Grammar book

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  • Grammar book

    1. 1. Grammar Book <br />Talia Bowen <br />Spanish 3 Honors<br />
    2. 2. Table of Contents <br />Pretérito <br />TriggerWordsforthepreterite<br />Car- Gar-Zar <br />SpockVerbs<br />Cucaracha Verbs<br />Snake <br />Snakey<br />Imperfect<br />TriggerwordsforImperfect<br />Irregulars<br />Preterite Vs. Imperfect<br />Ser Vs. Estar <br />Verbslike gustar <br />Comparative/ Superlative<br />ConnectingVerbs<br />Future<br />TriggerWordsforFuture<br />Irregular <br />Por<br />Para <br />Conditional/ Irregulares <br />Conditional/ Irregular <br />24) Perfect Tense <br /> -Present<br /> -Past<br /> - PresentPerfect irregular<br />25) Subjunctive<br />26) Tanto & Tan <br />27) Impersonal “se”<br />28) Saber vs Conocer <br />29)Los Mandatos <br />30)Informal/ Formal <br />31) Affirmative<br />32)Negative<br />33) Irregular <br />34)D.O.P/ I.O.P placement<br />35) TriggerPhrases<br />36) Impersonal expressions<br />Expressions of Emotions<br />Conjunctions of Time <br />DemonstrativeAdjectives<br />DemonstrativePronouns.<br />
    3. 3. Pretérito: <br />thecompletedpast tense action. <br />Foractionsthatwererepeated a specificnumber of times. <br />Tostatethebeginningortheend of anaction. <br />Foranactionthatoccuredduring a specificperiod of time. <br />Foractionsthat can beviewed as single events. <br />Specific.<br /><ul><li> yo -
    4. 4. Tu -ASTE
    5. 5. El, ella -
    6. 6. Nosotros -AMOS
    7. 7. Ellos -ARON </li></ul>É<br /><ul><li>Í
    8. 8. ISTE
    9. 9.
    10. 10. IMOS
    11. 11. IERON </li></ul>Í<br />Ó<br />
    12. 12. Trigger Words <br />Ayer ………………….yesterday<br />La semana pasada..lastweek<br />Anoche ……………..lastnight<br />el mes pasado…….lastmonth<br />el otro día………….theotherday<br />el año pasado……..lastyear<br />entonces…………….then<br />hace dos días, años…twodays , yearsago<br />esta mañana……….thismorning<br />ayer por la mañana………yesterdaymorning<br />
    13. 13. Car Gar Zar!<br /> -car: qué -gar: gué<br /> -zar: cé<br />ONLY IN THE YO FORM!!<br /> Sacar Saque <br /> Indicar indique <br /> Explicar explique <br /> Pagar Pague <br /> Jugar jugue<br /> Llegar Llegue <br /> Almorzar Almorce<br /> Cruzar Cruce <br /> Lanzar Lance <br />
    14. 14. Spock Verbs!!!!!<br />Similar Verbs:<br />dar/ver<br />Di vi <br />Disteviste<br />Diovio<br />Dimosvimos<br />Dieronvieron<br />ir./ser<br />Fui<br />fuiste<br />fuimos<br />fue<br />fueron<br />Non-similar Verbs:<br />Hacer<br />Hice<br />Hiciste<br />Hizo<br />Hicimos<br />hicieron<br />
    15. 15. Cucaracha Irregular Preterite<br />Andar -anduv<br />Estar-estuv<br />Poder-pud<br />Poner -pus<br />Querer-quis<br />Saber -sup<br />Tener-tuv<br />Venir -vin<br />E I <br />AsteIste<br />O Io <br />Amos Imos<br />AronIeron<br />Ejemplos:<br />Anduve<br />Estuviste<br />P <br />
    16. 16. Snake <br />*Conjugationonlychangeswhentheverbisused in the 3rdperson<br />*Verbschangingfrom “E-I”:<br />–Pedir <br />–Preferir <br />–Competir <br />–Repetir <br />–Servir <br />–Sentir <br />–Venir <br />*Verbschangingfrom “O-U”:<br />–Dormir <br />–Morir <br />
    17. 17. Snakey<br />*Conjugation only changes when the verb is used in the 3rd person<br />*Verbs changing from “E-I”:<br />–Leer<br />–Creer<br />*Verbs changing from “O-U”<br />–Oir<br />
    18. 18. Imperfect:<br /><ul><li>For Actions that were repeated habitually
    19. 19. For actions that “ sell the stage” for another past action
    20. 20. For telling time
    21. 21. For Stating one’s age
    22. 22. For mental states (usually)
    23. 23. For physical sensations
    24. 24. To describe the characteristics of people, things, or conditions </li></ul>Yoaba<br />Tuabas<br />El, Ella, Ustedaba<br />Nosotrosabamos<br />Ellos,Ellas, Ustedesaban<br />Vosotrosabais<br />ia<br />ias<br />ian<br />ia<br />iamos<br />iais<br />
    25. 25. Trigger Words for Imperfect <br />Menudo oftengeneralmente usuallya veces sometimesmuchas veces many times cada día everyday<br />siempre alwayscada año everyyeartodo el tiempo allthe time de vez en cuando from time to time varias veces several times <br />
    26. 26. Irregulares<br /><ul><li>SER!!
