1- Building the project team
1- Identify
necessary skills
sets.
6- Assemble the
team

2- Identify the
people who match
ski...
Building the team

1- Identify necessary skill
sets:

2- Identify people who
match the skills.

• The 1st step is to condu...
Building the team

3- Talk to potential team
members.

4- Negotiation with
functional heads.

• The 3rd step consists of o...
Building the team

4- Negotiation with
functional heads.
• Negotiation is required to
decide in some issues:
• How long ar...
2- Effective Project Teams
Clear Sense of Mission: the mission should be mutually
understood and accepted by all team mem...
Effective Project Teams
Cohesiveness: refers to the degree of mutual attraction
that team members hold for one another an...
Effective Project Teams
Enthusiasm: it is the catalyst for directing positive, high energy
toward project. It creates ene...
3- Reasons why teams fail
1- Poor developed
or unclear goals

4- Poor
communication

2- Poorly defined
project team roles
...
3- Reasons Why Teams Fail
1- Poorly developed or unclear goals
Unclear goals permit multiple interpretations.
Unclear go...
3- Reasons Why Teams Fail
3- Lack of project team motivation
The project is perceived as unnecessary.
The project may ha...
3- Reasons Why Teams Fail
5- Poor leadership

Refer to chapter 4.
6-Turnover among project team members

The higher the ...
3- Reasons Why Teams Fail
7-Dysfunctional behavior

It refers to disruptive acts of some project team
members due to: per...
4- Stages in Group Development
• The process of group development is a dynamic
one.
• Groups go through several maturation...
4- Stages in Group Development
1. Forming – members become acquainted
1.

Members get to know one another to mold into a c...
4- Stages in Group Development
3. Norming – members reach agreement
1.

Norm is an unwritten rule of behavior.

2.

Member...
4- Stages in Group Development
5. Adjourning – group disbands
1.

Teams do not last forever.

2.

At the completion of the...
4- Stages in Group Development
Ponctuated Equilibrium– Connie Gersick developed a model for
project team development. She ...
Ponctuated Equilibrium–

Copyright © 2010 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall

6-19
Team Development Stages
4. Performing

Adjourn

1. Forming
Trust Flexible
Supportive
Confident
Efficient High
Morale

Prod...
5- Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation
Task Outcomes

Superordinate Goals

Rules & Procedures
Cross-functional cooperat...
5- Achieving cross-functional coordination
1. Superordinate goals –
1.

It can be “ to develop a high-quality, user friend...
5- Achieving cross-functional coordination
3. Physical proximity
1.

Team members should be located within a physical spat...
5- Achieving cross-functional coordination
5. Outcomes of cooperation

1.

Tasks outcomes: refer to the factors involved i...
Building High-Performing Teams:
3 practical steps PM can take to build high-performing teams:

1st step: Make the project ...
6- Virtual Project Teams
use electronic media to link members of a
geographically dispersed project team
How Can Virtual T...
7- Conflict Management
Conflict is a process that begins when you
perceive that someone has frustrated or is
about to frus...
7- Conflict Management
Conflict is a process that begins when you perceive that someone has
frustrated or is about to frus...
Sources of Conflict
Organizational

• Reward systems
• Scarce resources
• Uncertainty
• Differentiation

Interpersonal

• ...
Conflict Resolution
Mediate – PM uses defusion or confrontation to find a solution.
Defusion: PM is less concerned with ...
Conflict Resolution
Control – Not all problems can be resolved. In some cases, pragmatic response to
conflict might give ...
8- Negotiation
a process that is predicated on a manager’s
ability to use influence productively
Questions to Ask Prior to...
Principled Negotiation
1. Separate the people from the problem
2. Focus on interests, not positions
3. Invent options for ...
Copyright © 2010 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall

6-34
Project Management C6  -project_team_building_conflict_and_negotiation
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Project Management C6 -project_team_building_conflict_and_negotiation

