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Safety Awearness 2015 UK

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Safety Awearness 2015 UK

  1. 1. Safety Awareness Course Course Instructor: Claus Thorberg Hansen
  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction • Break (when needed) • Theory • Protection and Escape Equipment • Muster Exercise • Course Evaluation and Presentation of Certificates
  3. 3. • Walkways • Emergency Exit • Fire and Evacuation Procedure • Mobile Phones • Smoking • Toilet Information
  4. 4. Short Presentation of Yourselves. Suggested Topics: • Your Occupation. • Your Offshore/Onshore Oilfield Experience. Who are you?
  5. 5. • This training course will present the essential facts of the hidden dangers that can occur during work • You will learn the measures to be taken to protect yourself and others • Learn how … Course Objectives
  6. 6. Safety Policies
  7. 7. What is a safety policy? • A safety policy aims to secure a safe and well functioning work environment. • The goal is to educate and inform the employees of the company's values therefore reducing the number of injuries on the worksite. • It is MHSS policy to plan and carry out its jobs in such a way that the greatest care is taken to ensure the health and safety for all the employees performing the task. • All personal injuries can be prevented by proactive measures. • All employees have a responsibility to ensure that the work area is safe.
  8. 8. • A safe workplace without any incidents or accidents is an advantage for: • The employee and his family. • The entire A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. • The community. • There is a clear correlation between effort and results. • Experience shows that if the management gives the employees the opportunity to act unsafely then someone will at some point act unsafely and thereby expose others to an unneeded, unsafe working environment. • All incidents and accidents must be reported and investigated. Safety Policy
  9. 9. Why should I care about safety? At the end of a work day we want to go: home safe and healthy • for our self • for our family • for our colleagues A safe & secure work environment will: • reduce the likelihood of accidents • allow us to concentrate on our job without worries • promote confidence and pride in our work and company
  10. 10. • We believe in a safe workplace without any health, safety and security incidents. • Personal incidents are considered unacceptable and should at all times be prevented. It is our policy to ensure and document that we obtain the highest achievable level of: • Product, service and process safety • Organizational and logistical safety, and safety experienced by our customers • Health, safety and security of employees considering regulatory requirements as a minimum Our Health and Safety Policy
  11. 11. What is Safety Awareness?
  12. 12. What is safety awareness? • That you think before you act. Be proactive • Good Planning of The Specific Job • That all involved personnel are aware of known procedures before commencing any job • That you follow and respect the given procedures for the job • That you ask questions if in doubt • All have the right to stop any given operation if they think is it unsafe or questionable
  13. 13. Why do we need safety awareness? 1. Raise awareness + influence behavior 2. Change the way we communicate Safety through giving orders “You MUST do it” Safety through training and engagement “This is why we have to do it” to
  14. 14. Types of Dangerous Occurrences 1. Accident Somebody was injured or killed 2. Incident Nobody was injured, but there was equipment/surrounding damage 3. Near Miss Nobody was injured, no equipment or surrounding was damaged, but on another occasion the hazard could have resulted in an Accident or Incident
  15. 15. Cost of Accidents Direct Costs Indirect Costs Money-related / short term / 20% • Medical treatment • Injury compensation • Investigation & Insurance • Down time • Management time & attention • Equipment repair Human & other costs / medium term / 80% • Reduced quality of life / permanent injury • Low morale & productivity • Workarounds & inefficiencies • Poor customer service / loss of customers • Brand & Reputation damage
  16. 16. Iceberg Theory For every visible Accident or Serious Injury, there are many more unseen Incidents and Near Misses VISIBLE (few) UNSEEN (many) -------------------------------- • Accident • Serious Injury • Incident • Near Miss
  17. 17. ACCIDENTS & INCIDENTS
  18. 18. In general, the easiest way to find the causing factor to an accident or incident is to find a single event or object that singularly has caused the accident. This is however not always the best procedure when performing an accident investigation since it is not the investigators job. The two major angles:  Human factor.  System Failure. Theories on accidents and incidents
  19. 19. 88% Human Factors Unsafe Acts 10% Environment Factors Unsafe Conditions 2% Other Factors Uncontrollable ACCIDENTS Causes Of Accidents & Incidents
  20. 20. 1. Accident Somebody was injured or killed 2. Incident Nobody was injured, but there was equipment/surrounding damage 3. Near Miss Nobody was injured, no equipment/surrounding was damaged, but on another occasion the hazard could have resulted in an Accident or Incident Types of Dangerous Occurrences
  21. 21. • An accident is the final event in an unplanned process that results in injury or illness to an employee and possibly property damage. It is the final effect of multiple causes. • An "event," occurs when one "actor" (one person/thing) performs an "action" (does something). In this definition, a person or thing will do something that results in a change of state. Accidents are processes that culminate in a final event that causes injury or illness. An accident may be the result of many factors (simultaneous, interconnected, cross- linked events) that have interacted in some dynamic way. What is an accident?
