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ENGAGE sequence e cigarettes

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ENGAGE sequence e cigarettes

ENGAGE - European Project on Responsible Research and Innovation in Science Education
SITE FOR DOWNLOADING: engagingscience.eu

ENGAGE - European Project on Responsible Research and Innovation in Science Education
SITE FOR DOWNLOADING: engagingscience.eu

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ENGAGE sequence e cigarettes

  1. 1. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Electronic cigarettes(1 of 2) Equipping the Next Generation for Active Engagement in Science
  2. 2. 2 I would never smoke – it’s far too risky. Think I’ll give vaping a try. It won’t kill me. But vaping is safe. There’s no smoke, no tar and so – I guess – no cancer. Review ConsiderEngage
  3. 3. 3 How an e-cigarette works heaterSolution of nicotine and other substances dissolved in propane-1,2,3-triol battery Vaping is smoking electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) 1The user inhales. 2The heater switches on and warms the solution. 3An aerosol forms. It includes nicotine. 4The user inhales the nicotine – just as in smoking. Review ConsiderEngage Aerosol A mixture of tiny liquid droplets and/or pieces of solid mixed with a gas.
  4. 4. 44 Review ConsiderEngage Nicotine kills
  5. 5. 5 Review Consider Turkey, Wales and parts of Canada have banned workplace vaping. Now health campaigners want a Europe-wide ban. Will you support a European ban on indoor vaping in public places? Engage
  6. 6. 6 Lesson 2 Are the benefits of banning indoor vaping in public places worth the risks? Lesson 1 Is there scientific evidence that nicotine from vaping can get to people nearby? How are you going to make a decision? Review ConsiderEngage
  7. 7. 7  Draw before and after diagrams of particles to explain observations  Weigh up risks and benefits to make a decision Working ScientificallyBig Idea Lesson 1 Lesson 2 ParticlesJudgerisks In these lessons you will :
  8. 8. 8 1 Read SS1 to find out about the particles in vaping 2 Draw and label particle diagrams on SS2 to show: ■ the arrangement and behaviour of the particles in the solution. ■ the arrangement and behaviour of the particles in the aerosol. ■ how nicotine particles travel from a person who is vaping to people nearby. Can nicotine from vaping get to people nearby? SS1-2 Engage ConsiderReview
  9. 9. 9 Decide what you think about the question. Engage Review SS1-2 Can nicotine from vaping get to people nearby? 9 Consider
  10. 10. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Get students talking and thinking
  11. 11. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Electronic cigarettes Student sheets Sheet no. Title Notes SS1 Particles in vaping Reusable, one per pair SS2a and 2b Particle diagrams Consumable, one of for each for every student
  12. 12. Student sheets SS1 Particles and vaping Moving around in the air The aerosol Solvent: propane-1,2,3-triol Solutes: nicotine and water The aerosol is tiny droplets of liquid water, liquid propane-1,2,3-triol, and liquid nicotine mixed with the air. The air is mainly nitrogen and oxygen. The exhaled breath of an e-cigarette user includes nicotine vapour. The nicotine particles mix with the air. The air is mainly nitrogen and oxygen. Nitrogen and oxygen particles are smaller and lighter than nicotine particles. In the gas state, particles move randomly. They collide with each other frequently which makes them change direction. The nicotine vapour spreads out from a place where there are many nicotine particles to a place where there are fewer. In other words, they move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This is diffusion. The solution In the solution solvent particles surround solute particles. There are more solvent particles than solute particles.
  13. 13. Student sheets SS2a Particles in the solution nicotine particle propane-1,2,3-triol particle water particle Particles in the aerosol nicotine particle propane-1,2,3-triol particle water particle nitrogen particle oxygen particle Particle diagrams –1 Key Key A droplet of liquid water (part of the aerosol)
  14. 14. Student sheets SS2b Moving around in the air Particle diagrams – 2 1 2 3 nicotine particle oxygen particle nitrogen particle Key
  15. 15. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Get students talking and thinking
  16. 16. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Electronic cigarettes(2 of 2) Equipping the Next Generation for Active Engagement in Science
  17. 17. 17 Will you support a European ban on indoor vaping in public places? Play DecideEngage 17
  18. 18. 18 People will vape more at home. So children will be exposed to more nicotine. Fewer people will get heart disease. No one will be exposed to nicotine at work. A ban on indoor vaping in public places has risks and benefits Play DecideEngage If people have to go outside to vape, they might as well smoke instead. So more people will get lung cancer. 18
  19. 19. 19 We need to quantify the risks and benefits, and weigh them up. risk benefit It is difficult to make sense of risks and benefits. Play DecideEngage risk risk risk
  20. 20. 20 Lesson 2 Are the benefits of banning indoor vaping in public places worth the risks? Lesson 1 Is there scientific evidence that nicotine from vaping can get to people nearby? How are you going to make a decision? Review ConsiderEngage
  21. 21. 21  Draw before and after diagrams of particles to explain observations  Weigh up risks and benefits to make a decision Working ScientificallyBig Idea ParticlesJudgerisks In these lessons you will : Lesson 1 Lesson 2
  22. 22. 22 Now play WhizzQuiz to learn how to quantify risks and benefits, and how to weigh them up. After each round, write your score, and what you learnt about risk, on SS1. Play DecideEngage SS1 WhizzQuiz
  23. 23. 23 Round 1 Which method of transport has the lowest risk of death? DecideEngage Play WhizzQuiz
