Alexandros kolovos on_'esdp and space'_initiative_presented_on_eumc_on_24th sep 2002


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Alexandros kolovos on_'esdp and space'_initiative_presented_on_eumc_on_24th sep 2002

  1. 1. ESDP AND SPACE1 (FOOD FOR THOUGHT PAPER)I. INTRODUCTION 1. Space assets constitute an essential segment of the military capabilitiesneeded. Information from space minimizes uncertainty and increases the chances forprudent political decisions. Space-based capabilities are integral to any nation’soperational doctrines and processes. 2. Capabilities such as reconnaissance, reliable communications andprecision navigation, can provide an invaluable advantage in the field, in terms ofclarity of command intentions and flexibility in the face of operational changes. Byfully integrating space capabilities into military operations, force commanders arebetter able to tailor their campaign planning and operations to more effectivelyemploy available forces and achieve objectives at the least risk and cost.II. AIM 3. The aim of this paper is to provide a background for the formulationof an EU Concept in order to be the basis for the integration of Space assets into theEU operational capability in the ESDP framework.III. SCOPE 4. This document attempts a survey of the whole range of ESDP space-related technology needed to the strategic level for early detection of crisis, crisisprevention and crisis management efforts, in order to plan and prepare militaryoperations, and to the field commander as well in conducting air, land and seaoperations. This paper addresses the operational requirements of specific domainsrelated with space assets and the shortfalls that have been identified so far.Moreover, it presents the current situation in the European Strategy for Space andexplains the necessity of taking into account the developments of ESDP in it.IV. MAIN AREAS OF APPLICATION 5. Command, Control Communications and Information (C3I).Effective C3I are essential for all operational and support missions. Satellite systemsare ideally suited for international communications and provide the essentialconduits for information vital to the full range of successful military operations.This is particularly true for acting in areas, which do not have a well-developed1 Paper circulated at 15 by the EU Hellenic Presidency, at September 24th, 2002 and presented at theEUMC on 25/9/02. Author, Dr. Alexander Kolovos (LtCol, HAF), Head of Hellenic National Centrefor Space Applications. 1
  2. 2. communications infrastructure. Communications satellites provide military forceswith interoperable, high-capacity, real-time voice, data and video communications,and thereby assure secure access to needed information. 6. Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance(ISTAR). Earth observation is a key area in military activities, providing an integralinput into Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance(ISTAR) and Communications and Information Systems (CIS) to collect andprocess data into information for timely use by a wide range of users. Space basedsensors on satellites have the advantage of unrestricted access over area of operationand areas that are otherwise difficult to gain access to for political or militaryreasons. 7. Early Warning. Early warning satellites are equipped with infraredsensors, thus are used for monitoring missile launches to insure treaty compliance,as well as providing early warning of missile attack. 8. Signal Intelligence. Signals intelligence satellites are designed todetect transmissions from broadcast communications systems such as radios, as wellas radars and other electronic systems, from which intelligence can be gatheredabout the opponent’s intentions. The interception of such transmissions can provideinformation on the type and location of even low power transmitters, such as hand-held radios. 9. Positioning, Navigation, and Timing. The availability of accurateposition determination, precise navigation and timing data from satellite systems hasbecome increasingly vital for the effective conduct of any type of operation neededin EU crisis response capability. Precise location and timing information, availablein real-time, is a prerequisite for effective force application in military operation orin order to reduce the level of force required to achieve an objective with minimumrisk, casualties, and collateral damage. 10. Weather, Oceanography and Mapping. Analysis of weather, terrainand other environmental factors is a critical step in the preparation and the conductof operations. Space assets have been extensively used for mapping, hostile – nonbenign terrain assessments and 3D terrain models for training, simulation andmission planning. The use of laser guided weapons and other sophisticated means ofdelivering precision weapons as well as night vision sights has made knowledge oflocal and target area weather conditions even more important. 11. Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR). Combat Search and Rescuemissions have historically experienced a low success rate. They also have sufferedlosses in personnel and equipment due to inaccurate situational awareness. Existinglocation survival radios can be rendered ineffective by jamming or deception effortsand can be easily monitored and located by hostile personnel. Satellite Search andRescue capabilities give users a greater confidence in their exact location despiteany hostile forces attempts to spoof them with a false signal. 2
