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Unit 2 Lesson 06


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Unit 2 Lesson 06

  1. 1. Lesson 6 Lighting Digital Video BASICS Schaefermeyer
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify and define the attributes of light </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the types of artificial light sources </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how light can be altered and controlled with different types of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to use three-point lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to light outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Explain lighting theory </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  3. 3. Vocabulary <ul><li>Arc light </li></ul><ul><li>Backlight </li></ul><ul><li>Barn doors </li></ul><ul><li>Butterfly </li></ul><ul><li>C47 </li></ul><ul><li>Candelas </li></ul><ul><li>Color temperature </li></ul><ul><li>C-stand </li></ul><ul><li>Cucaloris or cookie </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Dimmer </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Fill light </li></ul><ul><li>Flags </li></ul><ul><li>Foot-candle </li></ul><ul><li>Fresnel </li></ul><ul><li>Gel </li></ul><ul><li>Gobo </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  4. 4. Vocabulary (continued) <ul><li>Halogen </li></ul><ul><li>Hard light </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Key light </li></ul><ul><li>Kelvins </li></ul><ul><li>Lux </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral density (or ND) gel or filter </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector </li></ul><ul><li>Scrim </li></ul><ul><li>Set light </li></ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul><ul><li>Soft light </li></ul><ul><li>Tungsten </li></ul><ul><li>Wattage or Watt </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>Basic lighting ensures there is enough light on the subject for the camera to be able to expose the image. </li></ul><ul><li>Better lighting creates shadows and depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Great lighting does all of that and creates mood, develops emotion, and expresses the theme of the story as well. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Identify and Define the Attributes of Light <ul><li>The four attributes of light are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard versus soft light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  7. 7. Identify and Define the Attributes of Light: Color Temperature <ul><li>The two types of light sources are natural and artificial. </li></ul><ul><li>Different light sources come in different colors. </li></ul><ul><li>The color of the light depends on its color temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Color temperature is measured in kelvins. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  8. 8. Identify and Define the Attributes of Light: Hard Versus Soft Light <ul><li>Light that produces hard shadows is known as hard light. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun is a small light source that comes from one point to produce hard shadows. </li></ul><ul><li>Soft light sources create soft, less defined shadows. </li></ul><ul><li>Soft light sources are generally larger, where the light is spread out and hits the subject from more than a single point. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  9. 9. Identify and Define the Attributes of Light: Intensity <ul><li>The strength of light is called intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>Light intensity is measured in candelas, lux, and foot-candles. </li></ul><ul><li>Five Ways to adjust the intensity of light: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add distance between the light source and the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a dimmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a scrim (a metal screen placed in front of the light) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an Neutral Density (ND) gel made to work with heat produced from light without burning or melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a bulb with a different wattage </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  10. 10. Identify and Define the Attributes of Light: Direction <ul><li>Each light produces a shadow. </li></ul><ul><li>The position of a shadow depends on the direction from which light is coming. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling the shadow is pretty simple when you recognize the direction of the light. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  11. 11. Identify the Types of Artificial Light Sources Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>Tungsten, a metallic element, is used to create filaments that generate light through the production of heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Tungsten lights are also known as incandescent lights and come in two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enclosed spotlights, the most common being the Fresnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-face light , which is a bulb with some type of reflective material behind it </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Identify the Types of Artificial Light Sources (continued) <ul><li>Florescent lights manufactured specifically for film and video lighting have a very consistent color temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Arc Lights are generally bigger, harder to move around, and require specialized generators or power supplies. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  13. 13. Light Control Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>Placing objects between a light source and a subject provides control of where light shines and what it looks like on the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The different kinds of light controls include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barn doors are hinged shutters that can be moved into place over the light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flags are opaque pieces of material that do not allow light to pass through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A type of scrim that is a net-like material is put into frames of various sizes so you can use it for any light source. