It is widely ccepted that tourism preserve… by oblivion Keep them alive
It also depends on the developement model the tourist had i tourism is driven by foreign investimens probebly touyrism forsce local pepole tio accept low kill jobs and not so fair travel conditions On the contrary, if t follow a bottom us pattern probebly lead to beter conditions for the paopole and the workers. We can spoand hours in drawing up a list od places that had been radiclly changed bi tourism…
THYE MAIN ASSUMPTOON OF RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IS THIS: THE WELL BEING OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES. Only if you have godd placec to live in you can have good places to visit to… If a particular commmunity is a good place to live in probebly it will be a good place to visit. Responsible tourism tries to minimize the bad efects and to foster the good ones by creating the consitions of a sustainable developement of tourism sector.
A friend of mine used to day that tha main motivation for tourism is the alar-clock that wake up us evey morning Reslessness is pone of the condition of our time of the modern westrn man We are always searching for meaning and we have many existentioal question that require answers and travel may give some answers On of the most persisting mith of our cuyulture is the escape frm paradise I like to quote a geran filosophers that said: I travel in order to knowm y own geography
These are in other terms the pull factors, i.e. that elements that attract visitors to our destination. Theese could be monuments, nature, … everything that could become the object of tourist interest. In recent years what could be the source of attraction of visitors had changed on consecuence of the changing of visitors needs and interests. every one wants to visit the super famous attractions all over the worls, but even not-so-famuous features in the destination is important to design an offer.
Tourism ins proplably the only economic sector in which a customer cannot try the product before using it.
the post cards gave the traveller the possibility of to send greetings home and gave the destination the opportunity to promote some images. At our times we prefer hare our pictures and
Every place has its own unique qualities, not only in terms of its physical makeup, but of how it is perceived, so it ought to be (but far too often is not) the responsibilities of the governament (and the management) of a destination to be sensitive to those unique qualities, to enhance them rather than to destroy them…
In the early stages of tourism, the community is euphoric, welcomingthe potential economic and social benefits tourism may bring. This then moves to a state of apathy as the early promises are not realised by all members, moving on to annoyance with the inconveniences of the increased numbers of visitors, such as limited parking spaces and crowding. According to Doxey’s model, if the crowding increases, residents begin to show antagonism towards the visitors, which may ultimately be expressed through violence. The final stage that Doxey described is that of resignation, with many residents becoming resignedto the effects of tourism, possibly altering their behaviour or simply avoiding visitors.Doxey referred to this model as an ‘Irridex’ and, while it is extremely simple, it has remained one that is often referred to by community planners when considering the potential negative aspects of tourism..
Visitors can learn interesting aspects of local culture, they can experienca an immersion in the residents life, meet new people, learn something about themselves Residents can do the experience of encounter, learn something about the visitors culture, to refine the art of hospitality
So all these determinants help to better plan the tourism developement and help to avoid some risks brought by uncontrolled developement of tourism.
