RUHR-UNIVERSITÄT BOCHUMIntegrating ordinary users intoprocess management:Towards implementing                 Rbottom-up, ...
Towards bottom-up, people-centric BPM Current model of participation                                                      ...
Non-expert modeling: Is that even possible?Theory, practice and our approach Common belief: Active engagement needs • unde...
A walk on the wild (user) side  Study 1: Interviews with experts • Six interviews with process modelling / BPM experts: 10...
A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 1: Interviews with experts, results Stakeholders are cut from the development cycle of...
A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 1: Interviews with experts, results People would participate in process development, b...
A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 1: Interviews with experts, results Outcomes / Issues • (General) Ability to read and ...
A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 2: Non-expert specification of processes    •     5 pairs / workshops    •     Modelli...
Course of the study       1. Contribute view on the process individually through an easy          to use web-interface    ...
Course of the study       2. Sort individual views with respect to the process sequence       3. Compare individual views ...
People can think in processes • No difference between experts and non-experts • Almost no changes to the respective sequen...
People can use models…... if they do not have to express themselves in modeling language • Experts and non-experts contrib...
People can use models…… to analyze their work processes and reflect on them • Discussing differences helped people to…    ...
Five proposals 1. Make models available        – Availability through tools that users use during everyday work 2. Redefin...
Widening the scope of non-expert modeling  Current prototypes: Meta-Modelling                                             ...
Widening the scope of non-expert modeling  Current prototypes: Model annotation                                           ...
Widening the scope of non-expert modeling  Current prototypes: Automatic guidance                                         ...
Widening the scope of non-expert modeling  Current prototypes: Self-directed participatory modeling                       ...
Thanks!                       Special issue on      Collaborative Usage and Development of Models                         ...
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Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM

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Despite its increasing success in organizations, traditional BPM embodies a top-down approach performed by a small group of experts, limiting process stakeholders to part-time information providers, hindering proactive contributions. In this paper, we argue that BPM can benefit from being complemented with a bottom-up and people-centric strategy, allowing for interventions by process stakeholders. However, this cannot be realized by turning ordinary users into BPM or modeling experts. Instead, there is a need to find appropriate means to engage these people into BPM, process development and modeling. In this paper, we present two explorative empirical studies exploring such means. As a result of analyzing these studies, we present five proposals towards the implementation of stakeholder involvement. Our work does not want to replace existing BPM procedures, but to complement them. Thus, it is a starting point for further research and as an opportunity to join forces with other researchers pursuing similar goals.

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Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM

  1. 1. RUHR-UNIVERSITÄT BOCHUMIntegrating ordinary users intoprocess management:Towards implementing Rbottom-up, people-centric BPMMichael Prilla and Alexander Nolte Department Information- and Technologymanagement
  2. 2. Towards bottom-up, people-centric BPM Current model of participation Target model E U U U U U E U BPM documents BPM documents U (models) (models) E U U U U R E U Publishing: Collaboration: Users (U) inform experts (E), who Both users and experts proactively create and maintain models and roll engage in process development and processes out to users. also become process consumers. Top-Down: Focus on experts Bottom-up: Process Prosumer People-centric: Active engagement / contribution to process designIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 2
  3. 3. Non-expert modeling: Is that even possible?Theory, practice and our approach Common belief: Active engagement needs • understanding of process modelling language • knowledge / experiences in process thinking • a facilitator / expert Experiences from practice R • Users understand (simple) models after short time • User actively refer to models in workshop • Potential in non-experts interacting with models Research approach: Two exploratory studies • Interviews with experts on non-expert model usage • Non-expert model interaction appliedIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 3
  4. 4. A walk on the wild (user) side Study 1: Interviews with experts • Six interviews with process modelling / BPM experts: 10+ years of practice • Topics: usage of models, availability of models, model exchange, information provision during modelling, barriers and success factors of non-expert usage R Partner Company Role Purpose of Notations Modeling I1 Technical Supp. Project manager Project planning Flowcharts I2 Energy supply Analyst Process improvem. BPMN/UML I3 IT-Consulting Project manager Project planning UML I4 IT-Consulting Req. Analyst Requirements BPMN I5 Software Dev. Coordinator Development UML I6 Software Dev. Req. Analyst Requirements UMLIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 4
  5. 5. A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 1: Interviews with experts, results Stakeholders are cut from the development cycle of processes after their information on the process has been captured once “I usually do not discuss decisions with end users” People want to use process models for communication, but cannot get hold of them “I often think that the diagrams are not enough within reach. They kind of R disappear in the depths of IT”Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 5
  6. 6. A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 1: Interviews with experts, results People would participate in process development, but cannot express themselves properly “(…) we are always present when models are changed“ People would contribute to process development, but expert guidance and control discourage them from doing so “[models] are usually regarded as my artifact” RIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 6
  7. 7. A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 1: Interviews with experts, results Outcomes / Issues • (General) Ability to read and use models without guidance / experts • Models are / would be used, but are not available • The role of BPM experts hinders stakeholder engagement (to some extent)R Influences on further work • To what extent can non-expert modellers use models without expert guidance? • How can non-expert users contribute to models / use them without knowing a modelling language?Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 7
  8. 8. A walk on the wild (user) sideStudy 2: Non-expert specification of processes • 5 pairs / workshops • Modelling experts as well as non-expert modellers • Facilitator as a guide • Video-Recording, Observer, Post-Workshop interviews Scenario R Roles included Participants (1) Bug reporting and solving User (of the software), 3 users of a tool, for software development Developer 3 developers (2) Book ordering in a library User (of the library), 2 library users (researchers), Librarian 2 librariansIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 8
  9. 9. Course of the study 1. Contribute view on the process individually through an easy to use web-interface R Textual contributions are automatically transferred into elements of the modeling notation.Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 9
  10. 10. Course of the study 2. Sort individual views with respect to the process sequence 3. Compare individual views and mark differences with respect to content and sequence R Direct interaction with the model through touch on an interactive large screen.Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 10
  11. 11. People can think in processes • No difference between experts and non-experts • Almost no changes to the respective sequence after contribution (2 in total) RIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 11
  12. 12. People can use models…... if they do not have to express themselves in modeling language • Experts and non-experts contributed equally • There was almost no difference in the value of the R contributions (post analysis) • Each participant contributed elements that the respective other did not think of “… I know that you are doing this, but I did not have it in mind …”Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 12
  13. 13. People can use models…… to analyze their work processes and reflect on them • Discussing differences helped people to… – reflect on their own perspective – gaining insight into the respective other perspective “… I have not thought about what [you do] to be prepared for my orders …” • People created a shared understanding R “… ah, now I understand what you mean [pointing to an element] …” • People could meet at eye level “… being able to create a compressed visualization of the own view made the following discussion much easier…”Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 13
  14. 14. Five proposals 1. Make models available – Availability through tools that users use during everyday work 2. Redefine roles in BPM – Users becoming active contributors – Experts becoming coordinators and model managers 3. Provide suitable interactions for non-modellers R – Simple text interfaces, sequence manipulation through dragging, comments 4. Make models tools of everyday use – Encourage stakeholders to actively use models 5. Intertwine top-down and bottom-up strategies – Contributions by users cause BPM cycle to pause or reverse – Mixture between workshops and user involvement between workshopsIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 14
  15. 15. Widening the scope of non-expert modeling Current prototypes: Meta-Modelling R People can find existing processes or process parts through tags and reuse them within their model.Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 15
  16. 16. Widening the scope of non-expert modeling Current prototypes: Model annotation R Users can easily comment on processes during their everyday work through a web editor.Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 16
  17. 17. Widening the scope of non-expert modeling Current prototypes: Automatic guidance R The system asks a set of predefined questions and guides the user through her/his process.Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 17
  18. 18. Widening the scope of non-expert modeling Current prototypes: Self-directed participatory modeling R Within a workshop the users may decide on which part of the process they want to focus and which activities they want to conduct.Integrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 18
  19. 19. Thanks! Special issue on Collaborative Usage and Development of Models in the International Journal of e-Collaboration R (out in winter 2012 / spring 2013) prilla@iaw.rub.de nolte@iaw.rub.de www.imtm-iaw.rub.deIntegrating ordinary users into process management: Towards implementing bottom-up, people-centric BPM – Michael Prilla, Alexander Nolte 19

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