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Light Control (continued) <ul><ul><li>A silk is a piece of artificial silk that allows some, but not all, of the light onto an object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cucaloris, also known as a cookie, is a piece of opaque material (often wood) with non-specific shapes or patterns cut out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A gobo is similar to a cookie, but creates a specific shape or pattern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflectors are used to reflect light back onto a subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overheads and butterflies are large frames to which you can attach silks or scrims and use to control light coming down onto the subject. </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  15. 15. Light Control (continued) Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS <ul><li>Most light controls require stands or clips to put them into position. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C-stands are the most common. They come with an extension arm and a multi-position head. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C47s are the most common and least expensive clip. C47 is a fancy name for a clothespin. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Three-Point Lighting <ul><li>The most common lighting setup is know as three-point lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Three-point lighting uses three main lights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a fourth light is used as well, called the set light. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  17. 17. Three-Point Lighting The Key Light <ul><li>The key light, or simply the key, is the first light you need to set. </li></ul><ul><li>The key light is the main source of light and creates the main shadows on the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>When following three-point lighting, place the key light at a 45 degree angle to the side of the subject and a 45 degree angle down from the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Another rule of thumb is to place the key on the side opposite the direction the subject is looking. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  18. 18. Three-Point Lighting The Fill Light <ul><li>The fill light fills in the shadows created by the key while not creating any of its own shadows. </li></ul><ul><li>Position the fill light on the side opposite the key light and closer to the camera. </li></ul><ul><li>One way to create a fill light is to use a reflector. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the intensities of the key light and fill light is called the lighting ratio. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  19. 19. Three-Point Lighting The Backlight <ul><li>The backlight’s job is to create a halo of light that outlines the subject’s edges. </li></ul><ul><li>The backlight creates separation between the subject and the background. </li></ul><ul><li>The backlight should be placed behind the subject and pointed down onto the subject. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  20. 20. Three-Point Lighting The Set Light <ul><li>The set light is directed at the set to create separation between the subject and the background. </li></ul><ul><li>The set light should not be so bright that it pulls the attention away from the subject, but it needs to be bright enough that there is separation between the subject and the set. </li></ul><ul><li>Three-point lighting can be used to light for more than one subject. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  21. 21. Lighting Outdoors <ul><li>Outdoor lighting can be tricky, but the idea of the three-point lighting is the same. </li></ul><ul><li>The easiest way to light outdoors is to use the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot control where the sun is and you cannot reduce its intensity. You can control where the subject is in relation to the sun and you can use diffusion to keep the sunlight from creating harsh shadows. </li></ul><ul><li>The best times to shoot outdoors are when the sun is first coming up in the morning or when it is going down at night. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  22. 22. Lighting Theory <ul><li>Light bounces off of walls, tables, windows and other objects, so use that idea to make the lighting match the mood or idea from the scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting should be planned out just like anything else: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the script. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualize where to put the key light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block out the scene. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the lights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White balance the camera. </li></ul></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>The two types of light sources are natural (the sun) and artificial (man made). </li></ul><ul><li>Light has four attributes that need to be understood in order to control light: color temperature, hard and soft light, intensity, and direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Light is produced in different colors. The color of the light is determined by its temperature, known as color temperature. The color of light is measured in kelvins. </li></ul><ul><li>It is best to avoid shooting in mixed light, which is light with different color temperatures. You can change the color of one of the sources of light by using a gel to change the color at the source, or use a filter on the camera lens. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  24. 24. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Light intensity refers to the strength of the light. Intensity can be reduced in one of five ways: by moving the light away from the subject, using a dimmer, using a scrim, using an ND Gel, or using a bulb of different wattage. </li></ul><ul><li>Light can be either hard or soft. Hard light produces strong, hard shadows like the shadows at noon on a sunny, clear day. Soft light produces soft shadows that generally are more appealing. </li></ul><ul><li>The direction of the light determines where the shadows will fall. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS
  25. 25. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Three-point lighting uses three (or four) lights to create appealing images: a key, which is the main light source; the fill, which softens or lightens the shadows created by the key; and a backlight to create separation between the subject and the set. The fourth light is the set light that creates texture on the set and creates even more separation between the subject and the set. </li></ul>Schaefermeyer Digital Video BASICS