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Excellent cns

  1. 1. TCNV 214Slide 1Badarul Zaman HamidinUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyUniKL MIATKP(JPS)5195/US/38DCAM No. AO/0110/03
  2. 2. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 2Badarul Zaman HamidinInstructor: Badarul Zaman HamidinOffice: D-02-01Office Hour: 0800 - 1715 Monday to Thursday0800 – 1700 Friday
  3. 3. TCNV 214Slide 3Badarul Zaman HamidinCommunication& NavigationTCNV 214
  4. 4. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 4Badarul Zaman HamidinTCNV 214• Course Description– A study of communication and navigation related equipment that includesidentification of types, purposes, operations, requirements, and installations. Alsoincludes basic understanding of radio signal generations.• Schedule: Monday2.30pm – 4.30pm• Textbook: A&P TechnicianAirframe (Jeppesen)• Suggested Reading:1. Aircraft Radio Systems / by J. Powell ISBN 0-89100-356-82. Aircraft Electricity & Electronics / by Thomas K. Eismin - 5thEd.; Glencoe Series, 19953. Avionics Fundamentals / Jeppesen4. AC 43.13-1B Chapter 12• Suggested Web:1. Howstuffworks.com
  5. 5. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 5Badarul Zaman HamidinSyllabusWeek /SessionTopic1 Radio Fundamentals / Project A-382 Communication 13 Communication 2 / Project A-394 Navigation 15 Navigation 2 / Project A-406 Review / Phase Test78910
  6. 6. TCNV 214Slide 6Badarul Zaman HamidinRadioFundamentalsDay 1
  7. 7. TCNV 214Slide 7Badarul Zaman HamidinGeneral“Radio” means wireless transmission of information from one point to another.Radio wave technology provides:CommunicationNavigationRadarEnables aircraft to fly under IFRRequirement for two-way communication between air traffic controller andaircraft.TerminologyAVIONICS  means Aviation ElectronicsRadio  wireless transmission of informationCommunication  process of exchanging informationNavigation  process of piloting an aircraft towards intended destination
  8. 8. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 8Badarul Zaman HamidinLesson Objective• To understand the principle of radio waves and wavepropagation.• To understand the basic operation of radio transmission andreception.• To identify components related to radio communications andnavigations, installations and maintenance practice.
  9. 9. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 9Badarul Zaman HamidinIntroduction• General– “Radio” means wireless transmission of information from one point toanother.– Radio wave technology provides:• Communication• Navigation• Radar– Enables aircraft to fly under IFR– Requirement for two-way communication between air traffic controller andaircraft.• Terminology– AVIONICS  means Aviation Electronics– Radio  wireless transmission of information– Communication  process of exchanging information– Navigation  process of piloting an aircraft towards intended destination
  10. 10. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 10Badarul Zaman HamidinRadio Waves Utilizations• Radio Waves Technology– Communications radios is the first avionics systems to utilize thistechnology– Later, navigational radios were developed and continuously improved• Communication– Radios, Phones, Intercom, and even Internet Access– Recently, Lufthansa airlines provide broadband communications forcustomers to access during flight• Navigation– ADF – Auto Directional Finder– ILS – Instrument Landing Systems– Collision Avoidance Systems– ELT – Emergency Locator Transmitter– Radar
  11. 11. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 11Badarul Zaman HamidinRadio Fundamentals• To understand the radio operating principles, it is essential for you to befamiliar with related topics and terms that make up the radio technologypossible.– Principles of alternating current– Electromagnetic waves / radiations– Frequency / Frequency Spectrum / Frequency Bands– Wave propagation– Modulation– Radio Components• Transmitters• Amplifiers• Modulators / Demodulators• Filters• Antennas• Receivers• Tuner• Microphones & Speakers
  12. 12. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 12Badarul Zaman HamidinAlternating Current• From basic electrics, when we consider DC current flows through aconductor:1. Magnetic builds up surround the conductor2. Voltage will be dropped3. Heat will produce (loss energy due to resistance)• However, in AC systems, items 2 and 3 above can be reduced due tothe behavior of AC which continuously changing the direction andmagnitude of the current flow, while leaving item 1 to changeproportionally with the magnitude, or strength, of the current flows.• Although, in AC the resistance towards the changing current will becaused by the induced voltage results from the continuous build-up andcollapse of the magnetic field. Hence, the conductor will have aninductance property.
  13. 13. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 13Badarul Zaman HamidinAlternating Current• Definition– Current that periodically changes direction and continuously changes inmagnitude.– Also known as “Sinusoidal Voltage”• The behavior of the current is represented by Sine Wave• Cycle – one complete sine wave of 360°• Alternation is one half a cycle (½ Cycle)
  14. 14. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 14Badarul Zaman HamidinElectromagnetic Waves• Also refers to radio waves in radio transmission studies.• Produced by synchronized oscillations of electric fields and magnetic fields.• Both fields produced will be perpendicular (90°) towards each other.• When wire is fed with Alternating Current, electromagnetic waves will be radiated in various patterns in aninfinite frequencies to the space and if intercepted by parallel wire to it, the signal is transferred.• This energy is assumed to travel at the speed of light, ‘C’ (3.0X108meter/second or 186,300 mile/second )• The strength depends on its frequency.• The effective range of travel, or distance, will be determine by the wavelength of the signal.
  15. 15. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 15Badarul Zaman HamidinFrequency• One characteristics of a sine waves is the Frequency• Frequency = Cycle per second• In radio transmission, frequency refers to number of electromagnetic fieldoscillations that take place in one second.• Measurement unit– Cycle per second (cps)– Hertz (Hz)• Electromagnetic spectrum (or Frequency Spectrum) classifies the characteristicsof frequencies.• The classification varies from higher frequency (Gamma Ray), visible light to thelower frequency, that is radio frequency.
