Alexandros Kolovos, ’Esdp And Space’, Initiative on EU 2nd Pillar, Athens,May 2003


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«ESDP and SPACE», Athens special workshop organised by the EU Council Presidency and EC on “ Security and Defence Aspects of Space: The Challenges for EU”, 8-9 May 2003. Originally published on

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Alexandros Kolovos, ’Esdp And Space’, Initiative on EU 2nd Pillar, Athens,May 2003

  1. 1. ESDP and Space:The Hellenic Presidency’s initiatives in the Second Pillar Lt. Col. Alexander Kolovos National Center for Space Applications HAFGS/MoD Greece Security and Defence Aspects of Space: The Challenges for EU Athens, 8-9 May 2003 NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS 1
  2. 2. ESDP and Space: The Hellenic Presidency’s initiatives in the Second PillarI. BackgroundII. First Initiative on Space (September 2002)III. Second Initiative on Space (March 2003)IV. Current SituationV. Way Ahead 2
  3. 3. I. Background1998: Initiative on WEU’s Space Policy2001: Contribution to a draft opinion on European spacepolicy in the framework of European Parliament. Accordingto the findings: The current EU Space Strategy focuses on the competency of transport, environment and research. That Strategy had not take into account the developments regarding CFSP-ESDP due to institutional limitations. EU Space Programme is a civilian one, since: Galileo navigation system falls in the transport domain and is declared a civilian system of navigation satellites. The Security component in the GMES initiative, does not include military matters. The “S” in GMES covers the security and protection of citizens related to environment threats. The EC point of view is that the issues of crisis management need to be considered at the appropriate time, at the appropriate setting. 3
  4. 4. I. Background2002: Targets set in the beginning of the Hellenic EUPresidency (July 2002-June 2003): Formulation of an EU Space Security Policy Proposals for necessary arrangements in the institutional Framework Regarding the Space Programme: The recognition of the dual use of the EU space programme (Galileo, GMES) Definition of required space capabilities in the CFSP/ESDP framework Put priorities in the development of the EU space programme. 4
  5. 5. II. First Initiative on Space (9/02)In the 2nd semester of 2002 Greece served as the lead onlyin ESDP matters replacing Danish EU presidency. Itsinitiative focused in pure defense matters of 2nd pillar.Presidency’s initiative “ESDP and Space” was presented inMilitary Committee (25/9/02), that claimed : Space assets constitute an essential segment of the military capabilities needed. Space is an important "force multiplier" which can support strategic decision making, operational planning and the preparation for and execution of operations. Following a “bottom-up approach”, initiative presented the main areas of space applications, the identified shortfalls and other generic requirements related with space systems (but not specifically mentioned in EU documents as such). 5
  6. 6. II. First Initiative on Space (9/02) Attempted a survey of the whole range of space missions:Generic Areas of Space Related Identified Generic requirementDomains Shortfalls in various EU docs1. Command, Control, Communi- Securecations and Information (C3I) Communications2. Intelligence, Surveillance, target Strategic satelliteacquisition, reconnaissance ISTAR Imagery3. Early warning Warning Satellites4. Signal Intelligence SIGINT Satellite5. Position, navigation and timing Precision Guidance6. Weather, oceanography, Weather forecasting-mapping mapping7. Combat Search and rescue Search and Rescue8. Space Surveillance 6
  7. 7. II. First Initiative on Space (9/02)Conclusion: Use of space-based sensors was already mentioned in general in some key EU documents, but in a scattered way. There was no document that describes the overall use of these elements.The Hellenic Presidency, recommended the Formulation of anEU Space Concept in the ESDP framework. This conceptualdocument could take into account the: Range of space missions and functions needed in order to enhance the EU capabilities to carry out crisis-management operations over the whole range of Petersberg tasks. The existing Concepts of CIS, INTEL, ISTAR etc Existing military scenarios and capabilities which could be employed in each one of them. 7
  8. 8. II. First Initiative on Space (9/02)As a Way Ahead, a Space Policy in the ESDP Frameworkwas envisaged. EUMC was informed that a joint EC-ESA initiative (Green Paper) would be launched in the future and that it would address politically sensitive questions such as security, dual use, space needs for the CFSP and institutional matters. Hellenic Presidency participated in that process. Since the process of reshaping the existing EU Space Policy in order to take into account all the strategic interests involved has started, it was rationale to expect that this Space policy in the ESDP framework must be made by the appropriate, competent bodies of IInd pillar. To this end, the formulation of a conceptual ESDP Space Policy was envisaged, in order to give advice to the Ist pillar. 8
  9. 9. II. First Initiative on Space (9/02)Key comments from Six Member States: Need for a comprehensive inventory of all assets. A "first stocktaking" could prove very useful. Work of ECAP panels would be taken into account. Wondered about the selected "bottom up" approach. Space as a "trans-pillars" issue must be undertaken very upstream Developments in this field in other bodies of the European Union. Definition of the structures charged to express the various needs for the EU within 2nd pillar. Examination of interaction between EUMC and bodies in EU and ESA who deal with space matters. 9
  10. 10. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03)The New EnvironmentEuropean Space Effort in an Overall ContextDescription of Different Options for a 2ndPillar ResponseConclusions-Recommendations 10