    27. 27. Era
    28. 28. Eras
    29. 29. Era
    30. 30. Eramos
    31. 31. Erais
    32. 32. Eran</li></ul>Ver !!<br />veia<br />veias<br />veia<br />veiamos<br />veiais<br />Veian<br /><ul><li>IR/Er
    33. 33. ia
    34. 34. ias
    35. 35. ia
    36. 36. iamos
    37. 37. iais
    38. 38. ian</li></li></ul><li>Preterite VS. Imperfect <br />Imperfect <br />Verbs<br />Preterite<br /><ul><li>Talía habló doshoras.
    39. 39. Conocí a Alejandro hace cinco años.
    40. 40. Cuando era niña yo era muy descuidado pero siempre chulo.
    41. 41. Tenía un mascota.</li></li></ul><li>Ser Vs. Estar<br />
    42. 42. Verbs like Gustar<br />Faltar<br />Molestar<br />Encantar<br />Fastidia<br />Fascinar<br />Importer <br />Apetecer<br />Gustar<br />The rule of Gustar: What would be considered the subject in English turns into the indirect object (me, te, le, nos, os, les) in Spanish. Therefore, the verb in Spanish must agree with the subject of the sentence, not the indirect object.<br />Ejemplos:<br /><ul><li>John is fascinated by cars. A John, le fascinan los coches
    43. 43. He likesAmericans . Le caen bien los Americanos .</li></li></ul><li>Comparative and Superlative<br />Adjective: Comparative: Superlative:<br /> ~ bueno ~Mejor que ~ el/ la mejor <br /> ~ malo ~peor que ~ el/la peor <br /> ~ viejo ~Mayor que ~ el/la mayor <br /> ~ joven ~ menor que ~el/ la menor <br />
    44. 44. Connecting Verbs<br />Aunque<br />Mientras<br />Por lo tanto<br />Sin Embargo <br />A pesar de <br />Tambien<br />Pero<br />
    45. 45. Futuro:<br />I, you, he/she, we, you, they will <br />Yo<br />Nosotros<br />Tu<br />Vosotros<br /> El * <br /> Ella*<br />Usted* <br />Ustedes<br />Ellos<br />Ellas<br /> e <br />amos<br /> as<br />eis<br /> a<br /> an <br />Infintive<br />
    46. 46. Trigger words <br />Expressions that indicate Future<br />Manana /Pasadamanana<br />Semana/ mes/ anoqueveine<br />Anopasado/anoproximo<br />Es una/ tres/ hora dos<br />Trigger words for Subjuntive<br />Cuando (when)<br />en cuanto(as soon as)<br />Hastaque (until)<br />Tan pronto como (as soon as)<br />A menosque (unless)<br />Con tal (de) que (in case)<br />En caso de que (in case)<br />Para que (so that)<br />
    47. 47. Irregulares<br />Decir…………………………………. Dir <br />Hacer………………………………... Har<br />Poner………………………………….Pondr<br />Salir…………………………………….Saldr<br />Tener…………………………………..Tendr<br />Querer………………………………….Quer<br />Valer……………………………………..Valdr<br />Venir……………………………………..Vendr<br />Poder…………………………………….Podr<br />Haber……………………………………..Habr<br />Saber……………………………………...Sabr<br />Caber…………………………………….Cabr<br />Happy f<br />
    48. 48. Por<br />Passing through…….. Pasaportejas<br />General rather than specific…Portugal <br />How long something lasts……Forever <br />The cause of something ……purpose <br />An exchange….import/export <br />Doing something instead of something else…pay for me <br />Transportation….car <br />
    49. 49. Para<br />For whom something is done……surprise party<br />Destination(specific)…..paraguay<br />The purpose for which something is done…<br />To express an opinion.. Perdon me <br />To compare and contrast…..<br />To express an idea of deadline… paramanana.<br />
    50. 50. Conditional<br />Hello <br />íaíasíaíamosíaisían<br />Con frecuencia, la condición se traduce generalmente como sería, podría, debe tener o probablemente.<br />
    51. 51. Present tense <br /><ul><li>combinando el verbo auxiliar "tiene" o "tener" con el participio pasado.</li></ul> He Pastparticiple- used as anadjective<br /> Has * Talia le ha dado mucho <br /> Ha dinero a su hermana<br /> Hemos <br />HabisPresentParticiple- <br /> Han <br />
    52. 52. Past participle<br /> “had”<br />Habia<br />Habias<br />Habia<br />Habiamos<br />Habian<br />
    53. 53. Present Perfect irregulares<br />HemosPuesto<br />Han Escrito<br />Ha Abierto<br />Ha muerto<br />Han visto<br />Ha dicho<br />Has vuelto<br />Hemos echo.<br />