  24. 24. 24 To compare risks you need numbers and units. Transport Chance of dying per 10 billion km travelled Your score WhizzQuizRound 1 answers DecideEngage Play 24 aeroplane 25 4 bicycle 365 2 car 24 4 motorbike 998 0 train 2 5
  25. 25. 25 A parachute jump Running a marathon Which has the lower risk of death? DecideEngage Play WhizzQuizRound 2
  26. 26. 26 Familiar things feel less risky than unfamiliar things. Activity Chance of dying per event How you feel about a risk might not be the same as the real risk. Score 5 if you said the risks are similar. If not, score 0. DecideEngage Play WhizzQuizRound 2 answers 8 in a million running a marathon 8 in a million parachute jump
  27. 27. 27 Falling over Which is a person less likely to die from? DecideEngage Play Round 3 WhizzQuiz The effects of fires
  28. 28. 28 Activity Number of deaths in UK in 2009 Your score Again, how risky you think something is might be different from the real risk. Media reports might affect how risky you think something is. DecideEngage Play Round 3 answers WhizzQuiz fires 279 5 falls 3593 0
  29. 29. 29 Choose a sensible square on the grid for each activity. The consequences of risk-taking include death... ... but there are other consequences too. increasing chance of it happening (likelihood of risk) Seriousnessofconsequences ifitdidhappen G H I D E F A B C Activity 1 Falling off your bike on a quiet cycle path. Activity 2 Falling off your bike on a muddy path going down a mountain. Activity 3 Falling off your bike on a busy city road with lots of lorries. DecideEngage Play Round 4 29 WhizzQuiz
  30. 30. 30 You can estimate the size of a risk by combining its likelihood and its seriousness. Score 1 mark for every sensible placement on the grid. Medium likelihood, high seriousness. H Low likelihood, low seriousness. A DecideEngage Play High likelihood, medium seriousness. F 30 Round 4 answer WhizzQuiz
  31. 31. 31 Every year, around 100 cyclists die in collisions in the UK. Why do people risk cycling? Think of five reasons. DecideEngage Play 31 Round 5 WhizzQuiz
  32. 32. 32 To feel the adrenaline rush. There are many reasons for doing risky activities. These are benefits. Score one point for every sensible reason, up to a maximum of 5 points. Round 5 answers DecideEngage Play WhizzQuiz To get to school. To keep fit. To relax at the end of the day. My friends do it.
  33. 33. 33 More on round 5 You can estimate the size of a benefit by combining its likelihood and how good it is. And now, good bye from WhizzQuiz! DecideEngage Play Then weigh up the risks and benefits. WhizzQuiz
  34. 34. 34 1 Decide whether each card describes a risk, a benefit, or neither 2 Estimate the seriousness of each risk and benefit (score 1, 2 or 3). 3 Estimate the likelihood of each risk and benefit happening (score 1, 2 or 3) 4 Multiply likelihood x seriousness to decide how big each risk and benefit is. 5 Add up the scores for the risks and for the benefits. 6 Compare the totals and decide. Will you support a European ban on indoor vaping in public places? Back to the big question... Engage Play Decide SS2 and 3
  35. 35. 35 I support / do not support the ban. The benefits of the ban are The risks of the ban are Overall, I think that the risks/benefits outweigh the risks/benefits because Engage Play Decide SS2 Will you support a European ban on indoor vaping in public places? 35
  36. 36. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Get students talking and thinking
  37. 37. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Electronic cigarettes Student sheets Sheet no. Title Notes SS1 Risk WhizzQuiz Consumable, one per student SS2 Risks and benefits of a ban on indoor vaping in public places Reusable, cut into cards, one set per group SS3 Weighing up risks and benefits Consumable, one set per group
  38. 38. Student sheets SS1 Risk Round Score What I learnt about risk 1 2 3 4 5 WhizzQuiz
  39. 39. Student sheets SS2 Risks and benefits of a ban on indoor vaping in public places A B C D E F If people have to go outside to vape, they might as well smoke cigarettes instead. So it is possible that more people will get lung cancer. Since nicotine damages foetal brains, fewer babies will be born with brain damage. People might vape more at home. So children might be exposed to more nicotine. Lung cancer risk of smoking reported by the NHS Foetal brain damage reported in paper in the journal Nature A ban might make people think that the risks of smoking and vaping are the same. This makes smokers less likely to use e-cigarettes to help them quit smoking. Association of e-cigarette manufacturers The concentration of nicotine in the blood of passive vapers is similar to that of passive smokers. Reported by the World Health Organisation Exhaled nicotine remains on surfaces for many months. Other people can absorb this nicotine through their skin. Priscilla Callahan- Lyon in the British Medical Journal
  40. 40. Student sheets SS3 Weighing up risks and benefits Statement A Risk or benefit? Seriousness of risk / size of benefit 1 2 3 Likelihood of it happening 1 2 3 risk x benefit Statement F Risk or benefit? Seriousness of risk / size of benefit 1 2 3 Likelihood of it happening 1 2 3 risk x benefit Statement E Risk or benefit? Seriousness of risk / size of benefit 1 2 3 Likelihood of it happening 1 2 3 risk x benefit Statement D Risk or benefit? Seriousness of risk / size of benefit 1 2 3 Likelihood of it happening 1 2 3 risk x benefit Statement B Risk or benefit? Seriousness of risk / size of benefit 1 2 3 Likelihood of it happening 1 2 3 risk x benefit Statement C Risk or benefit? Seriousness of risk / size of benefit 1 2 3 Likelihood of it happening 1 2 3 risk x benefit Total scores for risks and benefits Scores for risks total score for risks = Scores for benefits total score for benefits =
  41. 41. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Get students talking and thinking
  42. 42. For more, visit EngagingScience.eu Equipping the Next Generation for Active Engagement in Science

