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- 1. Electronics for the Internet of Things SUMMER SCHOOL
- 2. Outline Electronic Signals Electricity Equations General Purpose Input / Output (GPIO) Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) Microcontrollers and Computers Questions 2
- 3. Electronic Signals 3 Image from http://autosystempro.com/analog-and-digital-principles/
- 4. Analog and Digital We can only store digital signals ◦ Using 1 or several bits / sample We store an array of numbers Parameters ◦ Bits per sample ◦ Sampling rate 4 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 5. Bits per sample 1 bit signals sample ◦ Values LOW (0) and HIGH (1) ◦ digital n bits signals sample ◦ Values 0 .. 2n-1 ◦ digital representation of an analog signal (analog) 5 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 6. Sampling Sensor signals are analog 6 Image from http://www.snotmonkey.com/work/school/405/overview.html
- 7. Sampling Rate The faster we sample the higher the accuracy Nyquist Theorem ◦ Sampling frequency >= 2 x maximum frequency Voice is 0.3 .. 3.4 KHz ◦ 8KHz phone 7 Image from http://www.jazzpoparkisto.net/audio/audio32.html
- 8. Electricity Equations 8 I = U R kik å = 0 kEk å = kR kIk å
- 9. Ohm’s Law 9 I = U R I = 3V 10W+50W+ 60W = 0.025A = 25mA
- 10. Kirchhoff Law I 10 kik å = 0 - 1I + 2I + 3I = 0
- 11. Kirchhoff’s Law II 11 kEk å = kR kIk å 1L : E = 1I 1R + 3I 3R 2L :0 = 2I 2R - 3I 3R
- 12. Voltage Divider 12 1V + 2V = inV 1V = I 1R 2V = outV = I 2R We measure Vout
- 13. Voltage Divider 13 1R = 0 outV = ?
- 14. Voltage Divider 14 1R =¥ outV = ?
- 15. Voltage Divider 15 2R = 0 outV = ?
- 16. Voltage Divider 16 2R =¥ outV = ?
- 17. Voltage Divider 17 1R = 0 2R = 0 outV = ?
- 18. Voltage Divider 18 1R = 0 2R = 0 outV = ? Short circuit
- 19. General Purpose Input / Output 19
- 20. Output and Input Digital Pins ◦ Value LOW (0) or HIGH (1) Each pin acts like a ◦ battery (OUTPUT) ◦ voltage meter (INPUT) 20
- 21. Output Pins act like a battery ◦ LOW – 0V ◦ HIGH – 5V, 3.3V or 1.8V 21
- 22. Input We measure Vout ◦ It goes into the pin 22
- 23. Pulse With Modulation 23
- 24. Pulse Width We set the % of “high” cycle ◦ 0 – 0% ◦ 255 – 100% ◦ Depends on the library Implementation ◦ Hardware ◦ Software Usage ◦ LED dimming ◦ Servo Motors 24
- 25. Analog to Digital Converters 25
- 26. Analog and Digital Converters Measure voltage Parameters ◦ Bits per sample ◦ Sampling rate For 1 bit we have … 26 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 27. Analog and Digital Converters Measure voltage Parameters ◦ Bits per sample ◦ Sampling rate For 1 bit we have … ◦ GPIO Input 27 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 28. Analog and Digital Converters Measure voltage Parameters ◦ Bits per sample ◦ Sampling rate For 1 bit we have … ◦ GPIO Input 28 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 29. Analog and Digital Converters Measure voltage Parameters ◦ Bits per sample ◦ Sampling rate For 1 bit we have … ◦ GPIO Input For n bits we have … 29 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 30. Analog and Digital Converters Measure voltage Parameters ◦ Bits per sample ◦ Sampling rate For 1 bit we have … ◦ GPIO Input For n bits we have … ◦ 0 – 2n-1 30 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 31. Analog and Digital Converters One ADC Multiplexed ◦ Reads for A0 ◦ Reads for A1 ◦ Reads for A2 ◦ Reads for A3 … 31 Image from http://www.centerpointaudio.com/Analog-VS-Digital.aspx
- 32. Microcontrollers and Computers 32
- 33. Microcontrollers and Computers Simple systems Control hardware Low speeds Small memory GPIO PWM ADC Run single software Full CPUs High speeds Large memory GPIO Run OS
- 34. Microcontrollers and computers Firmware Software
- 35. Intel® Edison Firmware (will be available) Software
- 36. Questions? 36

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