    54. 54. Subjunctive Perfect <br />Compound tense of the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb. <br />Yo- haya hablado <br />Tu- hayas hablado <br />El/ella/ud- haya hablado <br />Nosotros- hayamos hablado <br />Vosotros- hayais hablado <br />Ellos/ellas/uds- hayan hablado.<br />
    55. 55. Tanto y Tan <br /><ul><li>Tan + adjective/ adverb + como</li></ul>Forming comparison of equalities with adjectives or adverbs<br />Ej: El libros tan bueno como la pelicula<br /><ul><li>Tantos + noun+ como</li></ul>Forming comparisons of equalities with nouns <br />Ej: Lola tienetantogalleta coma Talia.<br />
    56. 56. Impersonal se <br />Se can be used in all tenses. <br />Se hizo mucho <br />Se habiahecho<br />When using se the verb is always in the 3rd person.<br />Ejemplo: Aqui se hablaespanol<br />Use “se” to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb. <br />
    57. 57. Saber vsConocer<br />Saber : To know:<br /> a fact <br /> info <br />How to do something <br />Porejemplo: Shakira<br />Sabe un hecho. <br />Conocer: to know: <br /> to know a person <br /> Place <br /> Literary Works<br />Porejemplo: Conozco Lola. <br />Saber +Infinitive= know how<br />
    58. 58. Los mandatos<br />To command someone to <br />do something. <br />Porejemplo:<br />Lavarselasmanos!<br />No pegartuhermano<br />
    59. 59. Informal/ Formal <br />In the tu form and can beaffirmativeornegative. <br />Ej: compra los dulces <br />In the ustedes form and can beaffirmativeornegative. <br />Ej: Compre la mochila. <br />
    60. 60. Affirmative/ Negative <br />Affirmative: <br /> Regular <br /> Conjugate in the tu form and drop the “s” add pronoun if nessessary<br /> Irregular<br />Di;haz;ve;pon;sal;se;ten;ven or put in the tu stem change and drop the “s”.<br />Negative: <br /> Regular<br /> Put it in the yo form, change to the opposite vowel ending and add an “s”. Place pronoun before the verb. <br />
    61. 61. Dop/Lop placement<br />Place before verb<br />Answer the question of to whom and from whom?<br />Me <br />Te <br />Le <br />Nos<br />Les <br />Place before verb <br />Answer the questions of who and what?<br />Me <br />Te <br />Lo, La <br />Nos<br />Los, Las <br />
    62. 62. Nosotros Commands <br />Used when a speaker is included, used to express lets+ verb <br />Opposite nosotros ending <br />Ej: ComamosAlli<br />For negative, just add no before verb for the negative <br />
    63. 63. Mono Verbs <br />Withaffirmative nosotros commands, the final “S” isdroppedbeforeaddingthepronouns- nos or –se <br />Ej: sentemos + nos= sentemonos<br />Butwithnegative nosotros commands, thepronoun comes beforetheverb<br />Ej: no nos sentemos <br />
    64. 64. Trigger Phrases <br />A menos que <br />Antes que <br />Cuando <br />Dudar que <br />En canto <br />Es bueno que <br />Es imposible que <br />Es malo que <br />Querer que <br />Sin que <br />Negar que <br />Hasta que <br />En raro que <br />Es mejor que <br />Es posible que <br />
    65. 65. Impersonal Expressions <br /> Allow you to clearly communicate many different ideas by using only a few words. <br />Es precisoque<br />Es urgent que<br />Es importanteque<br />Es maloque<br />
    66. 66. Expressions of Emotions <br />Es bueno que- itsgoodthat<br />Es facil que- itseasythat<br />Es una lastima que- it’s a pitythat<br />Es malo que- itstoobadthat<br />Es peor que- itsworsethat<br />
    67. 67. Conjunctions of time<br />Asique- as soon as <br />Cuando- when <br />Despues de- after <br />Es cuanto- as soon as <br />Hastaque – until <br />Luegoque- later <br />
    68. 68. Demonstrative Adjectives <br />Masculine:<br /> Singular: este Plural: estos <br /> ese esos<br /> aquel aquellos<br />Feminine:<br /> Singular: esta Plural: estas <br /> esa esas<br /> aquella aquellas <br />
    69. 69. Demonstrative pronouns <br />Masculine: <br /> Singular : éste Plural: éstos<br /> éseésos<br /> aquélaquéllos<br />Feminine:<br /> Singular: ésta Plural: <br />ésa<br />aquélla<br />éstas<br />ésas<br />aquéllas<br />
    70. 70. ELFin!<br />

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