  1. 1. 1- Building the project team 1- Identify necessary skills sets. 6- Assemble the team 2- Identify the people who match skills. 5- Builds in fallback positions. 3- Talk to potential team members Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 4- Negotiate with functional heads 6-2
  2. 2. Building the team 1- Identify necessary skill sets: 2- Identify people who match the skills. • The 1st step is to conduct a realistic assessment of all needed types of skills, in order to complement each other and perform the project duties • We have 2 options: • 1- Hire new personnel for the project • 2- train current personnel to become proficient in the needed skills. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-3
  3. 3. Building the team 3- Talk to potential team members. 4- Negotiation with functional heads. • The 3rd step consists of opening team communication with likely candidates for the team to assess their level of interest in the project. • At the same time, we PM must begin to enter in negotiation with the functional heads. • These conversations could be complex and lengthy. • Depriving a functional manager of key personnel to serve on a project team can be seen as threatening the operating department. (next) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-4
  4. 4. Building the team 4- Negotiation with functional heads. • Negotiation is required to decide in some issues: • How long are the team member’s services required? (full time, part time, and the period) • Who should choose the person to be assigned to the project? • What happens when special circumstances arises? (the employee may be recalled from his department. How the PM will replace him?) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5- Build in Fallback Positions • If the negotiations are not fruitful, the PM is faced with 3 basic alternatives: • 1- Try to negotiate for partial assistance. • 2- Adjust project schedules and priorities accordingly. • 3- Notify the management of the consequences. 6-5
  5. 5. 2- Effective Project Teams Clear Sense of Mission: the mission should be mutually understood and accepted by all team members. Productive Interdependency: it refers to the degree of joint activity among team members required in order to complete a project. The concept of differentiation suggests that each individual brings preconceived notions to the team. The interdependencies refers to the degree of knowledge of the team interrelated efforts. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-6
  6. 6. Effective Project Teams Cohesiveness: refers to the degree of mutual attraction that team members hold for one another and their task. Trust: for PM, trust refers to the team’s comfort level with each individual member. Given the comfort level, trust is manifested in the team’s ability and willingness to squarely address differences of opinion, values and attitudes and deal with them accordingly. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-7
  7. 7. Effective Project Teams Enthusiasm: it is the catalyst for directing positive, high energy toward project. It creates energy that drive effective project efforts. It creates an environment that is: Challenging: it offers the opportunity of personal growth, new learning and the ability to stretch professionally. Supportive: PM members gain a sense of team spirit and group identity : communication, problem solving… Personally rewarding: PM become more enthusiastic as they perceive personal benefits arising from project completion. Results Orientation: outcomes are related toward the same orientation. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-8
  8. 8. 3- Reasons why teams fail 1- Poor developed or unclear goals 4- Poor communication 2- Poorly defined project team roles and interdependencies. 3- lack of project team motivation 5- Poor leadership 6- Turnover among project team members. 7- Dysfunctional behavior. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-9
  9. 9. 3- Reasons Why Teams Fail 1- Poorly developed or unclear goals Unclear goals permit multiple interpretations. Unclear goals impede the willingness of team members to work together, Unclear goals increase conflict. 2- Poorly defined project team roles & interdependencies.  Interdependencies: is a state where team members’ activities coordinate  with and complement other team members’ work. Unawareness of interdependencies leads to lose time. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-10
  10. 10. 3- Reasons Why Teams Fail 3- Lack of project team motivation The project is perceived as unnecessary. The project may have low priority. 4- Poor communication Could be caused by: different orientations or background, , uncertainty about the project structure and interdependencies… Resolving poor communication by: standard information sharing, a frank atmosphere, and open exchanges. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-11
  11. 11. 3- Reasons Why Teams Fail 5- Poor leadership Refer to chapter 4. 6-Turnover among project team members The higher the turnover among project team members, the more it disrupts the project manager’s ability to create project team cohesion. The continual act of adding and removing personnel to project Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-12
  12. 12. 3- Reasons Why Teams Fail 7-Dysfunctional behavior It refers to disruptive acts of some project team members due to: personality issues, hidden agendas or interpersonal problems. The solution calls for recognizing the members involved and taking corrective steps. A serious case may require to remove the concerned Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall team member. 6-13
  13. 13. 4- Stages in Group Development • The process of group development is a dynamic one. • Groups go through several maturation stages that are identifiable. • The stages are: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-14
  14. 14. 4- Stages in Group Development 1. Forming – members become acquainted 1. Members get to know one another to mold into a coherent project team. 2. They lay the basis for project and ground rules: standards of behavior, communication channel… 2. Storming – conflict begins 1. Conflict begins because team members begin to resist authority. 2. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Some hidden agendas, attempt to rewrite team rules. 6-15
  15. 15. 4- Stages in Group Development 3. Norming – members reach agreement 1. Norm is an unwritten rule of behavior. 2. Members agree on operating procedures and seek to work together and develop closer relationships. 3. Members will commit to the project development process. 4. Performing – members work together to accomplish their tasks. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-16
  16. 16. 4- Stages in Group Development 5. Adjourning – group disbands 1. Teams do not last forever. 2. At the completion of the project, team members will disband to return to their functional duties in the organization. 3. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Members will commit to the project development process. 6-17