  11. 11. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) – The New Environment1st Pillar adopted a Green paper on European Space Policy(Jan. 21st, 2003), to stimulate debate over political sensitiveissues including space-based security and the neededinstitutional arrangements.Issues and questions for CFSP/ESDP aspects include the: Definition of: Space capacities required to achieve the political objectives of the CFSP. Fields of critical short-comings including those concerned with space systems used for security and defence Possible areas for international cooperation. Review of the decisional architecture. Responsibilities and mutual relationships of institutional actors. 11
  12. 12. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) – The New EnvironmentThe aim of the second Hellenic Presidency’sinitiative was twofold: Firstly, it should answer to the various comments by reviewing the European space effort in an overall context. Secondly, having in mind the request from 1st pillar, it was intended to raise the awareness of the need for a coherent approach to space and to map out a way forward to develop such approach for 2nd Pillar. 12
  13. 13. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - European Effort in an Overall Context EU Countries 1st Pillar 2nd PillarSpace Policy European Space None Various national space Strategy (2000) policies Green paper (2003)Institutional DG/Research - JRC None. Only EUSC Various national Agencies or Cooperation with Committees. ESA.Space Earth Observation 3 Shortfalls Earth Observation (Helios,Capabilities (GMES) (Strategic IMINT, SAR-Lupe, COSMO /SKY- Navigation (Galileo) SIGINT, Early MED) + BOC initiative of 5 Warning) countries. 2 ECAP Panels Communications (Skynet, Strategic IMINT Syracuse, Sicral, Hispasat) EW&DD Signal Intelligence (Essaim) 13
  14. 14. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - European Effort in an Overall Context / 2nd pillar 1st pillar has recommended the establishment of a regular dialogue on space security issues between the SG/HR, the Commission, ESA and Member States. 2nd pillar could contribute to the questions and issues raised by Green paper, regarding: Space Policy. Institutional Architecture. Space capabilities. By this contribution we can be ensured that what is being developed in the military field is fitting into the framework of the overall EU Space Policy. 14
  15. 15. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - European Effort in an Overall Context / 2nd pillar Space Policy. CFSP/ESDP space dimension was only partially addressed so far, due to current existing institutional limitations. According to 1st Pillar: European Space Policy, including security and defence aspects, has to be presented at the highest level for political endorsement. Only Heads of State and Governments, meeting at their European Councils, who can consider the European Space Policy in full. To this end, it was foreseen that the Green Paper will be presented to the PSC. A Challenge for 2nd Pillar: The formulation of a Space policy in the CFSP/ESDP framework. 15
  16. 16. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - Different Options for a 2nd Pillar Response Institutional issues. The development of such a coherent space policy, which will cover all civilian, security and defence aspects, calls for a review of the decisional architecture. Another challenge for the 2nd Pillar is to identify and to elaborate an overall EU Space security architecture. Which body will be the focal point dealing with security aspects related with space? Several ideas include the : Involvement of ESA, Expansion of the role of EUSC, Creation of an EU Military Space Agency and Formulation of a Space Group. 16
  17. 17. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - Different Options for a 2nd Pillar Response Space Capabilities Public European space expenditure is divided into civil and military activities. Countries are engaged in national or multinational related programmes outside the framework of either EU or ESA. Of the ESA member states, only few fund military space activities. Due to not enough resources to fulfill all EU requirements with expensive dedicated military systems, some of them might be of special interest to EU. STAR 21 Report recommends the development of a fully European-based space defence and security capability. Areas of application: Surveillance, reconnaissance, telecommunications and positioning. Shortfalls involve SIGINT capability and Early warning satellites. But is it feasible ? 17
  18. 18. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - Different Options for a 2nd Pillar Response Feasibility of EU Space Capabilities I. Comparison of population and annual GNP Europe US Population (million): 540 (after 2004) 230 Annual GNP (trillion Euro): 10 7 II. Comparison of World Space Budgets (in current Meuro, Eurospace) Europe US Russia 2000: 3470 19969 396 2001: 3519 21533 450 Space activities in US and Europe show a ratio of 6 to 1 between the number 1 (US) and the number 2 (Europe) in astronautics. US seeks to maintain military supremacy based on technical superiority and space is having a prominent role in this strategy. 70% of US space systems are for governmental uses. In Europe the opposite is the rule. 18
