Atkinson’s Model Tendency to Approach Tendency to Avoid Success (Ts) Failure (Taf)Ta = (Ms × Ps × Is) – (Maf × Pf × If ) • Maf : Motive to Avoid Failure • Ms: Motive to Success • Pf : Perceived Probability of • Ps : Perceived Probability Failure (1- Ps) of Success • If : Negative Incentive • Is : Incentive Value of value Success for Failure (1- Is)
Dynamics-of-Action ModelStreams of Behavior for People High and Low in Ms and Maf1. Latency to begin an achievement depends on motive strength. (Ms vs. Maf)2. Persistence on an achievement task depends on motive strength. (Ms vs. Maf)3. Switching to a nonachievement task occurs with rising consumption.
Conditions That Involve &Satisfy the Need for Achievement
Benefits of Adopting Mastery Goals Preference for a Challenging Task Work One can Learn From Harder Use Conceptually Based Learning Strategies Persist Longerdoption of a Experience Greaterastery Goal Intrinsic than Extrinsic Motivation More Likely to Ask Perform for Information & Help Better Performance Goal) (rather than a
Achievement Goals in the Classroom (Ames & Archer, 1988) Manifestations of Mastery and Performance Goals in the Classroom Context
Integrating Classical & ContemporaryApproaches to Achievement Motivation
Antecedents & Consequences of the Three Achievement Goals (Elliot & Church, 1997) .22Achievement .31 motivation Mastery goal .26 Intrinsic motivation -.34 .21 Performance- .36Competence expectancy approach goal -.14 -.26 Graded .41 performance .45 Performance- -.34Fear of failure avoidance goal
Implicit Theories Implicit Theories vs.Adoption of PerformanceAchievement Mastery Goals GoalsGoals Utility of effort: High effort signalsMeaning of Challenging tasks LOW ability.Effort require high effort.
AFFILIATION AND INTIMACYProfile of High Intimacy Motivation
Conditions That Involve & Satisfy the Affiliation and Intimacy NeedsNeed-InvolvingConditionNeed-SatisfyingCondition