infinite. 4. The network is secure. 5. Topology doesn't change. 6. There is one administrator. 7. Transport cost is zero. 8. The network is homogeneous. (added by Gosling, 1997)
  9. 9. Where did Java go to? Java turned into J2EE - tried to hide complexity in a ‘platform’ → the app server disaster One size fits all “platforms” supporting alleged enterprise requirements like transactions Let’s NOT DO THIS AGAIN
  10. 10. Ubiquitous and cheap physical compute infra
  11. 11. Are we in post-fallacy world? 1. A homogeneous cloud with zero administrators? 2. Unbounded, cheap bandwidth albeit not zero cost? 3. Decouple applications from physical topology?
  12. 12. No we are NOT 1. A homogeneous cloud with zero administrators? 2. Unbounded, cheap bandwidth albeit not zero cost? 3. Decouple applications from physical topology? // TODO: get latency to zero and system integrity to 100% (CAP/Zooko)
  13. 13. DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER
  14. 14. DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER
  15. 15. DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER DOCKER
  16. 16. A profound change just occurred Docker delivers a new alignment between dev and ops: a container is what you ship, when you ship an application Google - 2B containers / week If we are all like Google → 10T / year?
  17. 17. The new Docker Scalable distributed application platform, or, if you like: the New OS. read.about.it@ http://weaveblog.com/2014/11/13/life-and-docker- networking/
  18. 18. The new Weave OK, so people want a New OS... Let’s learn from Java & the Fallacies & the J2EE mistake. 1. Update the fallacies to “7+1 myths of the New OS”. 2. This is partly for fun :-) 3. But it is also to motivate future work!
  19. 19. MYTH 1 The application lifecycle is independent of the OS
  20. 20. But the reality is... Dev and Ops align on a single build, the container Neil Ellis: “After Docker many of us are starting to look at things in a different way. Our apps are now the same as machines thanks to Docker. This means our applications can act like they once did, as the sole piece of software running on a machine.” This leads to using containers for microservices, and in the future, to microkernels & short lived microcontainers
  21. 21. MYTH 2 Distributed systems, and hence new apps, need a panoply of unfamiliar tools and skills
  22. 22. But the reality is... Because containers align app with machine lifecycle, we can take advantage of decades of best practice Neil again: “... this has the interesting side effect of making older and low level technologies directly relevant to application development and operations. Forget your UDDI, you can go back to using DNS (optionally with SRV records) instead. Forget application servers, just load balance your containers. It is as if we have turned back the clock 30 years, in a good way.”
  23. 23. MYTH 3 Apps must be fundamentally rewritten and all operational tooling replaced
  24. 24. But the reality is... Because “we have turned back the clock 30 years, in a good way”, every single API and tool can *already work* We can envisage a composable runtime system, like Unix, but for the era of containers and cloud scale apps This can consist of a set of critical micro-services, like networks (IP), service discovery (DNS), naming (DHCP).. in which every service is completely obvious and intuitive This makes it much easier to migrate and refactor apps.
  25. 25. MYTH 4 Platforms are better at designing your app than you are
  26. 26. But the reality is... Mostly, you already know how to write apps and manage them In a Unix like world of composable micro services that have obvious APIs, you can choose what to build and you already have the skills to do it Opinionated platforms are extremely useful when aligned with special cases (eg mobile) but can never be general purpose. E.g not every app is a 12-factor web app. A general purpose system must be unopinionated: it must first enable, and then get out of your way.
  27. 27. MYTH 5 You really need an all-inclusive system
  28. 28. But the reality is... You want adaptability & to plug in your own services If you have to “learn” a platform before building an application, you MAY be doing the wrong thing All inclusive platforms tend to get in the way of choice and application design. Enterprises also *require* pluggability within the model and not as a ‘bolt on’. Examples of good models: Amazon’s IaaS+services model; and Netflix OSS which should be called “Netflix OS” ;-)
  29. 29. MYTH 6 Dev/Test and Production need different tooling
  30. 30. But the reality is... Good tools scale from dev/test to prod The ideal system should ‘scale from laptop to cloud’ with a single set of APIs and tooling. You need a system that is scale and location invariant, in order to be truly portable. You need dynamic topologies eg. using a Weave Network :-) Note to Docker - can haz downloads <800MB plz
  31. 31. MYTH 7 Co-ordination is a platform concern, and not an application level concern
  32. 32. But the reality is... The internet is completely decentralised and your systems should be too Example: Consensus. YAGNI a lot of the time. When you do need it, you want the semantics exposed up to the app and not buried inside the platform (Java app servers made this mistake with transactions)
  33. 33. MYTH N+1 Docker will solve all known problems of computing
  34. 34. Recap: New myths for New OS 7+1 new myths 1. The application lifecycle is independent of the OS 2. Distributed systems require a panoply of new skills and tools. 3. Apps must be fundamentally rewritten, and tooling replaced. 4. Platforms are better at designing your app than you are. 5. You really need an all inclusive system. 6. Dev/test and production need different tooling. 7. Coordination is a platform concern not an app level concern. 8. Docker will solve all known problems of computing
  35. 35. The new Weave: help with the faff Download Docker and Weave and build an app in the way that you already know how to do, but: using containers. Weave will NOT get in your way: apps do not need fundamental rewrites and ops teams do not need to retool. Like Unix, a runtime system that is obvious, unopinionated and composable. But: for 2014 concerns. Mix in your own (micro)services and orchestration to taste!
  36. 36. Many challenges, here are a few Logging without tears Decentralised access control Distributed LB and proxying

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