  16. 16. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 16Badarul Zaman HamidinWavelength & PolarizationWavelength• The distance from one crest of one waveto another.• Symbol is ‘Lambda’ ( λ )• It is inversely proportional to the frequencyof the signal, since:λ = C / ƒ ; where ƒ = frequencyand C = speed of light• Therefore, low frequency has greaterwavelength, thus can travel further.Polarization• Important to induce the maximum voltageinto the receiving antenna.• Antenna must be installed in such waythat it is perpendicular to the magnetic (H)field, and parallel to the electric (E) field.• Vertically polarized– Transmitting antenna is vertical– E field is vertical, H field is horizontal– Maximum reception by vertical antenna• Horizontally polarized– Transmitting antenna is horizontal– E field is horizontal, H field is vertical– Maximum reception by horizontal antenna
  17. 17. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 17Badarul Zaman HamidinFrequency Spectrum• Radio Frequency Spectrum  from 3 kHz to 300 GHz• Radio frequency below 20,000 Hz or 20 kHz also known as audio frequency which can beunderstood by human.• Above 20,000 Hz or 20 kHz range, human is not able to hear the sound and this range isused for radio transmission or Radio Waves.• Radio waves are classified into frequency band, and divided into 8 bands.• The bands are VLF, LF, MF, HF, VHF, UHF, SHF, and EHF• SHF and EHF also known as Microwave Frequencies
  18. 18. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 18Badarul Zaman HamidinFrequency BandBAND & FUNCTION FREQUENCYVery Low Frequency (VLF) 3 – 30 kHzOmega 10 – 14 kHzLow Frequency (LF) 30 – 300 kHzDecca 70 – 130 kHzLoran C 100 kHzADF 200 – 1700 kHzMedium Frequency (MF) 300 kHz – 3 MHzCommercial Broadcast 535 kHz – 1.6 MHzHigh Frequency (HF) 3 – 30 MHzHF Communications 2 – 25 MHzVery High Frequency (VHF) 30 – 300 MHzMarker Beacons 75 MHzILS Localizer 108.1 – 111.95 MHzVOR 108.0 – 117.95 MHzVHF Communications 118.0 – 135.975 MHzUltrahigh Frequency (UHF) 300 MHz – 3 GHzILS Glideslope 320 – 340 MHzDME 960 MHz – 1.215 MHzSecondary Surveillance Radar 1.03 GHz & 1.09 GHzSuperhigh Frequency 3 – 30 GhzRadar Altimeter 2.2 – 2.4 GHzWeather Radar (C Band) 5.5 GHzDoppler Radar (X Band) 8.8 GHzWeather Radar (X Band) 9.4 GHzDoppler Radar (K Band) 13.3 GHzExtremely High Frequency (EHF) 30 – 300 GHz
  19. 19. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 19Badarul Zaman HamidinUnited States Frequency Allocation
  20. 20. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 20Badarul Zaman HamidinCarrier Waves• To carry intelligence input signal from transmitter to the receiver.• Constant oscillation signal at selected transmission frequency.• The carrier wave frequency must be high enough to produce EM waves thatradiate from the antenna.• This frequency must be accurately controlled that it will be received by thereceiver or it will be rejected.• The carrier frequency will determine the length of transmitting and receivingantenna required, that is normally ¼ to ½ the wavelength of the frequency.• Due to the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength will be.• LF radio waves can directly transmitted, but requires extremely large antenna.• However, higher frequency radio can employ a shorter wavelength.• The frequency of the transmission will be determine by the frequency of thecarrier waves.• Higher frequency offers more room / channels with lower interference for betterreception of the signal.
  21. 21. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 21Badarul Zaman HamidinModulation• Modulation is the process ofplacing the intelligence inputsignal on a carrier waves and tobe transmitted by an antenna.• Several ways to achieve it, mostcommon used are:– Amplitude Modulation (AM)– Frequency Modulation (FM)• The lower frequency informationsignal is superimposed on ahigher carrier frequency fortransmission.
  22. 22. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 22Badarul Zaman HamidinAmplitude Modulation (AM)• Amplitude of the carrier wave varies with the change in amplitude andfrequency of the information signal.• In other words, the voltage of the carrier is changed by the audio signal.• Affect by interference:– Man-made  electric motor, ignition systems– Natural  lightning
  23. 23. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 23Badarul Zaman HamidinFrequency Modulation (FM)• The frequency of the carrier wave varies with the change in amplitude of the informationsignal.• In other words, the voltage of the carrier wave is held constant, but their frequency ismodulated by the information signal.• Interference-free communication.• The carrier frequency changed proportionately with the amplitude change of the informationsignal.• Advantages:– Less affected by electrostatic emissions (noise or static).  thunderstorm– Noise (electrical)  unwanted electrical signal within an electronic equipment.• Due to constant amplitude controlled by limiter circuits, other interfering signals will berejected.• The information will be recovered by the receiver and the signal is used to drive thespeaker.
  24. 24. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 24Badarul Zaman HamidinSingle-Sideband (SSB)• Both AM and FM require wider bandand higher voltage for effectivetransmission over a great distance.• Lower sideband – carrier frequencyminus modulating frequency• Upper sideband – carrier frequencyplus modulating frequency• SSB uses the one sideband fortransmission• In US, lower sideband is used, whileother uses upper sideband.• Using SSB receiver, a carrier ofproper frequency will be insertedback to reproduced the informationsignal.• SSB has become primary type oftransmission for communication inHF band.
  25. 25. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 25Badarul Zaman HamidinRadio Waves Propagation• Radio wave is an electromagnetic wave propagated by anantenna• When radio waves transmitted from an antenna, it will travels inthe atmosphere in three (3) propagation paths.1. Ground Waves 3 kHz – 3 MHz2. Sky Waves 3 MHz – 30 MHz3. Space Waves 30 MHz – 3 GHz• Atmosphere act as a medium for waves travel.
  26. 26. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 26Badarul Zaman HamidinGround Waves• Used by VLF and LF radio waves. ( 3 kHz to 300 kHz )• Low frequency, Longer Wavelength, thus travel great distance.• Waves travel along the curvature of the earth.• Application: Radio Broadcasting Station• Advantages– Travel great distance.– Do not requires Carrier Wave.– Do not affected by weather condition.• Disadvantages– Longer wavelength requires a very large antenna.– Energy absorbed by ground structure or curvature. (Hills and Mountains)
  27. 27. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 27Badarul Zaman HamidinSky Waves• Use by HF radio waves. ( 3 MHz to 30 MHz )• Waves travel in straight line from the radio station which do not follow the earthcurvature• The waves bounces or refracted back to earth hundreds of miles away when ithits the earth ionosphere at the right way. Known as SKIP or HOP.• Ionosphere is the layer of earth atmosphere from about 60 to 200 miles high,made up of ionized particles.• Allow longer distance coverage of the radio signals transmission.• Major setback cause by electrostatic distortion or interference.
  28. 28. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 28Badarul Zaman HamidinSpace Waves• Used by VHF and UHF radio waves. Also known as Direct Waves.• Due to high frequency, it has shorter wavelength which allows them to travel through theionosphere layer which does not follow earth curvature.• Travel in straight line of sight and do not bounce back by the ionosphere.• Transmission range is limited to the line of sight of the transmitting station.• Repeater stations or satellites will retransmit the signal at another frequency to extend theline of sight, hence increase the transmission coverage.• Looking down from an aircraft at 10,000 ft, the line of sight coverage is approximately 260miles. Therefore, to increase the coverage, the antenna should be built higher as possible.• Provides better and clear reception.• Transmission will be cut off if there is object between the transmitter and receiver. (HeavyClouds, Buildings)
  29. 29. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 29Badarul Zaman HamidinBasic Radio Theory• Method of transmitting intelligence from one location to another by means of electromagnetic radiation.• Basic radio communication device should have:1. Transmitter Unit 5. Filters 9. Transmission Line2. Receiver Unit 6. Antennas3. Amplifiers 7. Tuning Circuits4. Modulators / Demodulators 8. Speakers / Microphones• For some radio that has both components, known as Transceiver. Able to transmit and receive radiofrequency signals.• Radio signals that carries the intelligence emanate from the transmitter antenna partly in the form ofradiated electromagnetic waves.• The receiver will receive the intelligence signals using the receiver antenna which has the samecharacteristics and polarization.• Regardless the use of radio for communication or navigation, all radio must have the two majorcomponents.