Editor's Notes

  • Students discuss their initial responses – what do they know about vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes)? Is vaping safe?
  • Point out that the cartridge in an e-cigarette is a solution of nicotine and other substances dissolved in a solvent such as propane-1,2,3-triol. The heater warms the solution, initially forming an aerosol, which the user inhales.
  • Point out the health impacts of one of the key ingredients of e-cigarettes, nicotine. (Nicotine-free e-cigarettes are also available.)
  • Tell students the key dilemma – should the EU follow the example of countries such as Turkey, Wales and parts of Canada, and ban indoor vaping in public places?
  • This slide gives a breakdown of how students will use scientific evidence in lesson 1 and judge risks in lesson 2 to help them to make a decision.
  • The main task for the lesson is to use previous knowledge to work out whether nicotine from vaping can get to people nearby. Students read the information and behaviour of the particles in e-cigarette solution and in the exhaled aerosol on SS1. They also read about how nicotine particles diffuse. Students then work alone to translate the written information into particle diagrams using the keys given on SS2a and SS2b.

    Students then peer evaluate each others’ work, suggesting improvements and coming to agreement about the features of a correct and high quality diagram.
  • Students come to a decision. You might like to have a class vote, in which students have three options: yes – nearby people are likely to inhale lots of nicotine; yes – nearby people inhale a little nicotine; no – nicotine does not get to nearby people.
  • Remind students of the dilemma question from the last lesson, as well as the results of the class decision about the question ‘Can nicotine from vaping get to people nearby?’ (to which the answer should be ‘yes.’)
  • Remind students that the EU is considering a ban on indoor vaping in public places, and allow students to read some of the risks and benefits given on this slide.
  • Point out that it is difficult to make sense of risks and benefits, and that we need to quantify them and then weigh them up in order to make a decision.
  • This slide reminds students that they used scientific evidence in lesson 1 to answer the question in blue, and informs them that they will judge risks in lesson 2 in order to make a decision about the dilemma question.
  • This introduces a quiz-style game in which students learn how to quantify risks and weigh them up. Students need copies of SS1 on which to record their learning after each round.


  • Make the point that you can quantify risks by looking at how frequently death occurs in a large population over a given time or distance.
  • Make the point that how you feel about a risk – the perceived risk – might be different from the real risk. Since students are familiar with running they are likely to say that the parachute jump is more risky. In fact, out of every million marathon runners, 8 people die, and out of every million parachute jumps 8 people die.
  • Again, the real risk is often different from the perceived risk. In this case, media reporting is likely to encourage people to think that they are more likely to die in a house fire than from a fall.
  • This slide guides students in thinking about both the seriousness and likelihood of risks.
  • Make the point that both the likelihood and seriousness of a risk are important in judging risks.
  • Point out that people do risky activities because of the benefits of the activities. Of course there are many reasons for choosing to cycle in addition to those listed here.
  • Point out that for benefits, as for risks, you can estimate the size of a benefit by combining its likelihood with how good it is.

  • Students follow the instructions here to estimate the size of the risks and benefits of a ban on indoor vaping in public places. They need cards cut from SS2 and the grid on SS3. There is no ‘correct score’ for each benefit and risk on SS2. Students need to make judgements and choose reasonable scores for each one.

    The table at the bottom of SS3 is for students to work out the total scores for risks and benefits in order to be able to compare them.
  • Student groups then vote with their feet by deciding where to stand along a continuum, in which one end of the room represents ‘strongly agree with a ban’ and the other end represents ‘strongly disagree with a ban.’ Do not allow students to stand in the middle.

    With the students standing in position, lead a discussion. We recommend getting students to present and justify their viewpoints by following this structure:
    State your opinion
    Present your evidence (science, judging risk)
    Explain your reasoning (how the evidence supports your opinion)

    Students then write their own responses to this task. Finish with another show of hands - has anyone changed their opinion since the beginning of lesson 1 or lesson 2? If so, what has made them think differently?

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