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Unit 2 Lesson 08


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Unit 2 Lesson 08

  1. 1. Lesson 8 Directing Digital Video BASICS Schaefermeyer
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the director’s most important responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the meaning of shooting to edit </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and build a sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Define “the line” </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot a sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot a sequence using the change size and angle rule </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Explain why you would use clean in and out </li></ul><ul><li>Setup for a multi-camera shoot </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how a multi-camera shoot works </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the multi-camera shooting crew members </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to direct a multi-camera shoot </li></ul><ul><li>Explain revealing information </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to work with cast and crew </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  4. 4. Vocabulary <ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaway </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing shot </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics operator </li></ul><ul><li>“ The line” </li></ul><ul><li>Master shot </li></ul><ul><li>Matching time code </li></ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction shot </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Shot </li></ul><ul><li>Switcher </li></ul><ul><li>Tape operator </li></ul><ul><li>Technical director </li></ul><ul><li>VTR (video tape recorder) </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  5. 5. Introduction Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>You could now go out and shoot your fictional narrative, documentary, or news script, and be okay; in this lesson we cover directing before we move on to editing video. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Director’s Responsibilities <ul><li>The director’s responsibilities include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets and sometimes re-writes the script. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approves everything, from costumes to makeup to props to lighting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps cast actors or on camera talent, picks the crew, and then makes sure everybody does their job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans each shot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits down with the editor to put everything together. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The director’s most important job is to tell the story. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  7. 7. Shooting to Edit <ul><li>Making sure the footage fits together to tell the story is called shooting to edit. </li></ul><ul><li>A shot is the time between when you start recording and when you stop. </li></ul><ul><li>Each shot should have a purpose and convey a meaning. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  8. 8. Building a Sequence <ul><li>A series of individual shots edited together to create a scene is called a sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>A basic sequence is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A wide shot commonly called the establishing or master shot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A close-up or medium shot of a character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A close-up of the other character </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  9. 9. Building a Sequence (continued) <ul><li>Two ways to improve the basic sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add a reaction shot that shows the listener’s reaction to what the speaker is saying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add a cut-away, which is a shot of something extra in the scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can change the structure, but you better have a good reason to change it. </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  10. 10. Defining “The Line” <ul><li>It is important to maintain where things are in relationship to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The line” is an imaginary line drawn right down the middle of the top of the heads of the two characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways to cross “the line” in order to show what is going on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a continuous camera move, which shows that the screen positions are changing and keeps the audience from getting confused. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut to a neutral shot, which stops on “the line” and basically eliminates the line. </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  11. 11. Shooting the Sequence Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>Most small video projects, as well as most multi-million dollar Hollywood movies, are shot using a single camera. </li></ul><ul><li>Once you know how many setups the scene takes, you decide how to shoot the sequence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first way is to shoot the entire scene from camera setup one, then shoot the entire scene from camera setup two, and then shoot the entire scene from camera setup three. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second way is to determine which shots you will use from each setup. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Shooting the Sequence (continued) <ul><li>Make sure you shoot everything you need for whichever method you decide to use. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure each shot in the sequence fits together. Each shot should match the other shots. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  13. 13. Changing Size and Angle for Each Camera Setup Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>All action in the second shot needs to be in the same general area as it is in the first shot. The best way to make the differences less noticeable is to remember one simple rule: change size and angle. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the size helps cover the difference in the motions. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the angle smoothes the shot change and eliminates jump cuts, which look like mistakes to the audience. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Clean In and Out <ul><li>One way to shoot so that the edit goes smoothly is called clean in and out. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean in and out makes cutting on action easier. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, show the button in the frame with the hand coming into the frame, pushing the button, and then the hand leaving the frame. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  15. 15. Setting up for Multiple Cameras Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>A multiple camera shoot allows you to setup one time and shoot everything you need without having to reset cameras for every shot. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic multiple camera setup is three cameras: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera 2 is setup for the master shot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cameras 1 and 3 are setup for close-ups </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. How a Multi-Camera Shoot Works <ul><li>One way to handle a multi-camera shoot is to have each camera record to a tape. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with that is you have to capture all of the footage into a computer and then edit the footage together. </li></ul><ul><li>A simpler way is to edit the program together while shooting. </li></ul><ul><li>The video output from each camera is connected to a switcher, which accepts the signal from any number of sources, but allows you to determine which shot is edited into the show, called the program. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  17. 17. Working with Crew Members to Set Up for a Multi-Camera Shoot <ul><li>You usually need a camera operator for each camera. You can use one less camera operator if the center camera is setup and locked down. </li></ul><ul><li>You need an audio operator who can concentrate specifically on the audio. </li></ul><ul><li>A tape operator starts and stops any recording machines as well as plays back any pre-recorded tapes, such as highlights. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  18. 18. Working with Crew Members to Set Up for a Multi-Camera Shoot (continued) <ul><li>A graphics operator creates the graphics, runs the graphics computer, and makes sure whatever graphic is needed to be shown is ready at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>The technical director (TD) runs the switcher. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  19. 19. Directing a Multi-Camera Shoot <ul><li>When deciding what camera shot to use, the director needs to communicate what he or she wants with the technical director and different crew members. </li></ul><ul><li>If the director wants to use the shot from camera 3, they need to say “ready three.” When the director wants to switch to camera 3, they say “take three.” </li></ul><ul><li>The director needs to know what each camera is doing, which graphic or font is needed next, and which tape is in which machine to play back. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  20. 20. Revealing Information <ul><li>The director’s job is to use shots and sequences to reveal information at the right time and in the right way to tell the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the audience is given information at the same time as the characters in the story. Sometimes the characters know more than the audience, and at other times the audience knows more than the characters. </li></ul><ul><li>How and when information is revealed is determined by the script and how the director chooses to tell the story. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  21. 21. Working with Cast and Crew <ul><li>The directors that people enjoy working with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect the people they work with, not just the actors, but the crew as well, and allow the actors to act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know what is going on and has a clear vision of what needs to happen </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  22. 22. Summary <ul><li>A director’s most important job is to tell the story. </li></ul><ul><li>A shot is the time between when you start and stop recording. It is the basic building block for a video. </li></ul><ul><li>A sequence is a series of shots that are edited together to create a scene. </li></ul><ul><li>A basic sequence consists of an establishing shot that establishes where objects and characters are in a scene; followed by a close-up of characters, while they are speaking; reaction shots to show how characters react to what is happening in the scene; and, cutaways to show other events in the scene. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  23. 23. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Each shot that requires a new setup should show a clear change in both size and camera angle. The setup for each close-up following the establishing shot should be closer and show a noticeable change in angle. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean in and out makes editing on actions smoother. Showing a car leave the frame, then cutting to a shot of the destination and the car entering the frame helps editing the shots together to look more natural. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The line” is an imaginary line that determines where the camera should be setup when shooting a sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>A simple sequence with a master shot and two close-ups requires three setups: one for the master shot, and two for each of the close-ups. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  24. 24. Summary (continued) <ul><li>The cameras for a multi-camera shoot should be setup so that the shot from each camera should show change of both image size and angle. </li></ul><ul><li>A multi-camera shoot takes several sources and puts them through a switcher. The switcher then allows the director to determine which of the sources will be shown or recorded at any given time. </li></ul><ul><li>Tension and drama partially are created by how the director builds sequences to reveal information to both the characters in the story and the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>A director should have a vision for how the video will be made and then respect the cast and crew and allow them to do their jobs. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS