The biosphere


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The biosphere

  1. 1. The Biosphere -Alexis Folmer
  2. 2. What is it? <ul><li>It extends from about 5 miles above the earths surface to as far as 7 miles below the ocean . </li></ul><ul><li>The biosphere consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  3. 3. -Ecology- <ul><li>Ecology is when organisms in the biosphere interact with each other and their surroundings or environment. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biotic/Abiotic Factors <ul><li>A biotic factor is any living part of the environment with which an organism might interact. These are the biological influences on organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>An abiotic factor is any nonliving part of the environment like heat, precipitation, wind currents, etc. These are the physical components of an ecosystem. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ecological Methods <ul><li>Ecologists use 3 methods in their work: </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul>
  6. 6. Where Does Energy in Living Systems Come From? <ul><li>Organisms get energy from other sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight is the ultimate energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain algae, bacteria, and plants can capture energy and convert it into forms that living cells can use. </li></ul><ul><li>These organisms are called primary producers/Autotrophs. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Photosynthesis <ul><li>It captures light and uses it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates like sugar and starches. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chemosynthesis <ul><li>What deep-sea ecosystems rely on that harness chemical energy from inorganic molecules and produces carbohydrates. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Consumers/Heterotrophs <ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients by ingesting them in one way or another. </li></ul><ul><li>These consumers include carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, scavengers, decomposers, and detritivores. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Food Chain <ul><li>A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>This chain usually begins with a primary producer, then a herbivore, and finally a carnivore. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Phytoplankton <ul><li>These are primary producers which are a mixture of floating algae and attached algae and may be eaten by small fish who will be eaten by large fish who are eaten by alligators. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Food Web <ul><li>Network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Zooplankton <ul><li>Small free-floating animals that form part of plankton. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trophic Level <ul><li>Each step in a food chain or a food web </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web. The types of these pyramids are pyramids of energy, biomass, and numbers. </li></ul>