Remember that touruists are attracted by the diversity, do try to enhance yout identity and be proud of your customs and traditions. Only if you know the reasons of the unsatistaction you can improve the offer of you destination
YAC Course - Anthropology tourism
online course in responsible tourism development session #02 Alessandro Bazzanella Anthropology of tourism
Agenda <ul><li>The framework: tourism as a major industry </li></ul><ul><li>A definition of the item </li></ul><ul><li>Why do humans need to travel? The push factors in tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Genius loci, identity and pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>The art of encounter: the host & guest relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Some marketing implications… </li></ul>
Tourism: the world biggest industry? Some facts&figures <ul><li>Over the decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and deepening diversification to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the business volume of tourism equals or even surpasses that of oil exports, food products or automobiles. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1950 to 2005, international tourism arrivals expanded at an annual rate of 6.5%, growing from 25 million to 806 million travellers. </li></ul><ul><li>The income generated by these arrivals grew at an even stronger rate reaching 11.2% during the same period, outgrowing the world economy, reaching around US$ 680 billion in 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2020 international arrivals are expected to surpass 1.5 billion people </li></ul>Source: UNWTO
The good effects of tourism on places <ul><li>Creates employment opportunities for local people </li></ul><ul><li>Many local facilities and infrastucture built to sustain tourism developement could lead to better education, health care, employment opportunities; </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes cultural awareness and can help preserve local culture and traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Income generated from tourism can be used to develop local infrastructure and services e.g. new roads and airports. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of the local cultural heritage and the rebirth of its crafts, traditions, etc…. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural features that attract tourists can be protected using income from tourism </li></ul>
and the bad effects…. <ul><li>The increase in air travel has contributed towards increased carbon dioxide emissions. On a local level natural features that attract tourists are themselves under threat due to human actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Often local people are employed in low skill, poorly paid work in unsatisfactory working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Travel agents, airline companies and hoteliers benefit more than local companies when holidays are booked to destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Help destroy local culture and traditions </li></ul>
The good, the bad and…the responsible <ul><li>Tha main aim is generating greater economic benefits for local people and enhancing the well being of host communities </li></ul><ul><li>improves working conditions and access to the industry involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances </li></ul><ul><li>makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage embracing diversity </li></ul><ul><li>provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issues </li></ul><ul><li>provides access for physically challenged people </li></ul><ul><li>is culturally sensitive, encourages respect between tourists and hosts, and builds local pride and confidence </li></ul>Responsible tourism… (Cape Town Declaration, 2002)
What is anthropology of tourism? <ul><li>Anthropology of tourism is the discipline that studies human beings while they are travelling… </li></ul>Anthropology is t he scientific study of the origin and behavior of mankind, including the development of societies and cultures . people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes "
Why is important? <ul><li>We saw that tourism is a big and pervasive industry. To better plan tourism and to make it more sustainable and responsible, is important to understand the role of the “human factor” in tourism </li></ul><ul><li>The human factor is very important. In any travelling experience the tourists establish many relations with many people. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s try to analize the travelling experience of a tourist from the search of information about a place to the coming back to home. It’s quite complex… </li></ul>
The travelling experience begins before the trip and finishes after… SEARCHING FOR INFOS BOOKING TRAVEL TO THE DESTINATION ACCOMODATION RESTAURANTS TRANSPORTATION SHOPPING LOCAL GUIDES <ul><li>During a travel experience the guest interacts with many operators of tourism (travel agency, hotels, restaurants, guides, mobility, shopping, …) </li></ul><ul><li>The satisfaction of guests depends on all the interactions he has during his trip </li></ul><ul><li>Is a very complex problem…with a lot of actors involved </li></ul>This is the reason why the HUMAN FACTOR Is so important in tourism TRAVEL BACK
Why do we travel? A brief history of tourism…(of Europe) <ul><li>In Europe, the first tourists (in 19° century) were seeking warmer places and thermal baths to cure illness </li></ul><ul><li>During the ’60 “economic boom”, people discovered the pleasure of staying in holyday after a year of hard work </li></ul><ul><li>In the ‘80 tourism becomes a mass phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>In the ‘90 tourism becomes a global phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>At our times tourism is a very complex industry and the mass market is replaced by the niche markets </li></ul>
The push factors in tourism What makes people travel? <ul><li>Working overload </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution and urban life conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Nostalgia for the lost paradise </li></ul><ul><li>Boredom/Routine </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration and evaluation of self </li></ul>