  22. 22. • For simplicity, an incident in general is an individual occurrence or event. • An incident is a distinct piece of action, or an episode, as in a story or play. • Usually an incident does not result in a person being injured or harmed. What is an Incident ? Accidents cause injuries and incidents do not.
  23. 23. We definitely want to avoid accidents So why do accidents happen?
  24. 24. • Lack of preparation • Playing around • Working without authority, approval, permission, training • Ignoring the presence of a hazard e.g. water & oil on floor • Working under the influence of drugs & medicines • Working long hours without rest breaks Examples of Unsafe Acts Human Factors
  25. 25. • Working at height • Machine without safeguards • Exposed electrical wiring • Unshielded sharp object • Slippery floor • Walkway obstructed by untidy power cables or waste paper baskets Examples of Unsafe Conditions Environmental Factors
  26. 26. The cause of an unsafe attitude: • Standards and safety procedures are not being followed • Personal attitude towards authorities and safety • Lack of safety training • Lack of instruction • It is a routine job and is therefore not considered dangerous The Cause of Unsafe Acts Human Factors All have the right to stop any given operation if they believe it is unsafe or questionable
  27. 27. The cause of an unsafe condition: • Standards and safety procedures are not being followed • Personal understanding of the importance of PM checks • Lack of safety training • Lack of instruction • Cost thinking • Inadequate or wrong equipment for the job The Cause of Unsafe Conditions Environment Factors
  28. 28. Risk
  29. 29. Risk Pyramid 1 FATAL 30 ACCIDENTS 300 MINOR INCIDENTS 3.000 Near Miss 30.000 HIDDEN RISK FACTORS 300.000 UNSAFE ACTS If we can take action on the Near Misses & Hazards, then we will reduce the likelihood of Accidents at the top of the iceberg
  30. 30. Accident and incident trend 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 Lost Time Incident (LTI) Frequency per Million Work Exposure Hours 1985 - 2015 Maersk Divisions IADC Equipment Systems Culture
  31. 31. Risks Incident If we do not do anything a risk can result in an incident To prevent that we put up barriers Rules and Procedures are an essential part of the Safety Management System Human Factors Analysis
  32. 32. Risks There are holes in barriers They cannot cover every different situation - By having more barriers we can avoid incidents Human Factors Analysis Accident & Injury
  33. 33. Latent Conditions Budget cuts Excess workload Deficient training program Improper supervision Poor training Mental fatigue Active Conditions Loss of situational awareness Failed or Absent Defences Organizational Factors Unsafe Supervision Preconditio ns for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Accident & Injury The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  34. 34. Unsafe Acts UNSAFE ACTS ViolationsErrors ExceptionalRoutine Perceptual Errors Decision Errors Skill-Based Errors The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  35. 35. Unsafe Acts UNSAFE ACTS ViolationsErrors ExceptionalRoutine Perceptual Errors Decision Errors Skill-Based Errors DECISION ERROR  Rule-based Decisions - Highly Procedural  Choice Decisions - Knowledge-based  Structured Decisions  - Problem solving The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  36. 36. SKILL-BASED ERRORS Unsafe Acts UNSAFE ACTS ViolationsErrors ExceptionalRoutine Perceptual Errors Decision Errors Skill-Based Errors  Attention Failures - Breakdown in visual scan - Inadvertent operation of control  Memory Failure - Omitted item in process - Omitted step in procedure The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  37. 37. Unsafe Acts UNSAFE ACTS ViolationsErrors ExceptionalRoutine Perceptual Errors Decision Errors Skill-Based Errors PERCEPTUAL ERRORS  Misjudge Distance, speed, weight, etc.  Loss of situational awareness  Visual Illusions The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  38. 38. Unsafe Acts UNSAFE ACTS ViolationsErrors ExceptionalRoutine Perceptual Errors Decision Errors Skill-Based Errors ROUTINE (COMPLACENCE)  Violation of Manuals/Policies - Failed to Inspect Equipment Prior to Use - Failed to Comply with Tie Down Requirements - Conducted Unauthorized Procedure with Equipment - Risk Assessment not Accomplished  Failed to Adhere to Briefed Requirements  Not Current/Qualified for Equipment  Improper Procedure The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  39. 