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# Project Management CH9 Project Scheduling

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### Project Management CH9 Project Scheduling

1. 1. Chapter 9 Project Scheduling: Networks, Duration Estimation, and Critical Path 09-01
2. 2. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 9 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students will be able to:  Understand and apply key scheduling terminology.  Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks.  Develop an activity network using Activity-on-Node (AON) techniques.  Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques. 09-02
3. 3. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 9 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, students will be able to:  Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes.  Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined.  Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates.  Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path. 09-03
4. 4. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Scheduling  Project scheduling requires us to follow some carefully laid-out steps, in order, for the schedule to take shape.  Project planning, as it relates to the scheduling process, has been defined by the PMBoK as: The identification of the project objectives and the ordered activity necessary to complete the project including the identification of resource types and quantities required to carry out each activity or task. 09-04
5. 5. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Scheduling Terms • Successors • Predecessors • Network diagram • Serial activities • Concurrent activities 09-05 ED C B A F
6. 6. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project Scheduling Terms 09-06 ED C B A F • Merge activities • Burst activities • Node • Path • Critical Path
7. 7. FIGURE 9.2 Alternative Activity Networks for Term Paper Assignment Network Diagrams 09-07 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
8. 8. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall AOA Versus AON The same mini-project is shown with activities on arc… 09-08 C ED B F E C D B F …and activities on node.
9. 9. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Node Labels 09-9 Early Start Activity Float Activity Descriptor Late Start ID Number Activity Duration Late Finish Early Finish
10. 10. FIGURE 9.4 Activity Node Labels Using MS Project 2010 09-10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
11. 11. FIGURE 9.5 Serial Activities 09-11 Serial activities are those that flow from one to the next, in sequence. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
12. 12. FIGURE 9.6 Activities Linked in Parallel (Concurrent) 09-12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall When the nature of the work allows for more than one activity to be accomplished at the same time, these activities are called concurrent and parallel project paths are constructed through the network.
13. 13. FIGURE 9.7 Merge Activity 09-13 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14. 14. FIGURE 9.8 Burst Activity 09-14 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
15. 15. FIGURE 9.10 Complete Activity Network 09-15 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
16. 16. FIGURE 9.11 Developing the Activity Network Using MS Project 2010 09-16 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
17. 17. Duration Estimation Methods • Past experience • Expert opinion • Mathematical derivation – Beta distribution – Most likely (m) – Most pessimistic (b) – Most optimistic (a) 4 = TE 6 a m b Activity Duration 09-17 2 2 = 6 b a Activity Variance s Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
18. 18. FIGURE 9.14 Symmetrical (Normal) Distribution for Activity Duration Estimation Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-18
19. 19. FIGURE 9.15 Asymmetrical (Beta) Distribution for Activity Duration Estimation Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-19
20. 20. Activity Duration and Variance 09-20 Name: Project Delta Durations are listed in weeks Activity Description Optimistic Likely Pessimistic A Contract signing 3 4 11 B Questionnaire design 2 5 8 C Target market ID 3 6 9 D Survey sample 8 12 20 E Develop presentation 3 5 12 F Analyze results 2 4 7 G Demographic analysis 6 9 14 H Presentation to client 1 2 4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Table 9.2
21. 21. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Constructing the Critical Path • Forward pass – an additive move through the network from start to finish • Backward pass – a subtractive move through the network from finish to start • Critical path – the longest path from end to end which determines the shortest project length 09-21
22. 22. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Rules for Forward/Backward Pass Forward Pass Rules (ES & EF) – ES + Duration = EF – EF of predecessor = ES of successor – Largest preceding EF at a merge point becomes EF for successor Backward Pass Rules (LS & LF) – LF – Duration = LS – LS of successor = LF of predecessor – Smallest succeeding LS at a burst point becomes LF for predecessor 09-22
23. 23. Project Delta Information 09-23 Project Delta Activity Description Predecessors Estimated Duration A Contract signing None 5 B Questionnaire design A 5 C Target market ID A 6 D Survey sample B, C 13 E Develop presentation B 6 F Analyze results D 4 G Demographic analysis C 9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Table 9.4
24. 24. FIGURE 9.16 Partial Project Activity Network with Task Durations Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-24
25. 25. FIGURE 9.18 Activity Network with Forward Pass 09-25 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
26. 26. FIGURE 9.19 Activity Network with Backward Pass 09-26 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
27. 27. FIGURE 9.20 Project Network with Activity Slack and Critical Path Note: Critical path is indicated with bold arrows. 09-27 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
28. 28. FIGURE 9.24 AON Network with Laddering Effect 09-28 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
29. 29. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Laddering Activities Project ABC can be completed more efficiently if subtasks are used 09-29 A(3) B(6) C(9) ABC=18 days Laddered ABC=12 days A1(1) A2(1) A3(1) B1(2) B2(2) B3(2) C1(3) C2(3) C3(3)
30. 30. FIGURE 9.25 Example of a Hammock Activity 09-30 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
31. 31. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Reducing the Critical Path • Eliminate tasks on the CP • Convert serial paths to parallel when possible • Overlap sequential tasks • Shorten the duration on critical path tasks • Shorten – early tasks – longest tasks – easiest tasks – tasks that cost the least to speed up 09-31
32. 32. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 1. Understand and apply key scheduling terminology. 2. Apply the logic used to create activity networks, including predecessor and successor tasks. 3. Develop an activity network using Activity-on-Node (AON) techniques. 4. Perform activity duration estimation based on the use of probabilistic estimating techniques. 09-32
33. 33. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Summary 5. Construct the critical path for a project schedule network using forward and backward passes. 6. Identify activity float and the manner in which it is determined. 7. Calculate the probability of a project finishing on time under PERT estimates. 8. Understand the steps that can be employed to reduce the critical path. 09-33
34. 34. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 09-34