Developmental Psychology The study of YOU from womb to tomb. We are going to study how we change physically,socially, cognitively and morally over our lifetimes.
Nature vs. Nurture QuizAnswer True or False for the following questions• 1. Even complex human traits are determined by a single gene• 2. People’s divorce risks are about 50% attributable to genetic factors• 3. Adoptees’ traits bear more similar to their adoptive parents than to their biological parents• 4. Two different children in the same family are on average as different from one another as are pairs of children selected from the general population
Nature vs. Nurture Quiz cont• 5. If after a worldwide catastrophe only Icelanders and Kenyans survived, the human species would soon be just as mixed and diverse as it is now• 6. A child who hears English spoken with one accent at home and another in the neighborhood or at school adopts the accent of their peers, not their parents• 7. Compared with Westerners, people in Japan exhibit greater concern for social harmony and loyalty
Nature vs. Nurture Quiz cont• 8. Seven weeks after conception, males and females remain anatomically identical• 9. Even when families discourage gender typing, children still organize themselves into “boy worlds” and “girl worlds”
Heredity vs. Environment• Heredity- characteristics obtained directly from the genes• Environment- person’s surroundings (which influence a person’s characteristics)
Genetics • Every human cell contains 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). • Made up of deoxyribonucleic acid- DNA. • Made up of Genes. • Made up of nucleotides.
Twins • Best way to really study genetics because they come from the same zygote. • Bouchard Study • .69 Correlational coefficient for IQ tests of identical twins raised apart. • .88 raised together.
Chromosomal Abnormalities• Gender comes from 23rd pair of chromosomes…men have XY…woman have XX.• Turner’s syndrome is single X.• Klinefelter’s syndrome is extra X…XXY• Down syndrome….extra chromosome on 21st pair.
Nature Versus NurtureWhile going through this unit what should always be in the back of your head….Are you who you are because of:• The way you were born- Nature.• The way you were raised- Nurture.
Research Methods Cross-Sectional Studies Longitudinal Studies• Participants of • One group of people different ages studied studied over a period of at the same time. time.
Physical Development• Focus on our physical changes over time.
Prenatal Development• Conception begins with the drop of an egg and the release of about 200 million sperm.• The sperm seeks out the egg and attempts to penetrate the eggs surface.
• Once the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a fertilized egg called…….. The Zygote The first stage of prenatal development. Lasts about two weeks and consists of rapid cell division.
Zygotes• Less than half of all zygotes survive first two weeks.• About 10 days after conception, the zygote will attach itself to the uterine wall.• The outer part of the zygote becomes the placenta (which filters nutrients).
After two weeks, the zygote develops into an…. Embryo • Lasts about 6 weeks. • Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to develop.
Fetus • By nine weeks we have a… • The fetus by about the 6th month, the stomach and other organs have formed enough to survive outside of mother. • At this time the baby can hear (and recognize) sounds and respond to light.
Teratogens • Chemical agents that can harm the prenatal environment. • Alcohol (FAS) • Other STDs can harm the baby….. • HIV • Herpes • Genital Warts
Life Expectancy• Life Expectancy keeps increasing- now about 75.• Women outlive men by about 4 years.• But more men are conceived 126 to 100. Then 105 to 100 by birth. In other words, men die easier.
Death • Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’s Stages of Death/Grief. 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptancehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_Z3lmidmrY
Social Development• Up until about a year, infants do not mind strange people (maybe because everyone is strange to them).• At about a year, infants develop stranger anxiety.• Why do you think it starts at about a year?
Attachment • The most important social construct an infant must develop is attachment (a bond with a caregiver). • Lorenz discovered that some animals form attachment through imprinting.
Attachment• Harry Harlow and his monkeys.• Harry showed that monkeys needed touch to form attachment.• http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=hsA5S ec6dAI
Attachment• Critical Periods: the optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development.• Those who are deprived of touch have trouble forming attachment when they are older.