  19. 19. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - Different Options for a 2nd Pillar ResponseSpace Capabilities Possible Actions1. Imagery satellites Strategic IMINT Panel recommended the following phased approach:(ISTAR) – shortfall (stf) 1. improved access to Commercial Satellites, 2. negotiated access to emerging military and dual use systems. 3. continued access to the next generation of capability. Requirements can be examined against existing or planned systems and then ascertain whether existing systems or new systems are necessary. Steps can be taken in the framework of BOC – GMES Initiatives.2. Early warning – stf According to EW&DD ECAP panel, projects or initiatives in this area, are still to be addressed. Area for possible international cooperation.3. Signal Intelligence– stf Proposals in this area remain in their infancy.4. Communication Multilateral efforts failed because of the lack of equality in the capability,satellites for C3I. requirements and funds available.(STAR21) Existence of various national systems. There is a need to assess the EU satellite communication requirements and then ascertain whether existing national or new systems are necessary.5. Navigation and EU already has taken the decision to develop GALILEO system, which is aPositioning (STAR21) civil asset, but with a clear dual use purpose. 19
  20. 20. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - Different Options for a 2nd Pillar Response Estimated Cost There are 5 programmes in Europe for communications satellites and 3 for observation satellites, corresponding to a cash flow to industry of the order of €500 million per year. Acquiring a minimum common space capability would require annual investments of : 716 M€ per year (Helsinki governmental conference, 2001) 785 M€ (French Bureau Espace) 800 M€ for 10 years or so (Green paper) 880 M€ per year (ESA’s Annual analysis 2002) The total yearly investment in ESA programmes by its members is about 2.3 G€. From the above-mentioned estimations, the European military space need is about the 30% of the yearly investment for ESA. 20
  21. 21. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - Conclusion1st pillar initialized the Green Paper on European Space Policyprocess, which should embrace all aspects, including CFSP-ESDP. Integrating space policy into EU competence, poses anumber of complex questions, regarding space policy,organization, capabilities and short-comings.It is logical for 2nd pillar to contribute in the dialogue forsecurity policy issues that lie in its competence: The appropriate bodies must address space policy and institutional issues in the CFSP/ESDP framework. Regarding the space capacities, second pillar needs can be covered with a series of different choices, which require prioritization and further elaboration.Contribution can ensure that what is being developed in themilitary field is fitting into the framework of the overall EUSpace Policy. 21
  22. 22. III. Second Initiative on Space (3/03) - RecommendationsAs a first step of a contribution to the dialogue that hasstarted, the Hellenic Presidency recommended that theEUMC tasks the EUMS: To bring together in a information paper space needs that are required for military operations. More specifically, this document could take into account the: Range of space applications and functions needed in order to enhance the EU capabilities to carry out crisis-management operations over the whole range of Petersberg tasks. Existing Concepts of CIS, INTEL, ISTAR etc. Work of ECAP panels (Space elements / shortfalls). As a way ahead, it was proposed : The Formulation of a concept paper, which in due course could lead to a Space Policy in the ESDP framework, along with Proposals of remedial steps. 22
  23. 23. IV. Current SituationEUMC accepted the recommendation and tasked EUMS topresent an information paper. On April 15, 2003 EUMS presented“Space Systems Needs for Military Operations” document.At the invitation of the Presidency, the Commission presented toPSC the Green Paper on the EU Space Policy. (April 15, 03). The Presidency requested that the Secretariat produce a paper taking into account the EUMS work. This paper should provide, by end May 03, information in response to the questions relating to CFSP posed in the Green Paper. The PSC tasking gives the secretariat as much freedom as it needs to answer any aspect of CFSP/Space/secuirty that it feels relevant. 23
  24. 24. V. Way AheadThe Hellenic Presidency, following a top-downapproach, suggests that the Secretariat could issuea recommendation to the PSC regarding the: Space Policy in the CFSP/ESDP framework Necessary Arrangements in the Institutional framework 24
  25. 25. V. Way AheadParadigm of a Space Security Policy for 2nd pillar. A set of general guidelines and principles should compose the substance of a Space Security Policy, like: Recognition of military space activities are critical to the development of a CFSP/ESDP. Capitalise on the increasing synergy between military and civil developments in all sectors of space. Support bilateral and Multirateral cooperations in order to encourage the technology exchanges among European Countries in all the space domains making optimum use of the resources available. Ensure EU’s ability to exploit space for military purposes, but also as required to deny an adversarys ability to do so. Since many European countries have adopted Space military policies, the formulation of one for the 2nd pillar should take them into account: Include space-based capabilities as an integral component of the EU’s Communications and Information Systems (CIS), and Intelligence, Target Acquisition and Reconnaisance system (ISTAR). (UK Strategy for Space). 25
  26. 26. V. Way AheadRegarding the Institutional Framework it is proposed that theSecretariat issues a recommendation to the PSC to convene aGroup of experts from Member States, which will: Elaborate proposals for the EU Space Security Policy, as regards all CFSP- ESDP considerations. Propose the coordinating mechanisms required to implement this policy. A Space group maybe the first step. Elaborate the EU security space architecture. EUMS, SecGen and EUSC will take part in this Group of experts.As a way ahead, additional steps in the future could be the: Formulation of a Concept Paper. Definition of the common operational requirements. Identification of any additional shortfalls. Proposals of remedial steps. Prioritization and further elaboration on the EU Space Programme for security and defence. 26