  17. 17. 4- Stages in Group Development Ponctuated Equilibrium– Connie Gersick developed a model for project team development. She suggests that: 1. Most teams develop a set of operating norms very quickly. 2. These norms tend to guide group behavior and performance for the project’s life. 3. Group will operate as a result of these norms until some trigger event occurs, almost precisely at the halfway point between the initial meeting and the project deadline. 4. The trigger may be: dissatisfaction with the project progress, interpersonal antagonisms or other external force Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-18
  18. 18. Ponctuated Equilibrium– Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-19
  19. 19. Team Development Stages 4. Performing Adjourn 1. Forming Trust Flexible Supportive Confident Efficient High Morale Productive Organized Establish procedures Develop team skills Confront issues Rebuild morale 3. Norming Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Convene Quiet Polite Guarded Impersonal Business-like High Morale Testing Infighting Conflict over control Confrontational Alienation Personal agendas Low morale 2. Storming 6-20
  20. 20. 5- Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation Task Outcomes Superordinate Goals Rules & Procedures Cross-functional cooperation Physical Proximity Psycho-Social Outcomes Accessibility Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21
  21. 21. 5- Achieving cross-functional coordination 1. Superordinate goals – 1. It can be “ to develop a high-quality, user friendly, and generally useful system that will enhance the operations of various departments and functions. 2. It provides a central objective and an overriding goal. 2. Rules and procedures 1. They are essential because they offer a means for coordinating or integrating activities that involve several units. 2. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Project-specific rules and procedures facilitate its operations. 6-22
  22. 22. 5- Achieving cross-functional coordination 3. Physical proximity 1. Team members should be located within a physical spatial distances that make it convenient to them to interact. 2. The more the team members are close, the more is their cooperation and coordination. 4. Accessibility 1. It is the perception that a person is approachable for communicating and interacting with problems for project success. 2. Inaccessibility occurs because of different work schedules, varied duties and priorities, and commitment to other agendas. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-23
  23. 23. 5- Achieving cross-functional coordination 5. Outcomes of cooperation 1. Tasks outcomes: refer to the factors involved in the the actual implementation of the project: time, schedule and project functionality. 2. Psychosocial outcomes: represent the team member’s assessment that the project experience was worthwhile, satisfying and productive. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-24
  24. 24. Building High-Performing Teams: 3 practical steps PM can take to build high-performing teams: 1st step: Make the project team tangible – Publicity – Terminology & language 2nd step: Reward good behavior – Flexibility – Creativity – Pragmatism 3rd step: Develop a personal touch – Lead by example – Positive feedback for good performance – Accessibility & consistency Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-25
  25. 25. 6- Virtual Project Teams use electronic media to link members of a geographically dispersed project team How Can Virtual Teams Be Improved?  Use face-to-face communication when possible  Don’t let team members disappear (get together via videoconferencing, e-mail and internet connections)  Establish a code of conduct: get an agreement on types of information that need to be shared.  Keep everyone in the communication loop: awareness to keep the communication channels open.  Create a process for addressing conflict: PM should create a set of Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as guidelines for allowing Prentice Hall free expression or disagreement among team members. 6-26
  26. 26. 7- Conflict Management Conflict is a process that begins when you perceive that someone has frustrated or is about to frustrate a major concern of yours. Categories Views • Goal-oriented • Administrative • Interpersonal • Traditional • Behavioral • Interactionist Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-27
  27. 27. 7- Conflict Management Conflict is a process that begins when you perceive that someone has frustrated or is about to frustrate a major concern of yours. Most types of conflict fit within 3 categories: • • • Goal-oriented conflict: • associated with disagreements regarding results, scope outcomes, performance specifications,… • It result from a poor or vague or incomplete perception of the goals that may allow the team members to make their own interpretations. Administrative conflict: • Arises through management hierarchy, organizational structure or philosophy (authority and decisions). Interpersonal conflict: • Arises from personality differences. • It includes work ethics, behavioral styles, egos…. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-28
  28. 28. Sources of Conflict Organizational • Reward systems • Scarce resources • Uncertainty • Differentiation Interpersonal • Faulty attributions • Faulty communication • Personal grudges & prejudices Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-29
  29. 29. Conflict Resolution Mediate – PM uses defusion or confrontation to find a solution. Defusion: PM is less concerned with the source of conflict than with a mutually accepted solution. Confrontation: involves working with both parties to get at the root causes of the conflict. Arbitrate – PM must be willing to impose a judgment on the warring parties. After listening to both parties, the PM renders his decision which focuses on the judgment itself. Ex: wrong, right…. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-30
  30. 30. Conflict Resolution Control – Not all problems can be resolved. In some cases, pragmatic response to conflict might give a cool down period. It is not a cowardly response, but a selective way to choose the best manner PM should intervene . Accept – some conflicts are unmanageable . We just live the conflict as it is. Eliminate – Sometimes the guilty member(s) should be transfer red to stop the reason while of the conflict. Conflict is often evidence of progress! Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-31
  31. 31. 8- Negotiation a process that is predicated on a manager’s ability to use influence productively Questions to Ask Prior to Entering a Negotiation 1. How much power do I have? 2. What sort of time pressures are there? 3. Do I trust my opponent? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-32
  32. 32. Principled Negotiation 1. Separate the people from the problem 2. Focus on interests, not positions 3. Invent options for mutual gain 4. Insist on using objective criteria Getting to Yes – Fisher & Ury Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-33
  33. 33. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-34

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