Types of Attachment • Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation. • Three types of attachment: 1. Secure 2. Avoidant 3. Anxious/ambivalenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SHP_NikTkao
Parenting StylesAuthoritarian Parents• Have strict rules and expectations.• Very demanding, but not responsive.• Dont express much warmth or nurturing.• Utilize punishments with little or no explanation• Dont give children choices or options.Children of Authoritarian Parents• Tend to associate obedience and success with love.• Some children display more aggressive behavior outside the home.• Others may act fearful or overly shy around others.• Often have lower self-esteem.• Have difficulty in social situations.
Parenting StylesPermissive Parents Children of Permissive Parents • Lack self-discipline• Have few rules or standards of behavior• When there are rules, they are often very inconsistent • Sometimes have poor social skills• Are usually very nurturing and loving towards their kids• Often seem more like a friend, rather than a parent. • May be self-involved and• May use bribery such as toys, gifts and food as a means demanding to get child to behave • May feel insecure due to the lack of boundaries and guidance
Parenting StylesAuthoritative Parents• Listen to their children Children of Authoritative Parent• Encourage independence • Tend to have a happier dispositions• Place limits, consequences and • Have good emotional control and expectations on their childrens regulation behavior • Develop good social skills• Express warmth and nurturance • Are self-confident about their abilities to learn new skills• Allow children to express opinions• Encourage children to discuss options• Administer fair and consistent discipline
Stage Theorists• These psychologists believe that we travel from stage to stage throughout our lifetimes.
Sigmund Freud• We all have a libido (sexual drive).• Our libido travels to different areas of our body throughout our development.• If we become preoccupied with any one area, Freud said we have become fixated on it.• Together Freud called these stages our Psychosexual Stages of Development.
Oral Stage • Seek pleasure through out mouths. • Babies put everything in their mouths (0-2). • People fixated in this stage tend to overeat, smoke or have a childhood dependence on things.
Anal Stage• Develops during toilet training (2-4).• Libido is focused on controlling waste and expelling waste.• A person fixated may become overly controlling (retentive) or out of Click to see a classic example of anal retentive and anal expulsive behaviors. control (expulsive).
Phallic Stage • Children first recognize their gender (4-7). • Causes conflict in families with the Oedipus and Electra Complexes. • Fixation can cause later problems in relationships.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BA35ys91QJU
Latency Stage• Libido is hidden (7-11).• Cooties stage.• Freud believed that fixation in this stage could lead to sexual issues.
Genital Stage • Libido is focused on their genitals (12- death). • Freud thought fixation in this stage is normal.
Erik Erikson• A neo-Freudian• Worked with Anna Freud• Thought our personality was influenced by our experiences with others.• Stages of Psychosocial Development.• Each stage centers on a social conflict.
Trust v. Mistrust • Can a baby trust the world to fulfill its needs? • The trust or mistrust they develop can carry on with the child for the rest of their lives.
Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt• Toddlers begin to control their bodies (toilet training).• Control Temper Tantrums• Big word is “NO”• Can they learn control or will they doubt themselves?
Initiative V. Guilt • Word turns from “NO” to “WHY?” • Want to understand the world and ask questions. • Is there curiosity encouraged or scolded?
Industry v. Inferiority• School begins• We are for the first time evaluated by a formal system and our peers.• Do we feel good or bad about our accomplishments?• Can lead to us feeling bad about ourselves for the rest of our lives…inferiority complex.
Identity v. Role Confusion • In our teenage years we try out different roles. • Who am I? • What group do I fit in with? • If I do not find myself I may develop an identity crisis.
Intimacy v. Isolation• Have to balance work and relationships.• What are my priorities?
Marriage • At least a 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative interactions is a clear indicator of a healthy relationship.
Generativity v. Stagnation • Is everything going as planned? • Am I happy with what I created? • Mid –life crisis!!!
Integrity v. Despair• Look back on life.• Was my life meaningful or do I have regret?