  30. 30. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 30Badarul Zaman HamidinBasic Radio Transmitter• Accept information and converts itinto radio frequency to betransmitted.• 3 basic function:1. Generate signal of correctfrequency within EM spectrum.(Oscillator)2. Provide form of modulation thatcause signal to modify carriersignal. (Modulator)3. Provide sufficient poweramplification towards desired range.(Amplifier)• Basic components:1. Microphone2. Oscillator3. Modulator4. Amplifier5. Antenna
  31. 31. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 31Badarul Zaman HamidinBasic Radio Receiver• Reproduces the information signalreceived by the antenna when the samefrequency of signal is selected.• Function:1. Have sensitivity to select desiredfrequency of the signal. (Tuning Circuits)2. Provide demodulation to reproduce theinformation signal. (Demodulator)3. Provide enough amplification to recoverthe modulating signal. (Amplifier)• 1920’s – Superheterodyne (Superhet)radio invented.• Basic components:1. Antenna2. Amplifier3. Demodulator4. Tuner (Tuning Circuits)5. Speaker6. Local Oscillator & Mixer (for SuperhetRadio)
  32. 32. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 32Badarul Zaman HamidinOscillator• Heart of the radio systems in high frequency wave known ascarrier waves.• Also known as Electronic Generator.• Using electronics components like capacitor and inductor.• Simple oscillator employs an LC parallel circuit.• Type of oscillators:– Variable Frequency Oscillator.– Crystal Oscillator.– Phase Locked Loop Oscillator. (PLL)
  33. 33. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 33Badarul Zaman HamidinAmplifiers• Increases strength of the signal.• Found in both transmitters and receivers.• In transmitter  increase the strength and sent to the antenna for transmission.• In Receivers  Amplify weak signal received for reproduction of the informationsignal.• Earlier amplifiers, before 1920’s, vacuum tubes is used in amplifiers.• Since invention of transistors, nowadays transistors and integrated circuitsreplaced the bulky amplifiers and become smaller and lighter.• Basic types:– Linear amplifiers• Classified as Class A, Class AB, or Class B.• Provide output directly proportional to the input at higher power level.• Mainly used in all audio amplifiers.• Class A & Class B – increase power level of changing amplitude RF (directly proportional).• Amplitude change as in AM signal.– Class C amplifiers• Non-linear amplifiers.• More stable than linear amplifiers.• Used for FM signals.– Switching amplifiers• Same as Class C amplifiers.
  34. 34. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 34Badarul Zaman HamidinModulator / Demodulator• Electronic equipment which add or remove between the carrier wave and audiowave.• Modulator– Add carrier wave into audio waves for signal transmission.– The output is called ‘Modulated Radio Frequency’ in AM or FM.• Demodulator– Remove the carrier wave from the audio wave for reproduction of the audio signal.– Produces ‘Audio Frequency’.• Proper relative modulation for maximum efficiency.• Modulation rate – The amount of modulation– Low rate – AF signal is too weak compared to RF signal – Low efficiency.– If rate is over 100% (RF is weaker than AF) – distortion will occur to the output signal.– Most radio is 90% – 95% modulation rate for high efficiency and prevent distortion.– Example: Shouting at microphone causes over modulation.
  35. 35. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 35Badarul Zaman HamidinFilters• To remove or filter out unwanted frequencies.• Using inductor and capacitor combination circuit. (LC circuit)• Without filters, audio signal will be disturbed by ‘noise’.• Types of filters:– Low-Pass (LP) filter  allows only low frequencies to pass thru.– High-Pass (HP) filter  allows only high frequencies to pass thru.– Band-Pass filter  allows only range of frequencies to pass thru betweenthe selected high and low frequencies.• Consist both LP filter and HP filter.– Band-Reject filter  blocked frequencies in between, but allows below orabove the selected range frequencies (low and high) to pass thru.
  36. 36. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 36Badarul Zaman HamidinAntennas• An electrical conductor that radiates or receives radiowaves (RF).• Protected and insulated by hard plastic material to givemechanical strength.• Maybe use for transmit only, receive only, or bothdepending on the type of radio systems.• Located on top or bottom of the fuselage depending oftheir usage, and free from obstruction of airframestructure.• Inspection and maintenance is responsibility ofairframe and structure technician since they areattached to the airframe skin.• Antenna length is determined by the wavelength (λ) ofthe transmit or to receive frequency. (¼ λ to ½ λ)• Categories known by general name and described thecharacteristics.– Hertz Antenna  Hertz Dipole Antenna• Half wave dipole antenna.• Half wave – overall length is equal to onehalf (½) the wavelength.• Polarization : Horizontal– Marconi Antenna  Marconi Monopole Antenna• Single metal with a length of ¼ wavelength.• Ground plane – metal surrounding themounting base for proper operations.• Polarization : Vertical
  37. 37. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 37Badarul Zaman HamidinAntennas– Wire Antenna (Whip Antenna)• Often on smaller and older aircraft.• Insulated to reduce noise caused by static electricity. (Someare not insulated)• Example: ADF sense antenna (a wire from top of empenage toforward of fuselage)• Modern aircraft combine loop and sense antenna in single ADFantenna system.– Loop Antenna (Sense Antenna)• Winding the antenna in the form of loop for directionalcharacteristics.• Voltage induced into the two sides is of equal magnitude butopposite in polarity, causes signal to cancel each other.• At different angel of interception, directional finding is possible.
  38. 38. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 38Badarul Zaman HamidinTuning Circuits• To isolate desired frequency to receive among various frequency.• Other word, to tune or select the desired frequency.• Simple circuit using variable capacitor and an inductor connected inparallel.• Tuning knob changing the amount of capacitance in the circuit to matchor resonant with transmitting frequency.• Modern radios, uses frequency synthesizer.– Consists number of crystals.– Each crystals has a particular frequency.– Using switches, combine the crystals to produce additional frequencies.– The two new frequencies are combined, two new frequencies are produced.(Sum and Difference of the two crystals frequency)– Hundreds of frequencies can be created.
  39. 39. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 39Badarul Zaman HamidinSpeakers / Microphones• Speakers– Transform electrical signals into sound waves.– Aircraft speakers not the same as home and automotive speakers.– Use of large magnet will cause large magnetic field emissions which affectsaircraft instruments systems.– Types• Permanent magnet speakers– It utilize a metal plate attached over the magnet to shield the flux for the.• Dynamic speaker– Do not produce large magnetic field disturbance.– Use electromagnetic that varies with the input audio frequency signal.– Expands and contracts to move the diaphragm at audio rate.• Microphones– Transform sound waves into electrical signals to the transmitter.– Dynamic microphone is also available.– Types:• Magnetic Type• Dynamic type
  40. 40. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 40Badarul Zaman HamidinTransmission Lines• Radio components which provide path for the frequency signalsin radio systems.• Special electrical cable to connect between the transmitter unitor receiver unit to the antenna.• Coaxial cable– Insulated solid copper conductor for maximum efficiency in signaltransmission.
  41. 41. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 41Badarul Zaman HamidinInspection & Maintenance• Responsibility of the technician involved.• Refer to AC 43.13-1B Chapter 12 for basic acceptable practice.• Proper handling, maintenance and inspection procedures mustbe observed to ensure the airworthiness of the aircraft ismaintained.
  42. 42. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 42Badarul Zaman HamidinQUIZ 11. What is:1. Avionic = _________________________________2. Communication = _________________________________3. Navigation = _________________________________4. Radio = _________________________________2. Radio wave is produced by synchronize operation of _____________________ and _____________ __________, and they are______________ to each other.3. Radio waves are classified by their _______________________.4. Frequency below 20,000Hz is known as ____________ frequency,which we _______ (can/cannot) hear.5. Frequency above 20,000Hz is known as ____________ frequency,which we _______ (can/cannot) hear.
  43. 43. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 43Badarul Zaman HamidinQUIZ 16. The strength of radio wave is depends on _______________.7. 2 frequencies that are known as microwave frequency are:________________________ & ________________________.8. Information signal is transmitted using a ________________ wave.9. 2 kinds of microphone:a) ________________________b) ________________________6. Transmitter contains :a) __________________b) __________________c) _________________
  44. 44. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 44Badarul Zaman HamidinQUIZ 111. 2 types of modulation:a) _________________________b) _________________________11. Size or length of antenna is determined by ____________________.12. Which component is considered the heart of radio system?________________________________________________________.14. Function of modulator________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.15. Which type of microphone that might interfere a/c system operation &need a shield cover?________________________________________________________.
  45. 45. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 45Badarul Zaman HamidinQUIZ 116. The output of modulation is called _______________________.17. 2 types of amplifier:a) _________________________b) _________________________16. An electrical conductor that is used to convert electrical energy to EMwaves is _____________.17. Class A is _______________ amplifier which is used in _________(radio/audio) system18. Advantage of frequency modulation are:_______________________________________________________.19. Simple oscillator uses __________________ circuit.
  46. 46. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 46Badarul Zaman HamidinProject A-38Aircraft Antenna• Title : Aircraft Antennas• Objective : To identify type of antenna and their location on the aircraft.• Project type: Group• Work Performance:– Each group will select an aircraft type for the project.– All information must be refer to respective aircraft maintenance manual.– Identify the location of the antenna, their type, and their installation purposes on the aircraft.– Installation and maintenance requirements according to the maintenance manual.– Provide written explanation and presentation.– Determine the type of (communication radio) radio used inside the aircraft. Please provide themanufacturer of the radio inclusive the part number.• Aircrafts Selection:1. Boeing 777 / 747 / 7372. Airbus 300 Series (320 / 330)3. Hawker Siddeley – HS 1254. Hughes 5005. Fokker 506. Cessna 250
  47. 47. TCNV 214Slide 47Badarul Zaman HamidinCommunicationSystemsDay 3
  48. 48. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 48Badarul Zaman HamidinHF Communication Systems• Provide long range (over ocean or overland) communication.• Frequency range : 2 – 30 MHz• Propagation : Ground Waves• Reception range : 1500 to 2000 miles• Transmitter output : 80 – 200 watts  high to achieve long distance. (Trans-Atlantic or Pacific)• Generally referred to as ‘short wave’ communication.• Provides two way communication or digitally coded signals (data-link).• System components– HF transceiver – located at the electronic equipment rack.– HF radio control unit – remotely control the transceiver from the pilot/co-pilot instrument panels.– Antenna• Probe/Flush Mounted – Large Aircraft– Requires antenna coupler.– Covered by plastic type shield. (fiberglass or similar)• Wire / Extended Wire – Small Aircraft– Wing-tip to Vertical Fin / Vertical Fin to Top Forward Fuselage– Long-wire-trailing antenna – extended from aft fuselage with adjustable length. Notsuitable for high-speed aircraft.– Antenna Coupler• Frequency selector unit.• Automatically reposition the antenna to selected new frequency.• Disadvantage – affected by atmospheric interference– Communication loss by thunderstorm or atmospheric disturbances.• Being replaced and improved by SATCOM
  49. 49. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 49Badarul Zaman HamidinVHF Communication Systems• Provide short range communication. (Air Traffic Controller)• Frequency Range : 118 – 135.975 MHz• International Operations Frequency : extends up to 151.975 MHz• Propagation: Space Wave / Direct Wave• Reception Range : Limited to Line-Of-Sight ( ≈ 20 – 39 miles / 48 km at 1,000 ft / 305 m)• Transmitter output : 5 – 20 watts (lesser than HF power)• Channels available– 360 (50 kHz spacing) – 720 (25 kHz spacing)– 760 (25 kHz spacing extended to 151.975 MHz)• Standard communication systems approved by ICAO• Advantages:– Not often distorted by atmospheric/static noise interference.– Provide clearer receptions.• VHF radio display.– Two frequency display – Active & Standby Frequency– Switching in between using Transfer Button on the radio panel.• Antennas– Bent Whip Rod / Plastic-Encapsulated Blade Type– Mounted on top or bottom or both aircraft centerline.– Used for both transmit and receive.• Some systems, combined with VHF navigation systems.• Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) systems – easier maintenance and fault detection.
  50. 50. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 50Badarul Zaman HamidinVHF Radio
  51. 51. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 51Badarul Zaman HamidinIntercom & Interphone Systems• Not truly radio systems, but an avionic equipment providingcommunication onboard.• Do not use RF signals, ONLY audio signals.• Located at various point on the aircraft to provide aircraft crewcommunication.• Intercom Systems– Allows pilot communications internally• Captain to First Officer (Pilot to Co-pilot)• Pilot to Cabin Crew (Flight Attendant)• Pilot to Passenger ( Passenger Address (PA) Systems)• Interphone Systems– Allows pilot to communicate externally• Pilot to Maintenance Crew– Jack-point available for maintenance crew to communicate with thepilot during ground operations using headset.
  52. 52. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 52Badarul Zaman HamidinRadio Telephone• Provide Air to Ground communication for passenger.• Similar to cell-phone function to allows phone calls made duringflight to ground phone systems.• Operating Frequency : 450 – 500 MHz (UHF)• Control by ground station and relay to ground communicationsystems.• Antenna– Marconi Type– Similar look to VHF antenna with difference in size and shape
  53. 53. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 53Badarul Zaman HamidinSATCOM• Satellite Communication.• Provides voice communication and data link.• Replacing HF communication. (*large aircraft)• Consists three segments:1. Satellite– Geostationary positioned at 10,900 miles high.– Also refers as Repeater Station– Duplication of ground station1. Ground / Earth Station2. Aircraft• Frequency Range – using Microwave Frequency– L Band ( 1 – 2 GHz )  Aircraft – Satellite– C Band ( 4 – 6 GHz )  Ground - Satellite• One satellite can provide approximately 11,000 audio/digitalcommunication links.• User congestion – AIRCOM and ACARS helps provide digitalcommunication systems.
  54. 54. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 54Badarul Zaman HamidinSATCOM
  55. 55. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 55Badarul Zaman HamidinAIRCOM• Air Communication• Also known as – Digital Air / Ground Communication Services• Uses VHF comm. systems of existing VHF radio.• Provided by SITA (Société Internationale de Telecommunitions Aeronautique)• Purpose:– To reduce amount of voice communication on existing congested comm. frequencies.– Allows ground to aircraft comm. for operational flight information.• Flight delays• Departure time• Estimated Time Arrived (ETA)• AIRCOM is widely used in Europe and Australia
  56. 56. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 56Badarul Zaman HamidinACARS• ARINC Communication Addressing and Reporting System• ARINC – Aeronautical Radio Incorporated– Corporation established by foreign and domestic airline, manufacturers, and transportcompanies.– To set standard in radio telecommunication in aviation industry.• Uses VHF radio waves (131.55 MHz) or SATCOM.• Normally, the third VHF radio is reserved for ACARS systems.• If failure condition – interfere VHF comm. systems. *Prohibited ATC to operateVHF comm. on the third radio.• Purpose : Same as AIRCOM• ACARS is the United States counterpart of AIRCOM systems.• Operation: 2 Modes– Demand Mode• To transmit message from aircraft to ground.• Airborne Management Unit (MU) determine if the channel is free for communication.• If clear – message transmitted• If busy – MU waits until free– Polled Mode• Request by ground station.
  57. 57. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 57Badarul Zaman HamidinSELCAL• Selective Calling• Purposes:– To prevent interruption of the pilot concentration from unwantedcommunications.– To relieve pilot from continuously monitoring the receivers.• Connected to the HF or VHF radios.• SELCAL unit consists of a decoder with aircraft assigned code number.• The code– 4 tones transmitted in series.– Each tone has 12 possible frequencies.– 20,000 combination codes available.– Transmitted in UHF.• When selected code match the assigned aircraft code, SELCALdecoder will activate aural or visual indication of incoming call to thepilot• Ground station is able to select the aircraft they wish to call.• Same principle with telephone number.
  58. 58. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 58Badarul Zaman HamidinAudio Control Panel
  59. 59. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 59Badarul Zaman HamidinProject A-39Communication Systems• Objective : To identify type and understand available aircraft communicationsystems, and their components location onboard the aircraft.• Project type: Group• Work Performance:– Each group will select an aircraft type for the project.– All information must be refer to respective aircraft maintenance manual.– List available communication systems onboard the aircraft.– Identify the location of the communication components and equipments– Installation and maintenance requirements according to the maintenance manual.– Provide written explanation and presentation.• Aircrafts Selection:1. Boeing 7772. Boeing 7473. Boeing 7374. Airbus 3305. Airbus 3206. Hawker Siddeley – HS 125
  60. 60. TCNV 214Slide 60Badarul Zaman HamidinNavigationSystemsDay 4
  61. 61. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 61Badarul Zaman HamidinADFAuto Directional Finder• Purpose: To assist the pilot in determining the direction of the airport orthe position of the aircraft.• Modern navigation systems taking over the function.• However, widely used in GA and smaller airports with no other radioaids for navigations.• The systems terms:– ADF refers to aircraft equipment.– NDB (Non-Directional Beacon), refers to ground-based equipment.• ADF Systems – refers to both ADF and NDB• Normally installed in remote airport or less developed country where nopossibility of having update in navigation facility.• Operating Frequency– ADF receiver  190 – 1,800 kHz• 190 – 500 kHz  used for aircraft navigation (NDB)• 550 – 1,800 kHz  band used for commercial AM broadcast station• Therefore, AM broadcast station may and can be used for navigation.• Noted on the navigation chart.• Propagation: Ground Wave – reliable at low altitude
  62. 62. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 62Badarul Zaman HamidinADF ComponentsGround Transmitter1. Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)transmits 190 – 500 kHz2. Broadcasting Stations transmit550 – 1,800 kHz• Min. two stations as an alternateto NDBAirborne Equipment1. ADF receivers– Receives 190 – 1,800 kHz2. ADF control panels3. ADF antennas – 2 antennas– Directional/Loop Antenna– Sense Antenna4. ADF Indicator– 3 types• Fixed Card Indicator• Movable Card Indicator• Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)– Magnetic heading of aircraft– Magnetic bearing of two stations– Provides visual information.– Easier navigation thru graphical.
  63. 63. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 63Badarul Zaman HamidinADF OperationUsing NDBTo determine the heading of the airport, the pilot tuned the ADF to NDBfrequency of the airport and manually rotate the loop antenna until theNULL or ZERO position is determined.NULL position indicates the airport’s NDB. However, there will be twoNULL positions in 360° rotation. Flying towards or away.To offset the ambiguity, Sense antenna will generate antiphase / out ofphase to eliminate the other NULL position.This will cause the RMI pointer to stop moving and pointing towards theairport/airfield.Alternate NDB using two broadcast stations.Tune to two radio station frequencies. Thus, will move two RMIpointers.Two pointers provide bearings of two radio stations read from thecompass card and gives magnetic bearings of the stations on thenavigation chart.Location of the aircraft is determined by the intersection point of the twobearings and gives the aircraft coordinate / angular position.In new generation aircraft, ADF is used to align aircraft to the runway in ILS.Located between Outer Marker (OM) and Middle Marker (MM).This NDB is also called ‘Compass Locator’.
  64. 64. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 64Badarul Zaman HamidinADF AntennaRequires two antennas• Directional/Loop Antenna– Determine aircraft headingtowards/away from station.– Strength of received signal dependson angle between plane of the loopand direction of EM wave.– Minimum (null) when perpendicularto show station direction of eitherdirection at 180° each.– Maximum when parallel.• Sense Antenna– Determine direction of the station.– Solve the true direction of thestation.Modern aircraft, both antennas in oneunit.• Flat oval / Teardrop shape
  65. 65. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 65Badarul Zaman HamidinADF Indicators
  66. 66. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 66Badarul Zaman HamidinADF BearingDefinition of Relative and Magnetic Bearing
  67. 67. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 67Badarul Zaman HamidinVORVHF Omni Range• Purpose : Provide course guidance to the aircraft• Operating Frequency : 108.0 – 117.95 MHz (VHF)• Propagation : Space Wave – Limited to line-of-sight• Advantages :– Provides an infinite number of radials or course indications.– Reduces the amount of indication errors from adverse atmosphericconditions.– Accurately provides directional information.• Systems Components :1. VOR Ground Station2. VOR Airborne EquipmentWhen combined as VOR/DMEprovides course and distanceinformation.
  68. 68. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 68Badarul Zaman HamidinVOR Ground Station• Located along the airways at the highest ground level.• Components :– 2 VOR Transmitter (Tx)– 2 DME Transmitter (Tx)• Transmits two types of VHF radio signal :– A fix / reference signal• Constant FM pulse signal– A rotating / variable signal.• AM signal which electronically rotated at 1800 rpm.• VOR station signal is called ‘Radials’ or ‘Radio Beams’ transmit360° radials with 1° sensitivity.
  69. 69. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 69Badarul Zaman HamidinVOR Airborne EquipmentVOR Receiver / Control Panel• Located in cockpit instrument panel.• Allow tuning in even tenth at VHF• Measures phase difference for direction.• In-phase due north.VOR Antenna (VHF)• Horn Type Antenna– Located on vertical stabilizer• Flush Metallic AntennaVOR Indicator• Located in cockpit instrument panel.• Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) Man• Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) AutoVOR operation terms• Inboard  toward / to• Outboard  fromVOR will be activated by the pilot when aircraft at cruising speed.
  70. 70. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 70Badarul Zaman HamidinVOR Equipment Check• FAR’s– VOR equipment must be routinely check if flown under IFR.• FAR Part 91 – VOR equipment check– No person may operate civil aircraft under IFR conditions using VORsystems unless VOR equipment of that aircraft:• Is maintained, checked and inspected under approved procedure; or• Has been operationally checked within preceding 30 days and was found withinthe limits of bearing error set forth below.• The check must use one of followings:– An approved FAA or Repair Station ground test signal – ± 4°– Designated VOR checkpoint on the airport surface – ± 4°– Designated airborne checkpoint – ± 6°– An airborne check using a VOR radial and prominent ground point that can be seenfrom the air as established by the person doing the check – ± 6°– If two separate VOR receivers are installed, they may be checked against each other –± 4°– Maintained record entry in aircraft log and sign it.• Enter Date• Place• Bearing Error– Or, Repair Station Certificate bearing transmitted and date into aircraft log.
  71. 71. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 71Badarul Zaman HamidinDMEDistance Measuring Equipment• Purposes are to provide:– Slant range distance in nautical miles (n.m.).– Associated with VOR/DME or VORTAC to provide groundspeed, time enroute to thestation and course guidance.• Operating Frequency : 960 – 1,215 MHz (UHF)• DME frequencies are paired with VOR frequencies – Frequency Pairing• Tuning VOR frequencies will automatically tuned DME frequencies.– VOR identifier is repeated three or four times.– Followed by single-coded DME identifier every 30 seconds indicates DME isfunctioning.• DME components :1. Interrogator Unit – Airborne Unit (Transceiver)– Transmit interrogator signal– Measure total time taken for the signal to transmit and receive/replied back to the aircraft.– Convert the total time into slant range distance in nautical miles.1. Transponder Unit – Ground Unit– Inside VOR ground station.– Measure the time of interrogator signal reach the station.– Reply signal to the airborne unit.
  72. 72. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 72Badarul Zaman HamidinDME Operation• Operations– Airborne transceiver sent interrogator signal to tunedstation.– Transponder measure time taken and reply signal.– Transceiver receive signal and measure the roundtrip time taken, and compute distance in nauticalmiles for display digitally.– Upon altitude and line-of-sight, reliable for 200 n.m.• Slant Range Distance– Not measure horizontal distance.– Difference not significant if at least 1 mile fromstation for every 1000 feet altitude.– Results of 2 components, horizontal and verticaldistance.– Accurate within ½ mile or 3% of actual distance.• Angle between slant range distance andVOR/DME stations – called Bearing• When directly above the station, DME indicatesaltitude in nautical miles on HSI.
  73. 73. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 73Badarul Zaman HamidinRNAVARea NAVigation• Allows pilot to fly direct to destination without need to overfly VOR or groundbased facilities.• Achieve shorter fly distance and travel time.• Limited to overland, cannot be applied for over ocean navigation.• Also known as Direct Navigation Systems.• Other available systems– VORTAC based– LORAN– INS– GPS– FMS• In RNAV, courses are defined by waypoints.• Waypoints – predetermined geographical positions used for route andinstrument approach for reporting purposes.• Related to VOR/DME or VORTAC stations in terms of latitude/longitudecoordinates.• RNAV inputs requirements :– Course guidance from VOR/DME station.– Barometric altitude from Air Data Computer (ADC)– Slant Range Distance from DME– Bearing of aircraft from VOR
  74. 74. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 74Badarul Zaman HamidinRNAVExample Flight Plan
  75. 75. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 75Badarul Zaman HamidinRNAV Operating Mode• Mode terms1. Rho  Distance (Slant Range)2. Theta  Bearing3. Phantom route  Planned route deviates from VOR/DME or ground basedstation/s.• RNAV can operates under 3 mode :1. Rho – Theta Mode– Requires only ONE VOR/DME station.– Three inputs to determine the waypoint are :– Rho– Theta– Barometric Altitude1. Rho – Rho Mode– Requires TWO VOR/DME stations.– Two DME distance inputs to compute the waypoint.1. Theta – Theta Mode– Requires TWO VOR/DME stations.– Two VOR bearing inputs to compute the waypoint.
  76. 76. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 76Badarul Zaman HamidinTACANTACtical Air Navigation• Military version of DME.• More advance than DME.• Purpose :– Provide distance information.• Widely used in United States.
  77. 77. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 77Badarul Zaman HamidinVORTAC• A combination of VOR and TACAN facility.• Provide distance and course guidance for area navigation (RNAV).• Using course-line computer (CLC) that creates phantom waypoints fordirect route of flight.• CLC requirements :– DME to calculate the location of the waypoint.– VOR/DME or VORTAC tuned frequency.• CLC established waypoint as a direction and distance from a VOR orDME sites.– Example: Waypoint OMN 240/25  25 n.m. southwest (240°) of OMN sites.• Pilot designed a flight plan by selecting number of waypoints alongdesired path.• Aircraft must be able to receive usable signal from VORTAC sites.• Waypoint is limited to line-of-sight of VOR facility or must fly direct routewithin VOR or VORTAC sites.• Other limitations, the direct routes must be approved by ATC duecongested air traffic areas.
  78. 78. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 78Badarul Zaman HamidinRNAVExample Flight Plan
  79. 79. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 79Badarul Zaman HamidinLORANLOng RAnge Navigation• Uses land-based radio transmitters originally provide weather navigation formariners.• Along U.S. coast and Great Lakes• For use in aviation, LORAN coastal facilities extended across U.S. continent.• LORAN – C– Used for IFR navigation.– Accurate within 0.25 nautical mile.– Define aircraft position in terms latitude and longitude.– GPS is overtaking LORAN function.– Ground transmitter• Operates at 100 kHz. (Ground Wave)• 1000 ft high• Power of 4,000,000 watts– Chain consist of ONE master station and TWO slave stations of hundred miles apart.– Sequenced signal from master follows by slaves.– Aircraft LORAN-C receivers measure time separation to compute aircraft locationrelative to transmission sites– Accuracy of 400 – 1000 ft.– Advantage – signals can be received at any altitude even on ground and does notrequired tuning since operates at 100 kHz at all time.
  80. 80. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 80Badarul Zaman HamidinINSInertial Navigation Systems• Self-contained system developed by MIT based on Newton’s Law of motion.• Does not rely on external radio inputs.• Generates its own inputs to navigate from waypoint to waypoint.• Starting point is determined by latitude and longitude and INS computer unit will determinenew position by measuring the inertial forces acting on aircraft.• Accelerometer  to measure the continuous acceleration in flight.• When accelerates, the signal is amplified to increase the sensitivity of the system and fedthe time integer to change to VELOCITY and get the DISTANCE.• From DISTANCE, the pilot can plot the location of the aircraft.• In INS, 3 accelerometers are required.– Longitudinal– Lateral– Vertical• False acceleration  cause by flitting a ‘nose-up’ attitude.• Gyroscope  stable platform to mount the accelerometers to avoid false acceleration.• False acceleration signal is fed back to torque/spin the gyro. Movement of gyro will produceelectrical signal to drive the gyro motor platform proportionately to the false signal to levelstate.• Components:1. A stable element – Gyro2. 3 Accelerometers3. Analog and Digital Computer• Also fed information for Autopilot systems• Drift error accumulations after usage – Updating process using other navigation source.(VOR)
  81. 81. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 81Badarul Zaman HamidinINS Mode of operationINS operates in 5 Modes.1. OFF – No power supply to INS components.2. STANDBY – Power supply is supplied to heat up the navigation unit and allowgyro to spin.3. ALIGN• Aircraft must be stationary.• Performs system leveling and orientation. (10 minutes)• INS align to True North (TN).• Pilot inputs the initial position of aircraft in Latitude / Longitude.• True North – between Magnetic North and Geographical North.1. NAVIGATION• Green Light illumination indicator.• Inputs of 8 waypoints is allowed.1. ATTITUDE• When any INS components failed.• Digital computer is de-activatedGenerated Output : POSITION, GROUND SPEED, DISTANCE & HEADING, TIMEto destination
  82. 82. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 82Badarul Zaman HamidinIRSInertial Reference Signal• Improved INS systems using Ring-Laser Gyro (Strap-down Gyro) asstable element.• Laser gyro advantage is that the gyro has no moving parts.– Uses pair of white light as a transmitting medium.• LASER stand for– L  Light– A  Amplification by– S  Simulated– E  Emissions of– R  Radiation• IRS or INS also referred as ‘Reference Computer’ for other systems.(Autopilot, HSI)
  83. 83. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 83Badarul Zaman HamidinGPSGlobal Positioning System• Indicates aircraft position globally using NAVSTAR satellite using ranging andtriangulation method.• GPS systems consists of three segments:– Space• 24 geostatically satellite at 10,900 miles high.• 21 is operational, and 3 for back up purpose.• At any point on earth, only 5 satellites is visible.• Navigation purpose requires 4 satellites for accuracy.• Transmit radio signals which controlled by atomic clock for accuracy.• Frequency range in 1.6 GHz.• Provide position and time signals– Control• One master control and monitoring stations.• Master control at Falcon Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.• Control, update and maintain GPS constellation.– User• 1. Antenna 2. Receivers 3. Processors• Received 4 satellite signals.• Calculate aircraft Position, Speed, Altitude, Heading, Time for pilot/s.• GPS receivers calculates its own position, distance, bearing and estimated time enroute to thenext waypoint.• Extremely accurate system for 100 m (328 ft) to 20 m (65 ft) without SelectiveAvailability.• Selective Availability introduced by Department of Defense for national securityreason. Removed as of May 1, 2000.
  84. 84. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 84Badarul Zaman HamidinGPS
  85. 85. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 85Badarul Zaman HamidinTransponders• Transponder is a secondary radar equipment on the aircraft.• Aircraft transponder using two different frequencies– Transmit at 1090 MHz– Receive at 1030 MHz• Useful for air traffic controller to identify the aircraft to prevent mid-aircollision and provide guidance for aircraft.• Related to radar operation :– RADAR – radio detection and ranging– Transmit synchronized radio wave and process their reflections for display.– Primary Radar – sends out EM wave pulse travel outward and bounce offmetal parts (aircraft). This reflected echo produces spot on radarscope.Range is by total time taken to travel and back. Angle is by position ofrotating antenna.– Secondary Radar – able to determine the aircraft. When radar pulseinterrogator hit aircraft, airborne secondary equipment will sends codedsignal for identification– After World War II, primary and secondary used by ATC facilities.
  86. 86. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 86Badarul Zaman HamidinATC Transponder• Radar systems used by Air Traffic Controller• Operating Frequency : 2.7 GHz• Operation:– ATC send interrogator code signal in digital (binary)– Airborne equipment (transponder) answer/reply proper reply signal.– Transponder control allows pilot to select among 4906 numerical codes inoctal coding. ( 0000 to 7777 )– Computer on ground radar identify the aircraft by their flight assigned code.• Transponder Code0000 – Military1200 – Operating under VFR (not in ATC control)7500, 7600, 7700 – Emergency situation7700 – Hijacked situation
  87. 87. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 87Badarul Zaman HamidinTransponder OperationsTransponder Control• Four Knobs – To select code• Selector Switch• IDT (IDENT) Button• Code Display (Numerical)Operation Mode• MODE 3/A – Basic transponder• MODE C – plus coded message(aircraft pressure altitude)• MODE S – able sent additionalmessages on CRT or printed.– ATC instructions– Weather Reports– Increase identification code > 1 mill.– TCAS infoTransponder Test• Avoid accidental activation thetransponder during maintenanceunless for transponder test purposes.• Tested and inspected every 24calendar months
  88. 88. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 88Badarul Zaman HamidinILSInstrument Landing System• Assist the pilot by providingguidance during landingapproach.• System components are:– Localizer Tx– Glide Slope Tx– Compass Locator (NDB)– Marker Beacon– Indicator– Runway Lights• Provide visibility to pilot.• Located surround the airways.• Visible in night/fog/rain
  89. 89. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 89Badarul Zaman HamidinILSLocalizer• Consists of transmitter unit.• Located 1000 ft from end of runway.• Radio signal transmit at 108.1 MHz to 111.9 MHz. (VHF)• Transmits horizontal signals in two lobes.– Right Lobe  150 Hz– Left Lobe  90 Hz• Provide horizontal approach guidance towards the runway.• Beams coverage– Forward  27 miles– Aft / Back  17 miles
  90. 90. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 90Badarul Zaman HamidinILSGlide Slope• Consists of transmitter unit.• Located at 15 % of the runway length at threshold center.• Operates at 329 MHz to 339 MHz (UHF)• Provide vertical guidance to pilot to prevent overshooting orundershooting the landing runway.• Provide vertical approach guidancein two lobes.– Bottom Lobe  150 Hz– Top Lobe  90 Hz• Coverage up to vertical distanceof 10 miles.
  91. 91. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 91Badarul Zaman HamidinILSNDB – Compass Locator• The same NDB of ADF.• Provide signal to the aircraft to align themselves with therunway.• Operates at radio frequency range of 190 – 500 kHz.• Located between Outer Marker and Middle Marker of theapproach path.
  92. 92. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 92Badarul Zaman HamidinILSMarker Beacons• Provides distance of aircraft from the runway.• Located along the approach path.• Beacons transmit vertical radio signal.• Visual and Aural indicator to pilot.• Consist three (3) marker position.– Outer Marker (OM)• 4 to 5 nm. from runway edge• Produce 400 Hz audio tone• Indefinite 2 dashes• Illuminates BLUE light– Middle Marker (MM)• 3000 ft from runway edge• Produce 1300 Hz audio tone• Alternate dots and dashes• Illuminates AMBER light– Inner Marker (IM)• 1300 ft from runway edge• Produce 3000 Hz audio tone• Identified by 6 dots per second• Illuminate WHITE light• Known as Frequency Modulator / Z marker• All beacons transmit at 75 MHz vertically
  93. 93. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 93Badarul Zaman HamidinILSIndicator• Use to assist pilot during landing by giving information of thelocation and approach status of the aircraft towards the runway.• Using aural and visual indication• Glide Slope Indicator– Combine both vertical and horizontalapproach attitude.• Marker Indicator– Aural and Visual– OM – BLUE – 2 Dashes– MM – AMBER – Dot and Dash– IM – WHITE – 6 dots per second
  94. 94. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 94Badarul Zaman HamidinMLSMicrowave Landing System• Option of ILS using microwave frequency.– 5031 MHz to 5091 MHz• Provide precision approach guidance• Gives– Azimuth (left/right)– Elevation (glide slope)– Range• Requires separate airborne equipment.• Airport upgrades to have Azimuth Stationat 100 ft beyond stop end– Data transmission capability– Elevation station– Range station– Back Azimuth Station• Approach Azimuth Station  ±40°• Elevation Guidance Station  up to 30°• Range Guidance Station  Normal / Precision DME station
  95. 95. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 95Badarul Zaman HamidinELTEmergency Locator Transmitter• Help to locate a crashed aircraft in remote or mountainous area.• Self contained unit with own battery.• Components– Transmitter – dual frequency stress signal at 121.5 MHz (civil) or 243.0 MHz (military).– Whip type antenna with coaxial cable.– Battery for power supply.• Located at the tail structure where minimal crash damage area.• Activated by longitudinal impact of 5 G’s or more.• Transmit swept tone stress signal for 48 hours for range of 100 miles, 10,000 ftusing power output of 75 mW• ELT signal can be received by radio tuned to 121.5 MHz 0r 243.0 MHz. Omnidirection.• Installation is mandatory for Airworthiness compliance.• Test and Inspection– Test can only be carry out for the first 5 minutes of every hour. Maximum 3 beeps andtuned the radio to ELT frequency.– Inspect battery by expiry date on battery data plate. Fully charged at all time. If usedmore than 20 minutes, replacement is required.
  96. 96. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 96Badarul Zaman HamidinCockpit Voice Recorders (CVR)• Record all sounds/communications and activities inside the cockpit.• Useful information for accident investigation when occur.• Components:– Hot Microphone – inside the cockpit• Records voices, warning sound, engine noise, etc.• Connected to intercom, radio.– CVR Unit – tail section of the aircraft.• Use magnetic tape for continuous recording for 30 minutes.• Tape is 4 channel tape• Waterproof, Impact and Fire Resistant• Operation Mode– Record – using 4 channel– Test – test switch– Monitoring– Erase – on ground and parking brake is ON• During crash, squat switch disconnect the power supply.
  97. 97. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 97Badarul Zaman HamidinFlight Data Recorders (FDR)• Records parameters of aircraft systems for accident investigation whenoccur.• Installed at the tail section in famously known as Black Box that canwithstand:– 1 ton crushing load– Acceleration force for 100 G’s– Soaked in fluid– Temperature of 800°C for 15 minutes• Components1. Recorder 3. Trip and Date encoder2. Power Supply 4. Accelerometer• Recorder Type– The recorder is 6” stainless steel metal foiled tape for 400 hours recordingtime.– Magnetic tape for last 25 flight hours– Semiconductor memory chip• RED light indicates FDR fail.
  98. 98. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 98Badarul Zaman HamidinFDR Parameters1. Indicated Speed2. Altitude3. Magnetic Heading4. Vertical Acceleration5. Pitch Attitude6. Roll Attitude7. Stabilizer Trim Position8. Pitch Control Position9. Roll Attitude10. N1, EPR or Prop RPM and Torque11. Vertical Speed12. Angle of Attack13. Autopilot Engagement14. TE Flap Position15. LE Flap Position16. Thrust Reverser Position17. Spoiler/Speedbrake Position
  99. 99. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 99Badarul Zaman HamidinRadar Altimeter• Display aircraft’s absolute altitude above ground level (AGL)• Operating frequency : 4.3 GHz• Using radio signal to measure absolute altitude rather thanusing atmospheric pressure.• Absolute Altitude : Total altitude measured with reference tovacuum.• Usable range is up to 2500 ft, mainly used during instrumentapproach during bad weather.• Also refer as ‘Radio Altimeters’• Components:– 2 Antennas – receive and transmit at bottom of aircraft.– Transceiver – measure total time signal travel back to aircraft andtranslate into altitude distance.– Radio Altimeter Indicator – display altitude above ground
  100. 100. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 100Badarul Zaman HamidinGPWSGround Proximity Warning System• Provide warning of dangerous terrain during approach to land.• Components:– Radio Altimeter (RA)– Air Data Computer (ADC)– ILS– GPWC– Monitors landing gear and flap position• GPWC – Ground Proximity Warning Computer– Provides visual warning (Lights) and Aural Audible Warning (8 Voices)– Inputs from RA, Glide Slope, ADC (barometric altitude)– 5 Modes OperationMODE 1 – excessive sink rateMODE 2 – excessive terrain closure rateMODE 3 – descent after take-offMODE 4 – wrong LG (A) or Flaps (B)MODE 5 – inadvertent descent below glide slope
  101. 101. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 101Badarul Zaman Hamidin• 8 Audio Message output based on priority and operation modes• Visual indication when Light illuminates in MODE 1, 2,3, and 4.• “Whoop Whoop Pull Up” message supercedes other messages.• In MODE 5, tones will increase as approach closer to runway.• GPWS only operates when aircraft 2500 ft and below.GPWSPRIORITY MESSAGE MODE1 Whoop Whoop – Pull Up 1 & 22 Terrain – Terrain 23 Too Low – Terrain 4A & 4B4 Too Low – Gear 4A5 Too Low – Flaps 4B6 Sink Rate 17 Don’t Sink 38 Glide Slope 5
  102. 102. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 102Badarul Zaman HamidinTCASTraffic Alert & Collision Avoidance System• To alert pilot of its intruder in their vicinity and to avoid aircraftcollision.• Generate alert and collision avoidance advisory messages:• Two types of advisory:– Traffic Alert / Advisory (TA)• Audible warns pilot of the closing intruder/aircraft at 40 sec distant.• ‘Traffic Traffic’– Resolution Advisory (RA)• Display when intruder/aircraft at 25 sec distant.• Offers audible corrective or preventive maneuvers to avoid collision.• ‘Climb Climb Climb’• TCAS components:– TCAS facility– MODE S transponder facility– ATC Radar Beacon Systems
  103. 103. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 103Badarul Zaman HamidinWeather Radar• Airborne Weather Radar as ground based radar for weather avoidancesystem.• To display the pilot of weather condition ahead to ensure smooth flight andpassenger comfort.• Operated using microwave frequencies:– X Band ( 8 GHz – 12 GHz )• In private jet for clear reception• BUT, not reliable coverage behind existing condition– C Band ( 4 GHz – 8 GHz )• In commercial transport for greater distance coverage• Penetrate ahead existing condition• Components– Transceiver Unit – located in Radome*– Radar Scanner/Antenna – Located in Radome– Radarscope• Color display CRT• Level 1  RED (severe weather)• Level 2  YELLOW (mild weather)• Level 3  GREEN (normal weather)
  104. 104. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 104Badarul Zaman HamidinSTORMSCOPETM• Weather avoidance system.• Display condition of the weather.• Also called as “All Weather Mapping”.• Use to locate thunderstorm activities.• Severity of weather shown by dense dot.• Unlike radar, do not radiate radio signals.• Instead, ONLY receive radio signals.• The radio frequency signal received is produced by the lighting orsevere turbulence condition.
  105. 105. Center of Excellence for Aviation TrainingCenter of Excellence for Aviation TrainingUniversiti Kuala LumpurMalaysian Institute of Aviation TechnologyTCNV 214Slide 105Badarul Zaman HamidinProject A-40Navigation Systems• Objective : To identify type and understand available aircraft navigation systems,their components and location onboard the aircraft.• Project type: Group• Work Performance:– Each group will select an aircraft type for the project.– All information must be refer to respective aircraft maintenance manual.– List available navigation systems onboard the aircraft.– Identify the location of the navigation components and equipments.– Installation and maintenance requirements according to the maintenance manual.– Provide written explanation and presentation.• Aircrafts Selection:1. Boeing 7772. Boeing 7373. Airbus 3304. Airbus 3205. Hawker Siddeley – HS 1256. Fokker 50
  106. 106. TCNV 214Slide 106Badarul Zaman HamidinThank YouKP(JPS)5195/US/38DCAM No. AO/0110/03

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