  3. 3. 12. Space Surveillance. The main mission of space surveillance consists of the ability to protect ones use of space, and potentially deny it to adversaries. In Europe, apart from some experiments, there is no operational space surveillance architecture. V. EU SPACE-BASED REQUIREMENTS & SHORTFALLS 13. Use of space-based sensors in general is already mentioned in some key EU documents. For example in military ISTAR Concept2, it is mentioned that as satellite-associated technology advances, the extent and quality of information derived from space-based sensors will increase. The already expressed generic requirements of specific space systems documents in the Helsinki Headline Catalogue (wording as it is in ISTAR Capability Rationale),3 are the following: a. Satellite imagery. The requirement for satellite imagery is to collect accurate data in a non-intrusive, non-aggressive manner, with a high readiness state, without risk to human life in order to support strategic risk assessment. Also to support operations (including force protection and special operations) during all phases, to be able to maintain maximum effect and provide accurate targeting data. b. SIGINT Satellite. ISTAR assets include Satellites providing Signals intelligence (SIGINT). EU must have the capacity to gather relevant information throughout the area of interest and / or operation. The requirement for SIGINT is to collect accurate information in a non-intrusive, covert and timely manner, in order to provide continuous risk assessment at all levels. Additionally it can provide information for preventive and early warning purposes by detecting intentions of parties. SIGINT/COMINT supports operations in all environments (including force protection and special operations). c. Warning satellites capability. Required for detecting launch and tracking of ballistic missile and NBC assessment. Distant detection and early warning could be critical to the safety of troop concentrations, infrastructure, civilian population in theatre and political support for the operation. 14. Also generic requirements of the following specific domains related withspace systems, have been expressed but not specifically mentioned (wording as it is invarious documents): a. Secure Communications. They provide continuous and reliable communications between the EU Council infrastructure, national authorities and the military. In case of third party involvement, there is a requirement to exchange 2 MILITARY ISTAR CONCEPT FOR EU CRISIS MANAGEMENT and EU - led CRISIS MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS, EUMC DOC 09/02, FINAL. 3 Helsinki Headline Catalogue, v.2001, Part II, ISTAR Capability Rationale 3
  4. 4. secure information with non-EU participating nations at all levels. Satcoms arementioned only in the use of civilian communication means, since at the initialphase of an operation these are primary means of communication. At later phases,however they will be needed for connection between different HQs, remote sites oras back-up. Regarding deployable forces, there is a requirement to exchange secureinformation and orders between strategic-operational-tactical levels.4 b. Precision Guidance. The need for precision-guided weapons ismentioned in various Council decisions.5 Capability is needed for targeting asdirected by higher authorities. Also, precision munitions are essential to avoid thepossibility of collateral damage. c. Search and Rescue (SAR). The need for SAR and combat searchand rescue (CSAR), has been mentioned in several circumstances as an area, whichneeds improvement.6 In the scenario Separation of Parties by Force (SOPF), aninitial SAR/CSAR capability will be required as soon as possible.7 d. Weather Forecasting. It is necessary to have up-to-datemeteorological (air, land, maritime) and oceanographic data of the theatre area tooptimize force, weapon, and surveillance equipment and to provide for rapidmaritime environment assessment. High readiness meteo units may have to bedeployed in theatre as soon as possible in order to support air and maritimeoperations. In tactical air reconnaissance, sensor choice is weather dependent. 8 e. Mapping. It is necessary to have access to appropriate geographicsupport facilities according to the size of the operation in order to provide mapproduction and supply, field survey and terrain analysis. 9 15. In the identified shortfalls, three domains of Space assets have beenincluded.10 These shortfall areas are being dealt with or will be dealt with indedicated ECAP panels, looking for possible solutions: a. Strategic Satellite Imagery (Serial Number 49). Futurecontributions of improved space based imagery as the Helios II program) and SAR-Lupe circa 2004 and 2006, may overcome the shortfall in the pre-decision phase. b. Signal intelligence (SIGINT Satellite, SN 58). Some MemberStates have already assessed the feasibility of this domain by developingexperimental payloads.4 Helsinki Headline Catalogue, v.2001, Part II.5 Nice European Council: Presidency Conclusions, Press Release: Brussels (8/12/2000) Nr: 400/1/00.6 Laaken European Council, Draft Presidency report on European Security and Defence Policy,15193/0, COSDP 333, Brussels, 11 December 2001 (12.12).7 HHC, v.2001, Part 3, Scenario: Separation Of Parties By Force8 Helsinki Headline Catalogue, v.2001, Part II.9 ibid10 ibid 4