Cognitive Development • It was thought that kids were just stupid versions of adults. • Then came along Jean Piaget • Kids learn differently than adults
Right now in your head, Schemas picture a model.• Children view the world through schemas (as do adults for the most part). These 3• Schemas are ways we probably fit into interpret the world your concept around us. (schema) of a model.• It is basically what you picture in your But does this head when you think one? of anything.
If I teach my 3 year Assimilation that an animal with 4 legs and a tail is a dog…. • Incorporating new experiences into existing schemas. What schema would you assimilate this into? Or this?Whatwould hecall this?
Assimilation in High School • When you first meet somebody, you will assimilate them into a schema that you already have.If you see two guys dressed like this,what schema would you assimilate theminto?•Would you always be right?
Accommodation• Changing an existing schema to adopt to new information. If I tell someone from the mid-west to picture their schema of the Bronx they may talk about the ghetto areas. But if I showed them other areas of the Bronx, they would be forced to accommodate (change) their schema to incorporate their new information.
Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage• Experience the world through our senses.• Do NOT have object permanence.• 0-2 http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=cSGWh2CWJnA
Preoperational Stage http://www.youtube. • 2-7 com/watch?v=OinqF • Have object gsIbh0 permanence • Begin to use language to represent objects and ideas • Egocentric: cannot look at the world through anyone’s eyes but their own. • Do NOT understand concepts of conservation.
Conservation• Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance and is part of logical thinking.
Concrete Operational Stage• Can demonstrate concept of conservation.• Learn to think logically
Formal Operational Stage • Abstract reasoning• What would the world • Manipulate objects look like with no light? in our minds without• Picture god seeing them• What way do you best • Hypothesis testing learn? • Trial and Error • Metacognition • Not every adult gets to this stage
Criticisms of Piaget• Some say he underestimates the abilities of children.• Information- Processing Model says children to not learn in stages but rather a gradual continuous growth.• Studies show that our attention span grows gradually over time.
Types of Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Fluid Intelligence• Accumulated knowledge. • Ability to solve• Increases with age. problems quickly and think abstractly. • Peaks in the 20’s and then decreases over time.
Moral DevelopmentThree Stage Theory by Lawrence Kohlberg!!!
Pre-conventional Morality• Morality based on rewards and punishments.• If you are rewarded then it is OK.• If you are punished, the act must be wrong.
Conventional Morality • Look at morality based on how others see you. • If your peers , or society, thinks it is wrong, then so do you.
Post-Conventional Morality• Based on self- defined ethical principles.• Your own personal set of ethics.
Criticisms of Kohlberg • Carol Gilligan pointedHeinz Example of Morality out that Kohlberg only tested boys. • Boys tend to have more absolute value of morality. • Girls tend top look at situational factors.
Gender Development• Biology (neuroscience) perspective: Corpus Callosum larger in woman.• Psychodynamic perspective: Competition for opposite sex parent.• Social-Cognitive Perspective : Gender Schema Theory• Behavioral Perspective: Social Learning Theory
Evolutionary Psychology• Evolutionary Psychology- the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection• Natural Selection- the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increase reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Evolutionary Psychology• World wide, men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health and women preferred resources and social status
Individualism vs. Collectivism• Individualism- giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications• Collectivism- giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly• Western cultures (America/Europe) tend to be more individualist than Eastern cultures (Asia/Africa)
Value Contrasts Between Individualism and CollectivismConcept Individualism CollectivismSelf Independent Interdependent (identity from individual traits) identity from belonging)Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in uniquenessWhat matters Me--personal achievement and We-group goals and solidarity; fulfillment; rights and liberties social responsibilities and relationshipsCoping method Change reality Accommodate to realityMorality Defined by individuals Defined by social networks (self-based) (duty-based)Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; confrontation acceptable harmony valuedAttributing Behavior reflects one’s personality Behavior reflects socialbehaviors and attitudes and roles