Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

20150915 apc pca-kyoto

1,082 views

Published on

Kyoto Japan 2015

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

20150915 apc pca-kyoto

  1. 1. Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015 Pine trees have develop a strategy to defend from their natural environmental enemies.. Pinus massoniana - Guangxi, CHINA
  2. 2. Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015 The bark beetle is one of those enemies (fungus farming beetle). http://www.barkbeetles.info/photos_target_species.php?lookUp=491&image=2103_dendroctonus_valens_lat_valley_5478381&curPage=0
  3. 3. Photosynthesis H2O + nutrients CO2 O2 Sun Light Sugars Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  4. 4. Biosynthesis Primary Metabolites Secondary Metabolites For nutrition, growth and reproduction. To influence the ecologica interaction between plant and environment. Sugars Cost / Benefit Relation Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  5. 5. Secondary Metabolites TERPENES (25.000 diferente compounds) Pinenes, abietic acid, taxol, limonene, carotenois, essential oils, rubber, etc. NITROGEN COMPOUNDS (12.000 compounds) Cafeine, nicotine, etc. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS (8.000 compounds) Tanins, flavonoids, ligning, salicilic acid, vainilline, etc. Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  6. 6. MONOTERPENES SESQUITERPENES DITERPENES TERPENES derive from the union of two or more ISOPENTENYL DIPHOSPHATE (IPP) molecules or its isomer DIMETHYL ALLIL DIPHOSPHATE geranyl diphosphate geranyl geranyl diphosphate farnesyl diphosphate
  7. 7. Primary Metabolites Secondary Metabolites C02 + Photosynthesis Eritrose-4-fosfate Fosfoenolpiruvate Piruvate 3-PGA CA Route MA Route MVA Route MEP Route Tricarbolxylic Acid Cycle Acetyl CoA Aliphatic Aminoacids Aromatic Aminoacids Nitrogen Compounds Phenolic Compounds Terpenes Source: Taiz, L. et al.; Vegetal Physiology (2004) :312 1 2 Biosynthetic Routes Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  8. 8. IPP DMAPP IPP DMAPP FPP GPP GGPP Sesquiterpenes (C15) Monoterpenes (C10) Diterpenes (C20) Triterpenes (C30) Tetraterpenes (C40) CELULAR CITOPLASM PLASTIDS ? 2.5.1.21 5.3.3.2 5.3.3.2 2.5.1.29 2.5.1.10 2.5.1.1 2.5.1.29 2.5.1.10 2.5.1.1 2.5.1.29 1 2 PRIMARY METAB. PRIMARY METAB. SECONDARY METAB. SECONDARY METAB. SECONDARY METAB. Where are TERPENES produced within the PLANT CELL? Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  9. 9. Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015 Longitudinal Resin Duct Resin Duct Epithelial Cell Which are the plant cells that produce OLEORESIN? The ones that cover internally the RESIN DUCTS
  10. 10. Eloise Gerry (1885 – 1970) Researcher from the USDA Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WC - USA, earn in 1921 her Doctorate with a dissertation about “Oleoresin Production: A Microscopic Study of the Effects Produced on Woody Tissues of Southern Pines by Different Methods of Turpentining” USDA Bulletin 1064. PINE OLEORESIN is not SAP!
  11. 11. This generates CHEMICAL SIGNALS that jump starts GENETIC EXPRESSION for the production of ENZYMES that biosynthesize TERPENES (OLEORESIN) that are stored in RESIN DUCTS. This pathway is know as OLEORESINOSIS. The answers to those CHEMICAL SIGNALS are multiple, and also jump starts the biosynthesis of tanins and lignification of the affected area. What happens when a beetle (+fungus) attack the stem of a pine tree? Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  12. 12. Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015 Beetle + fungus Genetic expression, enzymes, oleoresin biosynthesis. Oleoresin storage in resin ducts. What happens when a beetle (+fungus) attack the stem of a pine tree? Signal (wound / chemical)
  13. 13. DNA 3) TRANSPORT TO CITOPLASM 2) PROCESSING 1) TRANSCRIPTION 4) TRANSLATION mRNA ENZIME CELL NUCLEUS CELL CITOPLASM Genetic Expression Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  14. 14. Oleoresinosis Cost / Benefit Strategy BEFORE THE ATTACK CONSTITUTIVE DEFENSE = FIX COST • BIOSYNTHESIS OF OLEORESIN • STORAGE IN RESIN DUCTS AFTER THE ATTACK INDUCED DEFENSE = VARIABLE COST • denovo BIOSYNTHESIS OF OLEORESIN • TRAUMATIC RESIN DUCTS FORMATION SYSTEMIC DEFENCE = REALOCATION OF THE FIX COST Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  15. 15. • OLEORESINOSIS in conifers could have evolved as a strategy to defend from the beetle / fungi attack. • PINE OLEORESIN is a mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and neutral compounds. • OLEORESIN in the stem of the pine tree is produced permanently by the epitelial cells that cover the internal walls of the resin ducts in the xylem. • OLEORESIN is store under positive preassure. • Some Pine species presente an induced responce in the floema (place of the invasion) to a patogenic attack. Tesis: Faldt, Jenny (2000) Volatil constituents in conifers and conifer-related wood decaying fungi. Oleoresinosis Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  16. 16. How does this view from the stand point of PLANT PHYSIOLOGY or PLANT ECOLOGY relates with what we do when we TAP a PINE TREE to produce PINE OLEORESIN? Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015
  17. 17. Bark beetle Associated fungus STREAK TO REMOVE BARK (WOUND) CHEMICAL STIMULATION (PASTE w/CEPA, SA, MeJa...)   PINE TAPPER PLANT ECOLOGIST Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015 PARALELISM !
  18. 18. Alex CUNNINGHAM alexcunn@gmail.com September 2015

×