  5. 5. c. Early warning (Warning Satellites, SN 50). No assets areavailable for this detection and early warning, and there are no projects or initiativesrelated to early warning satellites in Europe. 16. A closer study of the Helsinki Headline Goal and the CollectiveCapability Goal reveals that some other space related areas (see IV above), are notcovered enough such as satellite communications for command and control,positioning and navigation, meteorology and satellite aided search and rescue,identification of geographical position and terrain,11 weather forecast and mapping.Although they are mentioned as operational domains, which need improvement,12their space dimension seems to be neglected. The introduction of their space-basedcomponents into the generic capabilities List and the identification of militaryoperational requirements, will improve the capability necessary for the EU torespond to the full range of the Petersberg tasks.V. CONCLUSION 17. Space is an important "force multiplier" for operational and tacticalmissions and to this extent is an operational domain that the EU must exploit.However the major roles that space can play in EU’s CFSP and ESDP have not beenspecifically documented in EU official documents. Whilst individual elements ofspace-related assets necessary to support early warning, decision-making and realoperations are the subject of ECAP panels, there is no document that describes theoverall use of these elements.VI. WAY AHEAD: TOWARDS A SPACE POLICY IN THE EDSPFRAMEWORK 18. As a way ahead there is a need for reshaping the European Unions spacepolicy in order to take into account all the strategic interests involved in spaceactivities. Following the same bottom-up approach that was adopted by theCapability Action Plan, agreed in Laeken, the formulation of a conceptual ESDPSpace Policy is proposed by the Greek Presidency, to be part of the coherentEuropean Strategy for Space. 19. The current EU Space Strategy13 developed jointly by EuropeanCommission (EC) & European Space Agency (ESA) focuses on the competencyof transport, environment and research.14 An EU space programme is already taking11 Military ISTAR Concept For Eu Crisis Management And EU - Led Crisis Management Operations,EUMC Doc 09/02, Final. para. 2912 Shortcomings of certain C3I resources exist with regard to deployable communications units. LaakenEuropean Council, Draft Presidency report on European Security and Defence Policy, 15193/0,COSDP 333, Brussels, 11 December 2001 (12.12), ANNEX I, p. 18.13 Council Resolution of 16 November 2000 on a European space strategy. Official Journal C 371 ,23/12/2000 P. 0002 – 0003.14 The Council in its resolution of 16 November 2000expressed its agreement in a joint Commission –European Space Agency (ESA) document that proposed that the European Space Strategy should be 5
  6. 6. place, as is highlighted by the development of GALILEO and GMES EU’sinitiatives, respectively in the field of navigation by satellite and Global Monitoringfor Environment and Security. That Strategy, had not taken into account thedevelopments regarding the ESDP. 20. Recently, a joint EC-ESA Task Force begun examining the Europeanspace strategy and will produce proposals for its implementation, taking intoaccount the developments regarding the ESDP.15 Along this context, an initiativeconcerning the future of Europe in Space (in the form of a GREEN PAPER onSPACE)16, is ready to be launched on October 3rd 2002. Its objective is to addresspolitically sensitive questions such as security, dual use, space needs for the CFSPand some institutional matters. The initiative is to be prepared jointly by EC withESA and in partnership with the EU Council SG/HR, respecting the roles and rulesof each. The final outcome, to be submitted to the EU Council and Parliament, isexpected by October 2003. For defense aspects, the appropriate bodies shall beconsulted. 21. In this context, there is a need for a conceptual framework describing aESDP Space Policy, addressing the full range of activities that support CFSP/ESDPmissions, which must be formulated by the appropriate, competent bodies. Theformulation of such a policy for the first time will be a further milestone inestablishing a coherent approach to space in Europe. 22. Therefore, following a bottom-up approach, the first step for theimplementation of this initiative, could be the promulgation of a draft conceptualdocument, which will take into account the range of space missions and functionsneeded in order to enhance the EU capabilities to carry out crisis-managementoperations over the whole range of Petersberg tasks. To this end an ESDP SpaceConcept can fill the gap. This Concept can be a living document, which is to be readin conjunction with the overarching ESDP Space Policy that will be developed at alater stage. 23. The Hellenic Presidency willing to support and taking intoconsideration the above, recommends a two-step approach, which will include thefollowing:  Formulation of an EU Space Concept in the ESDP framework.  Development of an ESDP Space Policy.developed along the following three components identified: First, strengthening the foundations ofspace activities; second enhancing scientific knowledge and third, reaping the benefits for markets andsociety. CFSP is embedded in the third component of this Space Strategy under the title "reaping thebenefits for markets and society through a demand-driven exploitation of the technical capabilities ofthe space community", and is associated exclusively with the thematic area of global observation.15 Council Resolution of 16 November 2000 on a European space strategy. Official Journal C 371 ,23/12/2000 P. 0002 - 000316 At a request from the European Parliament inviting the Commission “….to prepare a White Paper onthe future of Europe in Space”. 6