39. Unsafe Acts UNSAFE ACTS ViolationsErrors ExceptionalRoutine Perceptual Errors Decision Errors Skill-Based Errors EXCEPTIONAL (Isolated deviations from the rules)  Violated Manuals/Policies  - Performing Unauthorized Operations  - Horseplay with Equipment, Ignored Equipment Malfunction  - Allowed Unauthorized Operator, Accepted Unnecessary Risk  Not Current/Qualified for Equipment  Exceeded Limits of Equipment The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  40. 40. ADVERSE MENTAL STATE Substandard Conditions of Operators Substandard Practices of Operators PRECONDITIONS FOR UNSAFE ACTS Personal Readiness Crew Resource Mismanagement Adverse Physiological States Physical/ Mental Limitations Adverse Mental States Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts  Loss of Situational Awareness  Alertness (Drowsiness)  Overconfidence  Complacency  Task Fixation The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  41. 41. Substandard Conditions of Operators Substandard Practices of Operators Personal Readiness Crew Resource Mismanagement Adverse Physiological States Physical/ Mental Limitations Adverse Mental States Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts ADVERSE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES  Hypothermia  Motion Sickness  Fatigue  Medical Illness  Intoxication PRECONDITIONS FOR UNSAFE ACTS The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  42. 42. Substandard Conditions of Operators Substandard Practices of Operators PRECONDITIONS FOR UNSAFE ACTS Personal Readiness Crew Resource Mismanagement Adverse Physiological States Physical/ Mental Limitations Adverse Mental States Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts PHYSICAL/MENTAL LIMITATIONS • Lack of Sensory Input • Limited Reaction Time • Incompatible Physical Capabilities • Incompatible Intelligence/Aptitude The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  43. 43. Substandard Conditions of Operators Substandard Practices of Operators Personal Readiness Crew Resource Mismanagement Adverse Physiological States Physical/ Mental Limitations Adverse Mental States Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts CREW RESOURCE MISMANAGEMENT  Not Working as a Team  Poor Coordination/Communication  Improper or No Tailgate Briefing  Inadequate Coordination of Work PRECONDITIONS FOR UNSAFE ACTS The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  44. 44. Substandard Conditions of Operators Substandard Practices of Operators PRECONDITIONS FOR UNSAFE ACTS Personal Readiness Crew Resource Mismanagement Adverse Physiological States Physical/ Mental Limitations Adverse Mental States Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts PERSONAL READINESS Readiness Problems  Inadequate Rest  Excess Alcohol Consumption  Self-Medicating Poor Judgement  Overexertion While Off Duty  Bad Habits The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  45. 45. INADEQUATE SUPERVISION Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Inadequate Supervision Failed to Correct Problem Supervisory Violations UNSAFE SUPERVISION Planned Inappropriate Operations  Failure to Administer Proper Training  Lack of Professional Guidance The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  46. 46. Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Inadequate Supervision Failed to Correct Problem Supervisory Violations UNSAFE SUPERVISION Planned Inappropriate Operations PLANNED INAPPROPRIATE OPERATIONS  Risk without Benefit  No Risk Assessment  Improper Work Tempo  Poor Crew Pairing The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  47. 47. Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Inadequate Supervision Planned Inappropriate Operations Supervisory Violations Failed to Correct Problem UNSAFE SUPERVISION FAILIURE TO CORRECT A PROBLEM o Failure to Correct Inappropriate Behavior o Failure to Correct a Safety Hazard o Failure to Enforce Safety Rules The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  48. 48. Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Inadequate Supervision Planned Inappropriate Operations Failed to Correct Problem SUPERVISORY VIOLATIONS  Not Adhering to Rules and Regulations  Willful Disregard for Authority by Supervisors  Failure to Conduct Risk Assessment Supervisory Violations UNSAFE SUPERVISION The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  49. 49. Organizational Influences Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Organizational Climate Resource Management Operational Process ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCES RESOURCE MANAGEMENT  HR  Budget  Equipment/Facility The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  50. 50. Organizational Influences Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Organizational Climate Resource Management Operational Process ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCES ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE • Structure • Policies • Culture The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  51. 51. Organizational Influences Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Organizational Climate Resource Management Operational Process ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCES OPERATIONAL PROCESS Operations Procedures Oversight The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  52. 52. Latent Conditions Budget cuts Excess workload Deficient training program Improper supervision Poor training Mental Fatigue Active Conditions Loss of situational awareness Failed or Absent Defences Organizational Factors Unsafe Supervision Preconditions for Unsafe Acts Unsafe Acts Accident & Injury Active versus Latent Failures (Reason, 1990) The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
  53. 53. Safety Culture
  54. 54.  Observe  Communicate  Report A safer working environment PAGE 54
  55. 55. Observe PAGE 55 THIS HAS BEEN REMOVED Start with an overview of worksite Look after:  The layout of the worksite.  Unsafe acts.  Unsafe conditions.  Violation of regulations etc.
  56. 56. Talk with the person you observed • By approaching without criticising the individual. • Ask what the plan consists of • Ask if it is safe enough • Ask if it could be done in a more safe or easy way (these are not questions so require no question mark) Communicate PAGE 56 Question and show interest
  57. 57. Communicate PAGE 57 PERSONALITY TYPES THE VISUAL PERSON: • Learning by looking. • Not disturbed by noise/sounds. • Difficulties in remembering oral instructions. • Clear perception - only few details necessary. THE AUDITIVE PERSON: • Learning by listening. • Disturbed by noise/sounds. • Repeats oral instructions easily. • A lot of facts necessary for perception.
  58. 58. PERSONALITY TYPES THE KINESTHETIC PERSON: • Learning by looking. • Learning by doing and evaluating. • Interested when convenient. • A lot of facts necessary for perception. • Touch is OK as physical acknowledgement. THE AUDIATIVELY DIGITAL PERSON: • Remembers by procedures, steps and sequences. • Wants to be sure that the situation is purposeful and relevant. • Considers and reflects very much. PAGE 58 Communicate
  59. 59. Note what you observe Reporting PAGE 59 • Note what you think has been done wrong. • Note also if you observe good things. • Describe improvements or actions that need to be taken to prevent future incidents.
  60. 60. I AM OK / YOU ARE OK • Open-minded and positive. • Optimistic view of life and accepts himself/herself as well as other people. • Gets on well with other people. • Well-balanced and positive attitude; the basis for an independent person being open-minded and devoted. The OK/OK principle PAGE 60
  61. 61. Exercise • Your job is to inspect the “yard” and see if there is anything to report. • You have 1 hour for the assignment. • During the assignment you have….. It is all placed here in the Training Centre. • One from each group will present the subject. PAGE 62
  62. 62. Reminders
  63. 63. Reminders Always ensure that you have the latest updated procedures Always know your back up plan Always ask questions if you are in doubt Always pay attention to other operations that are in the area you are working Always respect barriers and signs
  64. 64. Reminders Never use incorrect equipment for the job Never attempt shortcuts to save time or money Never question your right to STOP a job

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