Images, signs and stereotypes <ul><li>Places are chosen to be gazed upon because there is anticipation of intense pleasures, constructed and sustained through a variety of non-tourist practices, such as film, Tv, literature, magazines, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>The tourist gaze is directed to features of landscape and townscape which separate them off from everyday experience. </li></ul><ul><li>The gaze is constructed through signs, and tourism involves the collection of signs. When tourists see two people kissing in Paris what they capture in the gaze is 'timeless romantic Paris'. When a small village in England is seen, what they gaze upon is the 'real old England'. </li></ul><ul><li>The tourists are fanning out in search of the signs of Frenchness, typical Italian behaviour, exemplary oriental scenes, typical American thruways, traditional English pubs' </li></ul>
Tourism paradoxes <ul><li>Travellers destroy what they seek… </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists dont’t love tourists… </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism destinations promise eden uncorrupted by… tourists themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists escape from their everyday life to find… the perfect copy of their reality (in the environmental bubbles…) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists seek destinations with good connections and accessibility, but they don’t like crowd at all… </li></ul>
Genius loci <ul><li>For a destination is very important to recognize and empower its traditions, its identity, its unique way of life </li></ul><ul><li>In other words: it’s important to discover and to enhance its genius loci </li></ul><ul><li>Genius loci is a latin term meaning ‘the genius of the place”, in modern terms is the distinctive atmosphere or pervading spirit of a place. </li></ul><ul><li>The genius loci is not static in time, but it changes… </li></ul>
How to meet the genius loci <ul><li>The ingredients of the identity </li></ul>GENIUS LOCI Geography Architecture Environment Traditions History Religion Food & cuisine
Exercise: try to define the genius loci of the place you live in <ul><li>Let’s find no more than 5 terms that could define the genius loci of the place you live in… </li></ul><ul><li>I do it, too: </li></ul><ul><li>The genius loci of my region, Trentino, is </li></ul><ul><li>Austere, reliable, friendly, sincere, inspiring </li></ul><ul><li>Please post your terms on the wiki page dedicated to the course: http:// responsibletourismyac.wiki-site.com / index.php /Anthropology_of_Tourism </li></ul>
Hosts and guests The anthropology of the encounter <ul><li>Host and guest have multiple and largely similar derivations, including the Latin hostis and the German gast : stranger, foreigner, enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the word travel comes from “travaille”, a french-latin word that means “suffering…” </li></ul><ul><li>So the root of the two words is the same and has a negative connotation and the relationship between host and guest connotes a sense of ambivalent hostility and friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford English Dictionary define hospitality as “the act or practice of being hospitable; the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors or strangers, with liberality and goodwill </li></ul>
Host sentiments towards tourists Euphoria Visitors and investors welcome Visitors taken for granted Apathy More formal relationships between hosts and guests Annoyance Residents misgiving about tourism Antagonism Irritations openly expressed Residents perceive tourists as cause of problems Resignation Resignation to the problems, avoiding contacts with tourists
Some determinants of the social relations that are established between 'hosts' and 'guests'. <ul><li>The number of tourists visiting a place in relationship to the size of the host population </li></ul><ul><li>The predominant object of the tourist gaze, whether it is a landscape, a townscape, an ethnic group, a lifestyle, historical artefacts, bases of recreation (golf, ski), or simply sand, sun and sea </li></ul><ul><li>The organization of the industry that develops to service the mass gaze: whether-it is private or publicly owned and financed; whether it is locally owned or involves significant overseas interests; whether the capital involved is predominantly small- or large-scale; </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of tourism upon the pre-existing agricultural and industrial activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic and social differences between the visitors and the majority of the hosts. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which the mass of visitors demand particular standards of accommodation and service,' that they should be enclosed in an environmental bubble to provide protection from many of the features of the host society. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which the state in a given country actively seeks to promote tourist developments or alternatively endeavours to prevent them. </li></ul>J. Urry, The tourist gaze
Some marketing implications <ul><li>A better understanding of the differences between host and and guests allow to better manage the host-guest relationship. And every destination could find its own way to mangage this interaction, starting from its own factors of uniqueness. </li></ul><ul><li>The more you enhance the genus loci, the more you will provide to the tourists a unique esperience. The only thing that no one could replicate is your place’s identity. Every place on earth has its own “genetic code”… </li></ul><ul><li>Before creating a offer in your destination, ask yourself: why does someone choose me? Analize what are the motivations and evaluate if you can satisfy the expectations of the potential clients. </li></ul><ul><li>Images are very powerful tools to strike the imagination of customers, choose them carefully to promote your destination </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists seek for experiences and emotions, not only “services”. Be aware of this… </li></ul><ul><li>Never stop measuring guests satisfaction… </li></ul><ul><li>In the “social web age”, satisfied guests are the best testimonials of your destination… </li></ul>
Thank you very much! <ul><li>Alessandro Bazzanella </li></ul><ul><li>mail: email@example.com </li></ul><ul><li>skype: alessandro.bazzanella </li></ul>